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Leonardo da Vinci Virgin of the Rocks ca. 1485 oil on wood 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. Four artists who were most closely associated with the High Renaissance:

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Presentation on theme: "Leonardo da Vinci Virgin of the Rocks ca. 1485 oil on wood 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. Four artists who were most closely associated with the High Renaissance:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Leonardo da Vinci Virgin of the Rocks ca oil on wood 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. Four artists who were most closely associated with the High Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci Raphael Michelangelo Titian Compositional devices Leonardo used in The Virgin of the Rocks to knit the figures together; Pyramidal grouping of the figures. Light simultaneously reveals and veils the forms, immersing them in a layer of atmosphere that exists between them and the viewers eye.

3 Leonardo da Vinci Virgin and Child with St. Anne and the Infant St. John ca charcoal heightened with white on brown paper 4 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. According to Leonardo, the major purpose of his scientific investigations was to discover the laws underlying the processes and flux of nature.

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5 Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy ca fresco (oil and tempera on plaster) 29 ft. 10 in. x 13 ft. 9 in.

6 Two fifteenth century trends Leonardo used to synthesize in The Last Supper : Classical influence in terms of motifs and naturalistic representation. The use of perspective to create a convincing pictorial illusion.

7 Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa (La Giaconda) ca oil on wood 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 9 in. Leonardo considered modeling with light and shadow, and expressing emotional states the heart of painting

8 Leonardo da Vinci Embryo in the Womb ca pen and ink on paper

9 cartoon A full-size preliminary drawing. desegno Drawing in Italian, closer to design in meaning, representing an artists conceptualization and intention. sfumato A smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting.

10 Donato dAngelo Bramante Plan for the new Saint Peters 1505 The building of the crossing piers and the lower choir walls was completed during Bramante's lifetime

11 Christoforo Foppa Caradosso Medal showing Bramantes design for the new Saint Peters 1506

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14 Donato dAngelo Bramante Tempietto San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy 1502 Four aspects of the sculptural appearance of Bramante's Tempietto. Lower level directly inspired by Roman round temples. Resembles a sculptured reliquary. The dome, drum, and base bear a logical and harmonious relationship to each other and to the whole. Rhythmical play of light and shadow in the columns and balustrade.

15 Michelangelo Buonarroti David marble 14 ft. 3 in. high Michelangelo believed measure and proportion should be kept in the eyes, that the artist could judge pleasing proportions, and that the artists authority was bound only to his idea. He used a style of vast, expressive strength conveyed through complex and erratic forms.

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18 Michelangelo Buonarroti Moses San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy ca marble approximately 8 ft. 4 in. high Three figures that Michelangelo is believed to have created for the tomb of Julius II. Moses Bound Slave Unfinished Captive

19 Michelangelo Buonarroti Bound Slave marble 6 ft. 10 1/2 in. high The two slaves were thought to represent not as such an abstract concept, but they embody powerful emotional states associated with oppression.

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21 Sistine Chapel (view facing west) Vatican City, Rome, Italy built 1473 Fond of serving in battle, Pope Julius II reigned from He was a major art patron and commissioned a new design for St. Peters basilica, the construction of his tomb, the painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, and the decoration of his papal apartments.

22 Sistine Chapel (view facing east) Vatican City, Rome, Italy built 1473

23 Michelangelo Buonarroti Sistine Chapel Ceiling Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco approximately 128 x 45 ft. The Creation, Fall, and Redemption of humanity. As visitors enter the chapel and walk toward the chapel, they review, in reverse order, the history of the fall of humankind. Old Testament prophets and pagan sibyls who foretell the coming of Christ are shown with depictions of conflicts between good and evil and between the energy of youth and wisdom of age. The style can be seen in the Creation of Adam, which is shown not in the traditional representation but in a humanistic interpretation that uses classical imagery and techniques, but which does not obscure the Christian message.

24 Michelangelo Buonarroti Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel Ceiling Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco approximately 18 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft. 2 in. Characterize Michelangelo's style in painting and sculpture with four adjectives or phrases. Figures are sharply outlined against the neutral architectural setting, rather than forming atmospheric picture windows. Reclining and twisting positions of the figures. Heavy musculature. Straight architectural axes (such as in Leonardos compositions) are replaced by diagonals and curves.

25 Cleaning of, Sistine Chapel Ceiling Vatican City, Rome, Italy

26 Cleaning of, Sistine Chapel Ceiling Vatican City, Rome, Italy The effect of the color revealed during the restoration of the Sistine ceiling is that the coloring is vivid and bright, in marked contrast to the dark and smoky appearance of the formerly soot-and-grime- covered ceiling.

27 Michelangelo Buonarroti Drunkenness of Noah, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (pre-restoration) Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco

28 Michelangelo Buonarroti Drunkenness of Noah, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (post-restoration) Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco

29 Sistine Chapel (view facing east) Vatican City, Rome, Italy built 1473

30 Michelangelo Buonarroti Last Judgment Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco

31 Michelangelo Buonarroti Last Judgment Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco

32 Michelangelo Buonarroti Last Judgment Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco

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34 Raphael Philosophy (School of Athens) Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy fresco approximately 19 x 27 ft.

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36 The two central figures represented in Raphael's School of Athens, and what aspects of philosophy does each represent? Plato and Aristotle. Plato points to heaven, the source of his inspiration, while Aristotle points towards earth, from which his observations of reality sprang. Plato represents the mysteries that transcend this world, and Aristotle represents nature and human affairs.

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38 Raphael Marriage of the Virgin Chapel of Saint Joseph in Città di Castello near Florence, Italy 1504 oil on wood 5 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft. 10 1/2 in.

39 Raphael Madonna of the Meadows 1505 oil on panel 3 ft. 8 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 10 1/4 in. Three characteristics of Raphael's style as seen in the Madonna of the Meadows Subtle chiaroscuro. Prefers clarity to obscurity, using lighter tonalities even with the dusky modeling of Leonardo. Substantial figures in a pyramidal arrangement, like Leonardos Madonna of the Rocks.

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41 Raphael Galatea Sala di Galatea, Villa Farnesina Rome, Italy 1513 fresco 9 ft. 8 in. x 7 ft. 5 in.

42 Raphael Baldassare Castiglione ca oil on wood transferred to canvas 2 ft. 6 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 1/2 in.

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44 Michelangelo Buonarroti Tomb of Giuliano deMedici Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy marble central figure approximately 5 ft. 11 in. high

45 Michelangelo Buonarroti Tomb of Giuliano deMedici Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy marble central figure approximately 5 ft. 11 in. high

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47 Antonio da Sangallo the Younger Palazzo Farnese Rome, Italy ca

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49 Michelangelo Buonarroti Capitoline Hill Rome, Italy designed ca. 1537

50 Michelangelo Buonarroti Capitoline Hill and Museo Capitolino Rome, Italy designed ca. 1537

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52 Michelangelo Buonarroti plan for Saint Peters Vatican City, Rome, Italy 1546

53 Michelangelo Buonarroti elevation for Saint Peters Vatican City, Rome, Italy

54 Michelangelo Buonarroti elevation for Saint Peters Vatican City, Rome, Italy

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56 Giovanni Bellini San Zaccaria Altarpiece Santa Zaccaria, Venice, Italy 1505 oil on wood transferred to canvas 16 ft. 5 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. Color and light are harmoniously balanced, softer and more luminous than Francesca; outlines dissolve in light and shadow. The effect is more glowing than the clarity of Francesca.

57 VeniceFlorence and Rome Main instrument was colorMain instrument was sculpturesque form ColoritoDisegno (drawing and design) The poetry of the senses, delighting in natures beauty and the pleasures of humanity More esoteric, intellectual themes Concerns that distinguished the art of Venice from that of Florence and Rome

58 Giovanni Bellini and Titian The Feast of the Gods 1529 oil on canvas 5 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft. 2 in. Three aspects of Giorgione's style. Soft forms in dense shadows. Enigmatic theme in a rich, abundant landscape. Soft, smoky, full female figures are poetic personifications of natures abundance.

59 Giorgionne da Castelfranco Pastoral Symphony ca oil on canvas 3 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. poesia Painting meant to operate in a manner similar to poetry.

60 Giorgionne da Castelfranco The Tempest ca oil on canvas 2 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. 4 3/4 in.

61 Titian Assumption of the Virgin Santa Maria Gloriosa del Frari, Venice, Italy ca oil on wood 22 ft. 6 in. x 11 ft. 10 in. The most outstanding feature of Titians Assumption of the Virgin is his ability to convey light through dazzling color.

62 Titian Madonna of the Pesaro Family Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice, Italy oil on canvas approximately 16 x 9 ft. The massing of monumental figures, singly and in groups within a weighty and majestic architecture. He uses perspective lines, inclination of figures, and directional lines of gaze and gesture to focus the composition Characteristics of Titian's Madonna of the Pesaro Family are typical of High Renaissance painting;

63 Titian Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne oil on canvas 5 ft. 9 in. x 6 ft. 3 in.

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65 Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 oil on canvas 4 ft. x 5 ft. 6 in. Titian's painting Venus of Orbino established the compositional essentials for the representation of the female nude in much of later Western art.

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67 Titian Isabella dEste oil on canvas 3 ft. 4 1/8 in. x 2 ft. 1 3/16 in. One of the most powerful women during the Renaissance, daughter of the duke of Ferrara, she married the marquis of Mantua and was instrumental in developing the Mantuan court into an important center of art and learning. She was a patron of Titian, Leonardo, and Mantegna, and was an avid art collector.

68 Andrea del Sarto Madonna of the Harpies 1517 oil on wood 6 ft. 9 in. x 5 ft. 10 in.

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70 Antonio Allegri da Correggio Assumption of the Virgin Dome fresco of Parma Cathedral Parma, Italy fresco

71 Antonio Allegri da Correggio Assumption of the Virgin Dome fresco of Parma Cathedral Parma, Italy fresco Proto-baroque as it applies to the work of Correggio at Parma; His illusionistic ceiling perspectives became the permanent tenants of Baroque churches in later centuries. He also anticipated later Baroque compositional devices in his religious panels.

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73 Three Mannerist painters. Jacopo da Pontormo Parmigianno Bronzino Five of the characteristics of Mannerist painting that can be called "anti Classical" and that distinguish the Mannerist from the High Renaissance style. Mannerists consciously reveal the artifice of their art. Imbalanced compositions. Unusual complexities, both visual and conceptual. Ambiguous space. A focus on themes of courtly grace and cultured sophistication.

74 Jacopo da Pontormo Descent from the Cross Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicità, Florence, Italy oil on wood 10 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 6 in. The Mannerist style emerged during the 16 th century in Italy.

75 Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck ca oil on wood 7 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in.

76 Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck ca oil on wood 7 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in.

77 Bronzino Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (The Exposure of Luxury) ca oil on wood 5 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 8 3/4 in.

78 Bronzino Portrait of a Young Man ca. 1530s oil on wood approximately 3 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 5 1/2 in.

79 Sofonisba Anguissola Portrait of the Artists Sisters and Brother ca Three characteristics that Sofonisba Anguissolas Portrait of the Artists Sisters and Brother shares with other Mannerists portraits like those by Bronzino: Figures placed against the front plane, blocking the space. Contours are strong and sculptural. A focus on heads and hands, considered to be the carriers of grace. One feature that is uniquely hers: Informality with relaxed poses and expressions.

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81 Giacomo della Porta façade of Il Gesù Rome, Italy ca

82 Giacomo da Vignola plan of Il Gesù Rome, Italy 1568

83 Tintoretto Miracle of the Slave 1548 oil on canvas 14 x 18 ft. Tintoretto aspired to combine the color of Titian with the drawing of Michelangelo.

84 Two characteristics of Tintorettos painting style that point toward the Baroque style: Dynamic perspectives. Dramatic chiaroscuro.

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86 Devices Tintoretto used to identify Christ in his version of The Last Supper; The light flaring out of the darkness; He sits above and beyond the converging perspective lines. Tintoretto Last Supper Chancel. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy 1594 oil on canvas 12 ft. x 18 ft. 8 in.

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88 Four features of the Palazzo del Te that are "irregular" from the point of view of Renaissance architectural practice. a. The facades, where the divergences from architectural convention are so pronounced they constitute a parody of classical style. b. The keystones seem to have not fully settled or seem to be slipping from the arches. c. Keystones placed over pediments over the rectangular niches, where no arches exist. d. The Tuscan columns carry incongruously narrow architraves. Giulio Romano Interior courtyard façade of the Palazzo del Tè Mantua, Italy

89 Paolo Veronese Christ in the House of Levi 1573 oil on canvas 18 ft. 6 in. x 42 ft. 6 in.

90 Paolo Veronese Christ in the House of Levi 1573 oil on canvas 18 ft. 6 in. x 42 ft. 6 in. Veronese's favorite subjects were; Splendid pageantry Majestic classical architecture.

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92 Paolo Veronese Triumph of Venice ca oil on canvas approximately 29 ft. 8 in. x 19 ft. Aspects of Veronese paintings did the Holy Office of the Inquisition object; The Holy Office accused Veronese of impiety for painting creatures such as dogs and clowns so close to the Lord.

93 Antonio Allegri da Correggio Assumption of the Virgin Paolo Veronese Triumph of Venice Differences in the type of illusion created by Veronese in The Triumph of Venice and that created by Correggio in The Assumption of the Virgin for the dome of Parma Cathedral; Veroneses perspective is not projected directly up from below. Rather, it is a projection of the scene at a 45-degree angle to the spectator.

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95 Andrea Palladio Villa Rotunda near Vicenza, Italy ca Palladios books had wide-ranging influence on generations of architects throughout Europe, and his influence outside Italy, most significantly in England the colonial America, was stronger and more lasting than any other architect. A circle (the central dome-covered rotunda) inscribed in a square (the building does not have the usual wings of secondary buildings).

96 Andrea Palladio Villa Rotunda near Vicenza, Italy ca

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98 Andrea Palladio west façade of San Giorgio Maggiore Venice, Italy begun 1565 Palladio superimposed a tall, narrow classical porch on a low broad one for the facade of San Giorgio Maggiore to integrate the high central nave and low aisles.

99 Andrea Palladio interior of San Giorgio Maggiore Venice, Italy begun 1565 Palladios architectural style differs from Mannerist architecture in that the play of shadow across the buildings surfaces, its reflection in the water, and its gleaming white against sea and sky create a colorful effect, prefiguring the Baroque. The interior lacks the ambiguity of the façade and evokes the High Renaissance. Wall decorations are correctly profiled in the classical style.

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