2Compositional devices Leonardo used in The Virgin of the Rocks to knit the figures together; Pyramidal grouping of the figures.Light simultaneously reveals and veils the forms, immersing them in a layer of atmosphere that exists between them and the viewer’s eye.Four artists who were most closely associated with the High Renaissance:Leonardo da VinciRaphaelMichelangeloTitianLeonardo da VinciVirgin of the Rocksca oil on wood 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 7 in.
3According to Leonardo, the major purpose of his scientific investigations was to discover the laws underlying the processes and flux of nature.Leonardo da VinciVirgin and Child with St. Anne and the Infant St. Johnca charcoal heightened with white on brown paper 4 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 3 in.
5Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy Leonardo da VinciThe Last SupperRefectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italyca fresco (oil and tempera on plaster) 29 ft. 10 in. x 13 ft. 9 in.
6Two fifteenth‑century trends Leonardo used to synthesize in The Last Supper : Classical influence in terms of motifs and naturalistic representation.The use of perspective to create a convincing pictorial illusion.
7Leonardo considered modeling with light and shadow, and expressing emotional states the heart of paintingLeonardo da VinciMona Lisa (La Giaconda)ca oil on wood 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 9 in.
8Leonardo da VinciEmbryo in the Wombca pen and ink on paper
9cartoonA full-size preliminary drawing.desegno“Drawing” in Italian, closer to “design” in meaning, representing an artist’s conceptualization and intention.sfumatoA smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting.
10The building of the crossing piers and the lower choir walls was completed during Bramante's lifetimeDonato d’Angelo BramantePlan for the new Saint Peter’s1505
11Christoforo Foppa Caradosso Medal showing Bramante’s design for the new Saint Peter’s1506
14Four aspects of the sculptural appearance of Bramante's Tempietto. Lower level directly inspired by Roman round temples.Resembles a sculptured reliquary.The dome, drum, and base bear a logical and harmonious relationship to each other and to the whole.Rhythmical play of light and shadow in the columns and balustrade.Donato d’Angelo BramanteTempiettoSan Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy1502
15Michelangelo believed measure and proportion should be kept “in the eyes,” that the artist could judge pleasing proportions, and that the artist’s authority was bound only to his idea. He used a style of vast, expressive strength conveyed through complex and erratic forms.Michelangelo BuonarrotiDavidmarble 14 ft. 3 in. high
18Three figures that Michelangelo is believed to have created for the tomb of Julius II. MosesBound Slave“Unfinished Captive”Michelangelo BuonarrotiMosesSan Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italyca marble approximately 8 ft. 4 in. high
19The two slaves were thought to represent not as such an abstract concept, but they embody powerful emotional states associated with oppression.Michelangelo BuonarrotiBound Slavemarble 6 ft. 10 1/2 in. high
21Fond of serving in battle, Pope Julius II reigned from 1503-1513 Fond of serving in battle, Pope Julius II reigned from He was a major art patron and commissioned a new design for St. Peter’s basilica, the construction of his tomb, the painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, and the decoration of his papal apartments.Sistine Chapel (view facing west)Vatican City, Rome, Italybuilt 1473
22Sistine Chapel (view facing east) Vatican City, Rome, Italy built 1473
23Michelangelo Buonarroti Sistine Chapel Ceiling The Creation, Fall, and Redemption of humanity. As visitors enter the chapel and walk toward the chapel, they review, in reverse order, the history of the fall of humankind. Old Testament prophets and pagan sibyls who foretell the coming of Christ are shown with depictions of conflicts between good and evil and between the energy of youth and wisdom of age. The style can be seen in the Creation of Adam, which is shown not in the traditional representation but in a humanistic interpretation that uses classical imagery and techniques, but which does not obscure the Christian message.Michelangelo BuonarrotiSistine Chapel CeilingVatican City, Rome, Italyfresco approximately 128 x 45 ft.
24Reclining and twisting positions of the figures. Heavy musculature. Characterize Michelangelo's style in painting and sculpture with four adjectives or phrases.Figures are sharply outlined against the neutral architectural setting, rather than forming atmospheric “picture windows”.Reclining and twisting positions of the figures.Heavy musculature.Straight architectural axes (such as in Leonardo’s compositions) are replaced by diagonals and curves.Michelangelo BuonarrotiCreation of Adam, Sistine Chapel CeilingVatican City, Rome, Italyfresco approximately 18 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft. 2 in.
25Cleaning of, Sistine Chapel Ceiling Vatican City, Rome, Italy
26The effect of the color revealed during the restoration of the Sistine ceiling is that the coloring is vivid and bright, in marked contrast to the dark and smoky appearance of the formerly soot-and-grime-covered ceiling.Cleaning of, Sistine Chapel CeilingVatican City, Rome, Italy
27Michelangelo Buonarroti Drunkenness of Noah, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (pre-restoration)Vatican City, Rome, Italyfresco
28Michelangelo Buonarroti Drunkenness of Noah, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (post-restoration)Vatican City, Rome, Italyfresco
29Sistine Chapel (view facing east) Vatican City, Rome, Italy built 1473
30Michelangelo Buonarroti Last Judgment Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco
31Michelangelo Buonarroti Last Judgment Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco
32Michelangelo Buonarroti Last Judgment Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco
36The two central figures represented in Raphael's School of Athens, and what aspects of philosophy does each represent?Plato and Aristotle. Plato points to heaven, the source of his inspiration, while Aristotle points towards earth, from which his observations of reality sprang. Plato represents the mysteries that transcend this world, and Aristotle represents nature and human affairs.
38Chapel of Saint Joseph in Città di Castello near Florence, Italy RaphaelMarriage of the VirginChapel of Saint Joseph in Città di Castello near Florence, Italy1504 oil on wood 5 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft. 10 1/2 in.
39Three characteristics of Raphael's style as seen in the Madonna of the Meadows Subtle chiaroscuro.Prefers clarity to obscurity, using lighter tonalities even with the dusky modeling of Leonardo.Substantial figures in a pyramidal arrangement, like Leonardo’s Madonna of the Rocks.RaphaelMadonna of the Meadows1505 oil on panel 3 ft. 8 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 10 1/4 in.
56Color and light are harmoniously balanced, softer and more luminous than Francesca; outlines dissolve in light and shadow. The effect is more glowing than the clarity of Francesca.Giovanni BelliniSan Zaccaria AltarpieceSanta Zaccaria, Venice, Italy1505 oil on wood transferred to canvas 16 ft. 5 in. x 7 ft. 9 in.
57Concerns that distinguished the art of Venice from that of Florence and Rome Main instrument was colorMain instrument was sculpturesque formColoritoDisegno (drawing and design)The poetry of the senses, delighting in nature’s beauty and the pleasures of humanityMore esoteric, intellectual themes
58Three aspects of Giorgione's style. Soft forms in dense shadows. Enigmatic theme in a rich, abundant landscape.Soft, smoky, full female figures are poetic personifications of nature’s abundance.Giovanni Bellini and TitianThe Feast of the Gods1529 oil on canvas 5 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft. 2 in.
59Painting meant to operate in a manner similar to poetry. “poesia”Painting meant to operate in a manner similar to poetry.Giorgionne da CastelfrancoPastoral Symphonyca oil on canvas 3 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.
60Giorgionne da Castelfranco The Tempest ca oil on canvas 2 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. 4 3/4 in.
61The most outstanding feature of Titian’s Assumption of the Virgin is his ability to convey light through dazzling color.TitianAssumption of the VirginSanta Maria Gloriosa del Frari, Venice, Italyca oil on wood 22 ft. 6 in. x 11 ft. 10 in.
62Characteristics of Titian's Madonna of the Pesaro Family are typical of High Renaissance painting; The massing of monumental figures, singly and in groups within a weighty and majestic architecture.He uses perspective lines, inclination of figures, and directional lines of gaze and gesture to focus the compositionTitianMadonna of the Pesaro FamilySanta Maria dei Frari, Venice, Italyoil on canvas approximately 16 x 9 ft.
63Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne TitianMeeting of Bacchus and Ariadneoil on canvas 5 ft. 9 in. x 6 ft. 3 in.
65Titian's painting Venus of Orbino established the compositional essentials for the representation of the female nude in much of later Western art.TitianVenus of Urbino1538 oil on canvas 4 ft. x 5 ft. 6 in.
67One of the most powerful women during the Renaissance, daughter of the duke of Ferrara, she married the marquis of Mantua and was instrumental in developing the Mantuan court into an important center of art and learning. She was a patron of Titian, Leonardo, and Mantegna, and was an avid art collector.TitianIsabella d’Esteoil on canvas 3 ft. 4 1/8 in. x 2 ft. 1 3/16 in.
68Andrea del Sarto Madonna of the Harpies 1517 oil on wood 6 ft. 9 in. x 5 ft. 10 in.
70Antonio Allegri da Correggio Assumption of the Virgin Dome fresco of Parma Cathedral Parma, Italyfresco
71“Proto-baroque” as it applies to the work of Correggio at Parma; His illusionistic ceiling perspectives became the permanent tenants of Baroque churches in later centuries. He also anticipated later Baroque compositional devices in his religious panels.Antonio Allegri da CorreggioAssumption of the VirginDome fresco of Parma Cathedral Parma, Italyfresco
73Five of the characteristics of Mannerist painting that can be called "anti‑Classical" and that distinguish the Mannerist from the High Renaissance style.Mannerists consciously reveal the artifice of their art.Imbalanced compositions.Unusual complexities, both visual and conceptual.Ambiguous space.A focus on themes of courtly grace and cultured sophistication.Three Mannerist painters.Jacopo da PontormoParmigiannoBronzino
74The Mannerist style emerged during the 16th century in Italy. Jacopo da PontormoDescent from the CrossCapponi Chapel, Santa Felicità, Florence, Italyoil on wood 10 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 6 in.
75Madonna with the Long Neck ParmigianinoMadonna with the Long Neckca oil on wood 7 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in.
76Madonna with the Long Neck ParmigianinoMadonna with the Long Neckca oil on wood 7 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in.
77Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (The Exposure of Luxury) BronzinoVenus, Cupid, Folly and Time (The Exposure of Luxury)ca oil on wood 5 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 8 3/4 in.
78Bronzino Portrait of a Young Man ca. 1530s oil on wood approximately 3 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 5 1/2 in.
79Three characteristics that Sofonisba Anguissola’s Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters and Brother shares with other Mannerists portraits like those by Bronzino:Figures placed against the front plane, blocking the space.Contours are strong and sculptural.A focus on heads and hands, considered to be the carriers of grace.One feature that is uniquely hers: Informality with relaxed poses and expressions.Sofonisba AnguissolaPortrait of the Artist’s Sisters and Brotherca. 1555
86Devices Tintoretto used to identify Christ in his version of The Last Supper; The light flaring out of the darkness; He sits above and beyond the converging perspective lines.TintorettoLast SupperChancel. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy1594 oil on canvas 12 ft. x 18 ft. 8 in.
88Interior courtyard façade of the Palazzo del Tè Mantua, Italy Four features of the Palazzo del Te that are "irregular" from the point of view of Renaissance architectural practice.a. The facades, where the divergences from architectural convention are so pronounced they constitute a parody of classical style.b. The keystones seem to have not fully settled or seem to be slipping from the arches.c. Keystones placed over pediments over the rectangular niches, where no arches exist.d. The Tuscan columns carry incongruously narrow architraves.Giulio RomanoInterior courtyard façade of the Palazzo del TèMantua, Italy
89Christ in the House of Levi Paolo VeroneseChrist in the House of Levi1573 oil on canvas 18 ft. 6 in. x 42 ft. 6 in.
90Veronese's favorite subjects were; Splendid pageantry Majestic classical architecture.Paolo VeroneseChrist in the House of Levi1573 oil on canvas 18 ft. 6 in. x 42 ft. 6 in.
92Aspects of Veronese paintings did the Holy Office of the Inquisition object; The Holy Office accused Veronese of impiety for painting creatures such as dogs and clowns so close to the Lord.Paolo VeroneseTriumph of Veniceca oil on canvas approximately 29 ft. 8 in. x 19 ft.
93Antonio Allegri da Correggio Assumption of the Virgin Paolo Veronese Differences in the type of illusion created by Veronese in The Triumph of Venice and that created by Correggio in The Assumption of the Virgin for the dome of Parma Cathedral;Veronese’s perspective is not projected directly up from below. Rather, it is a projection of the scene at a 45-degree angle to the spectator.Antonio Allegri da CorreggioAssumption of the VirginPaolo VeroneseTriumph of Venice
95Palladio’s books had wide-ranging influence on generations of architects throughout Europe, and his influence outside Italy, most significantly in England the colonial America, was stronger and more lasting than any other architect.A circle (the central dome-covered rotunda) inscribed in a square (the building does not have the usual wings of secondary buildings).Andrea PalladioVilla Rotundanear Vicenza, Italyca
96Andrea Palladio Villa Rotunda near Vicenza, Italy ca. 1566-1570 Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Andrea PalladioVilla Rotundanear Vicenza, Italyca
97Slide concept by William V Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
98Palladio superimposed a tall, narrow classical porch on a low broad one for the facade of San Giorgio Maggiore to integrate the high central nave and low aisles.Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Andrea Palladiowest façade of San Giorgio MaggioreVenice, Italybegun 1565
99interior of San Giorgio Maggiore Venice, Italy Palladio’s architectural style differs from Mannerist architecture in that the play of shadow across the building’s surfaces, its reflection in the water, and its gleaming white against sea and sky create a colorful effect, prefiguring the Baroque. The interior lacks the ambiguity of the façade and evokes the High Renaissance. Wall decorations are “correctly” profiled in the classical style.Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Andrea Palladiointerior of San Giorgio MaggioreVenice, Italybegun 1565
100Slide concept by William V Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.