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A History of Standardized Testing Or Alice Rivlin the Bane of Modern Educational Woes.

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Presentation on theme: "A History of Standardized Testing Or Alice Rivlin the Bane of Modern Educational Woes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A History of Standardized Testing Or Alice Rivlin the Bane of Modern Educational Woes

3 What is a Standardized Test? It is used to refer to objective tests It is used to refer to objective tests (i) Fill in the blanks (i) Fill in the blanks (ii) Multiple-choice (ii) Multiple-choice It is used to refer to norm-referenced tests It is used to refer to norm-referenced tests (i) percentile rankings for a pool of test takers (i) percentile rankings for a pool of test takers It is used to refer to criterion-referenced tests It is used to refer to criterion-referenced tests (i) which may be of any form and provide (i) which may be of any form and provide absolute scores absolute scores

4 How it all Started Standardized testing began in the United States in the early 1900s to determine one's individual intelligence quotient Standardized testing began in the United States in the early 1900s to determine one's individual intelligence quotient WWI the Army needed a method to determine which soldiers were Officer Material WWI the Army needed a method to determine which soldiers were Officer Material Eventually they would be used to test which students were college worthy Eventually they would be used to test which students were college worthy

5 How They Were Misused Cyril Burt fabricated data on identical twin research to prove his hereditarian theory of intelligence transfer in early 1900s Cyril Burt fabricated data on identical twin research to prove his hereditarian theory of intelligence transfer in early 1900s This argument was then used to influence the writing of the US Immigration Restriction Act of 1924 This argument was then used to influence the writing of the US Immigration Restriction Act of 1924 This gave rise to the debate surrounding the true definition of intelligence and the nature vs. nurture issue This gave rise to the debate surrounding the true definition of intelligence and the nature vs. nurture issue

6 The ETS Princetons Educational Testing Service Henry Chauncey (Dean of Harvard) and Devereux Colt Joseph (President of New York Life) founded ETS in Main mission was to provide tests for the govt. especially in times of national emergency Its tax exempt income ($94 Million in 1980) because of its non profit status kept it free from any form of accountability

7 ETSs Major Testing Programs AP®AP® - Advanced Placement Program® CAPACAPA - California Alternate Performance Assessment CAHSEECAHSEE - California High School Exit Exam CLEP®CLEP® - College Level Examination Program® ETS®TOPEETS®TOPE - ETS® Test of Professional English GMAT®GMAT® - Graduate Management Admission Test® GRE®GRE® - Graduate Record Examinations® NJ ASKNJ ASK - New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge (NJ ASK) PRAXISTMPRAXISTM - The Praxis Series: Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers® SAT®SAT® - SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests SLSSLS - The School Leadership Series STARSTAR - California Standardized Testing and Reporting TOEFL®TOEFL® - Test of English as a Foreign LanguageTM

8 Michael Sokols Argument Against ETS Testers are too close to their enterprise to filter out biases Tests reinforce class boundaries (Marxist) Tests may be irrelevant or insufficient for predicting performance

9 HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!!! New York's pioneering Truth-in-Testing Law (Chapter 672, L. 1979), this disclosure law has evolved to accommodate new issues as they arise in the testing industry. Test agencies are required to provide students who take postsecondary and professional school standardized admission examinations with the opportunity to get (at cost) a copy of the questions, their answers, the accepted answers, and the rules for computing their score.

10 Worshiping at the altar of the expert America Lyndon Baines Johnson (PPBS, 1965) Senator Robert F. Kennedy misguided attempt at accountability William Gorham (gave birth to the monster Alice Rivlin) Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (Title 1 emerged from this)

11 The Great Society Initiative He was a former school teacher of poor immigrant children in Texas in the 1930s He was a former school teacher of poor immigrant children in Texas in the 1930s Mid-1960s public sentiment supported social and educational reforms to fight poverty. Mid-1960s public sentiment supported social and educational reforms to fight poverty. President Johnson allocates the then astronomical sum of $3 Billion dollars for education President Johnson allocates the then astronomical sum of $3 Billion dollars for education

12 The Road to Hell is Paved With Good Intentions Robert Kennedy demands a scientific system of reporting the effects of the new educational programs so as to be accountable to the poor blacks, and economically disadvantaged Johnson introduced the planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS) throughout the federal bureaucracy

13 Countdown to Standardized Testing 10/1957 Russians launch Sputnik 10/1957 Russians launch Sputnik 1958 National Defense Education Act (NDEA) 1958 National Defense Education Act (NDEA) 10/1963 President Kennedy is assassinated when he declares all troops will be home from Viet Nam by Christmas. 10/1963 President Kennedy is assassinated when he declares all troops will be home from Viet Nam by Christmas. 10/1963 Lyndon Baines Johnson becomes 36 th President of the United States 10/1963 Lyndon Baines Johnson becomes 36 th President of the United States 1965 Congress passes the Elementary and Secondary Education act (ESEA) as a war on poverty Bill 1965 Congress passes the Elementary and Secondary Education act (ESEA) as a war on poverty Bill

14 8/1965 Johnson appoints William Gorham to head a new office in Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) to implement the PPBS. Gorham had done this at the Department of Defense > Gorham brings his team with him which includes Alice Rivlin and Robert Gross > Because Title I grew out of the ESEA Kennedy stressed accountability for the monies but Gorham and his team saw this as a natural experiment for identifying the most effective teaching methods. > Then the best methods would be passed on to teachers and administrators so that resources could be allocated efficiently. > Scientific research would remedy teachers ignorance and would provide the positive knowledge needed to improve teaching 8/1965 Johnson appoints William Gorham to head a new office in Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) to implement the PPBS. Gorham had done this at the Department of Defense > Gorham brings his team with him which includes Alice Rivlin and Robert Gross > Because Title I grew out of the ESEA Kennedy stressed accountability for the monies but Gorham and his team saw this as a natural experiment for identifying the most effective teaching methods. > Then the best methods would be passed on to teachers and administrators so that resources could be allocated efficiently. > Scientific research would remedy teachers ignorance and would provide the positive knowledge needed to improve teaching

15 1967 Office was renamed the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) June of 1968 Alice Rivlin replaces Gorham as the Assistant Secretary of the ASPE 1971 Rivlin publishes Systematic Thinking for Social Action

16 Alice is Still Alive and Well in 2003 The important goals of education are both easily identified and can be measured. (Alice Rivlin, 1971) The important goals of education are both easily identified and can be measured. (Alice Rivlin, 1971) Standardized test scores accurately reflect reading proficiency, mathematical competencies and acquired knowledge…..so one should focus on measurable outcomes. (Rivlin, 1971) Standardized test scores accurately reflect reading proficiency, mathematical competencies and acquired knowledge…..so one should focus on measurable outcomes. (Rivlin, 1971) Stable relationships exist between outcomes and inputs to the educational process. (Rivlin 1971) Stable relationships exist between outcomes and inputs to the educational process. (Rivlin 1971) We want the biggest bang for our buck. (Rivlin, 1971) We want the biggest bang for our buck. (Rivlin, 1971)

17 And here in California? Statewide tests used in California before 1990 were designed much like a poll, providing only sample scores for a school but no information to the parents regarding their childs performance In 1990, the state eliminated its old testing program. NAEP results were announced in 1994, California ranked near the bottom on all measures 1995 The STAR (Standardized Testing And Reporting) program became lawSTAR California's education leaders selected the Stanford 9 (SAT-9) for its statewide test and this new test was first given in CA in : California Standards Test completed, The part of STAR that was custom developed to measure California standards was completed in This fully-developed standards test is now called the California Standards Test (CST)

18 California here I come The customized California Standards Test is designed to measure student learning of the state's academic standards: English Language Arts, Mathematics, History, and Science. This portion of the STAR test has been developing over the last three years and now includes written essays at some grades in addition to multiple-choice questions. The California Standards Test is now the most important test in California's program. STAR also includes a norm-referenced test, currently the Stanford-9 Achievement Test. This test is taken by students across the country and therefore provides a comparison of California students' achievement of basic skills with that of students nationwide. Next year, California students will take the California Achievement Test, Version 6, to help compare their performance nationally.

19 Get behind Thee O California Other important elements of the state's testing system are: The California English Language Development Test helps to monitor progress toward English mastery of students whose first language is not English. The Golden State Exams provide an opportunity for graduating students to earn a distinction of merit on their high school diploma. To save testing time, these examinations will be combined with the high school California Standards Tests. A California High School Exit Examination (2004) ensures graduating high school seniors can meet basic learning requirements in English and Math. The California Alternate Performance Assessment will be an alternative to the STAR for children with disabilities who cannot take part in the general statewide assessment program. This assessment will meet the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), to ensure that all California students are included in our statewide assessment and accountability system.

20 Academic Point Index California's Academic Performance Index is an index that combines the results of the tests taken by all students in a school. The API ranks schools and is the central measure in the state's accountability system to ensure that every school is getting better every year. Results of the API rankings are released in California each October.


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