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Wide Range Achievement Test WRAT4 Authors: Gary S. Wilkinson, PhD Gary J. Robertson, PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "Wide Range Achievement Test WRAT4 Authors: Gary S. Wilkinson, PhD Gary J. Robertson, PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wide Range Achievement Test WRAT4 Authors: Gary S. Wilkinson, PhD Gary J. Robertson, PhD

2 Why Assess Achievement? To assist in determining eligibility for special education services. To assist in screening students for possible evaluation. To assist in determining skill set (acquired vs. emerging skills). To assess gains in achievement over time.

3 Achievement Assessment Model Academic Evaluation Academic Progress Monitoring Academic Screening/ Re- evaluation

4 History The first WRAT was developed as an unpublished assessment instrument by Joseph F. Jastak, a psychologist Created to augment David Wechslers Wechsler- Bellevue Scales Dr. Jastak recognized the need to study and assess the basic academic codes in addition to cognitive processes Believed that it was necessary to assess both functions in any assessment to provide a more complete view of individual abilities

5 History WRAT4 test series originated in the 1930s First published for use in 1946 Most recent edition, WRAT3, was published in 1993 Widespread use in a variety of settings as measures of the basic academic skills necessary for effective learning, communication, and thinking: Reading Spelling words Mathematical calculations

6 Need for Revision Updated national norms Standardized academic performance shift from simple and direct tests to comprehensive batteries Continued need for a quick, simple, and accurate assessment of the basic academic codes Increased focus on reading skills Practitioner feedback

7 Changes from the WRAT3 The WRAT4 contains an entirely new measure of reading achievement: Sentence Comprehension Interpretation of WRAT4 scores enhanced by the addition of grade-based norms (fall & spring) Age-based norms extended from 75 to age 94 so that the basic literacy skills of older adults could be assessed

8 Special care was taken to preserve in the WRAT4 those features that made earlier editions so popular with usersease of administration and scoring, as well as the significant amount of information gained from a relatively brief investment of testing time.

9 Structure Two alternate forms (Blue Form and Green Form) Can be used interchangeably with comparable results Allows for retesting within short periods of time without practice effects Can also be administered together (Combined Form) for those interested in a more qualitative assessment and additional opportunity for performance observation

10 Structure Four Subtests Word Reading Sentence Comprehension Math Computation Spelling The Word Reading Subtest and Sentence Comprehension Subtest can be combined into a Reading Composite

11 Reading Composite Sentence Comprehension Subtest Math Computation Subtest Spelling Subtest Word Reading Subtest WRAT4 Subtest/Composite Configuration

12 Word Reading Measures letter and word decoding through letter identification and word recognition Extended from 42 to 55 items New words were selected from the EDL Core Vocabularies in Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Social Science (Taylor et al., 1989) to ensure that a sampling of new words was obtained from various grade levels of the EDL list

13 Sentence Comprehension Measures an individuals ability to gain meaning from words and to comprehend ideas and information contained in sentences through the use of a modified cloze technique

14 Sentence Comprehension (a) The WRAT has, since its inception, measured knowledge of letters and words, so the comprehension of sentences seemed the next logical step for assessment in the reading domain (b) Sentence reading requires much shorter testing time than paragraph and passage comprehension, an important consideration (c) Sentence comprehension can be assessed with a wide range of discrete items of varying difficulty (d) Sentences can be easily adapted to the tailored testing format needed for the WRAT4

15 Sentence Completion Guidelines Avoidance of specialized content that would give undue advantage to individuals having such specialized knowledge of the topics selected Content drawn from a variety of subjects Appropriate for both female and male participants and all racial/ethnic groups Contain material that is timeless

16 Sentence Completion Guidelines Avoidance of topics that might evoke negative affect in examinees Written for the assigned target grade levels, with difficulty controlled, in part by the use of the EDL Series to estimate the difficulty of words contained in an item Part of speech required for correct responses are varied As few correct responses (both synonyms and non-synonyms) as possible

17 Sentence Completion Item Tryout 1,989 students in select schools in Florida, Illinois, and Pennsylvania Item Response Theory and Rasch model employed to determine item difficulty and goodness-of-fit W-Abilities calculated to facilitate assignment of items to specific age/grade levels so entire range of sentence comprehension ability was adequately covered

18 Math Computation Measures an individuals ability to perform basic mathematics computations through counting, identifying numbers, solving simple oral problems, and calculating written mathematics problems 24 new replacement items were prepared by Edward Manfre, a nationally recognized mathematics textbook author and curriculum consultant, after completion of a content analysis to determine the content areas in which additional items were needed

19 Spelling Measures an individuals ability to encode sounds into written form through the use of a dictated spelling format containing both letters and words After filtering dated words, added 8 words to each form New words were selected from the EDL Core Vocabularies in Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Social Science (Taylor et al., 1989)

20 Standardization Sample National standardization sample n=>3000 Stratification Variables: Age 5 through 94 Grades K - 12 Race/Ethnicity Parent/Self Education Level Gender Region: Northeast, South, North Central, West Sample included students with disabilities (5%)

21 Reliability Internal Consistency Grade.87 to.96 Median Reliabilities for Subtests and Composites by Form Age.87 to.96 Median Reliabilities for Subtests and Composites by Form

22 Reliability Test-Retest Reliability Word Reading.86 Sentence Comprehension.78 Spelling.89 Math Computation.88 Time interval between testing: Within one month

23 Validity Internal Evidence of Validity Content review Evidence based on developmental changes Intercorrelations between subtests Range from r=.60 (grade) to.63 (age) Item bias analysis Differential Item Functioning Expert review

24 Validity External Evidence of Validity Correlations with individual achievement tests: WRAT Expanded ReadingMathematics Word Reading Sentence Comprehension Reading Composite Spelling Math Computation (ages 8 to 18; n=43).

25 Validity External Evidence of Validity Correlations with individual achievement tests: WIAT II Reading CompMath Comp Word Reading Sentence Comprehension Reading Composite Spelling Math Computation (n=33)

26 Validity External Evidence of Validity Correlations with individual achievement tests: WJ 3 Achievement Broad ReadingBroad Math Word Reading Sentence Comprehension Reading Composite Spelling Math Computation (n=31)

27 Validity External Evidence of Validity Correlations with individual intelligence tests: WISC IV FSIQSB 5 FSIQ Word Reading Sentence Comprehension Reading Composite Spelling Math Computation (n=35)(n=70)

28 General Administration Guidelines Those who use psychological tests should confine their testing and related assessment activities to their areas of competence, as demonstrated through education, supervised training, experience, and appropriate credentialing (Standard 12.1 of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council in Measurement in Education, 1999, p. 131)

29 General Administration Guidelines Important sources of such training and experience include graduate courses in assessment, measurement, and statistics; supervised practical experience in testing and evaluation; and in-service programs and workshops.

30 General Administration Guidelines Read the professional manual Practice administration of the test Adhere to the standard administration procedures Establish rapport with participants Maintain objectivity in evaluating responses Maintain confidentiality about the assessment process and the test results

31 General Administration Guidelines Security of the testing materials: Primary responsibility of test users Store in a safe place Under no circumstances should Participants be permitted to see the test items other than in the formal testing session Correct responses should not be shared Photocopying of record forms, test items, or any part of the WRAT4 Professional Manual, including the normative tables, is strictly prohibited by copyright law Unauthorized reproduction compromises the security of the test and could invalidate test results

32 General Administration Guidelines The Word Reading subtest, the Sentence Comprehension subtest, and Part 1 of the Spelling and Math Computation subtests must be administered individually Part 2 of the Spelling subtest and Math Computation subtests can be administered in a small-group format Administration time varies but is estimated at 15 and 25 minutes for younger children (ages 5 to 7 years) and 30 and 45 minutes for children 8 years or older and adults

33 Word Reading Subtest Materials: Test Form Administration instructions Spaces to record and summarize scores Clock or watch with a second hand Word Reading List Used by the participant Contains the letters and words for the Word Reading subtest

34 Word Reading Subtest Two sections: Part 1: Letter Reading, which consists of 15 letters Part 2: Word Reading, which consists of 55 words

35 Word Reading Subtest Administration Procedures: Ages 7 and Younger: Administer Part 1: Letter Reading first, then Part 2: Word Reading Discontinue testing if a Participant has responded incorrectly to 10 consecutive items (10 RULE) Ages 8 and Older: Administer Part 2: Word Reading first Discontinue the Word Reading section if the Participant has answered 10 consecutive items incorrectly (10 RULE) Reverse to Letter Reading only if Participant did not answer at least 5 items correctly (5 RULE)

36 Word Reading Subtest Scoring: Do not penalize for articulation errors Correct pronunciations are given below the respective words One point is given for each letter and/or word read correctly If the Participant changes his or her response, score the last attempt Record the number of items answered correctly on the Test Form Give the full credit of 15 points for Letter Reading if not administered Sum of the Letter Reading and Word Reading raw scores in the space provided for the Word Reading Total Raw Score Note that the number of words read correctly on the Part 2: Word Reading is used to determine the starting item for the Sentence Comprehension subtest

37 Sentence Completion Subtest Materials: Sentence Comprehension Test Form Administration instructions Test items Spaces for recording responses Examples of correct and incorrect responses Sentence Comprehension Sample Card Sample items to be administered prior to administering the Sentence Comprehension subtest Sentence Comprehension Card Used by the participant 50 Sentence Comprehension items

38 Sentence Comprehension Subtest Cloze procedure Participant silently reads the sentence from the Sentence Comprehension Card and then gives a oral response to fill in the missing word May use the place marker as an aid Prior to actual subtest items, the Participant takes two or three sample items (Sentence Comprehension Sample Card) Determining Starting Point for both Sample and Test items by using the Part 2: Word Reading raw score (conversion table on front test form)

39 Sentence Comprehension Subtest Administer only if obtained a score of 5 or more on the Part 2: Word Reading (5 RULE) If necessary, reverse order until 5 consecutive items are answered correctly (5 RULE) Continue until Participant responds incorrectly to 7 consecutive items (7 RULE) Rules for Prompting and Questioning Responses are listed in manual – focus is trying to get the Participant to use a one word response Responses requiring further query are indicated by a [Q] on the test form

40 Sentence Comprehension Subtest Scoring: Correct answers listed on test form and Appendix A of the manual If correct, record a 1 - if incorrect, record a 0 If the intended meaning of the response is clear and appropriate for completing the meaning of the sentence, then grammatical errors are not penalized Not a test of language mechanics or oral language proficiency Raw Score is the number of items scored as correct plus item above the starting point

41 Sentence Comprehension Subtest Sentence Comprehension standard scores are not provided for individuals 5 years 11 months and younger (for aged-based norms) or for individuals in Grade K (grade-based norms) If younger than 6 years of age, but in Grade 1 or higher, may use grade-based norms If 6 years of age or older, but in Grade K, may use the age-based norms If younger than 6 years of age and in Grade K, do not administer the Sentence Comprehension subtest

42 Spelling Subtest Two sections: Part 1: Letter Writing - name writing and 13 letters Part 2: Spelling - 42 words – may be administered in small groups for Participants aged 8 or Older, but must be administered individually to Participants 7 years and younger

43 Spelling Subtest Materials: Test Form Administration instructions Spaces to record and summarize scores Response Form Used by the participant Spelling List Card (Opposite side of Word Reading List) Used by the participant Contains the letters and words for the Spelling subtest Pencil with eraser Clock or watch with second hand

44 Spelling Subtest Pronounce the word, then read it in the sentence provided, then pronounce the word again Study the pronunciation guide provided before administration Check that the Participant is writing in the correctly numbered space on the Response Form After administration ask the Participant to clarify any word(s) that cannot be read Ages 7 and Younger - Administer Part 1: Letter Writing first, then Part 2: Spelling Ages 8 and Older - Administer Part 2: Spelling first. Discontinue after 10 consecutive incorrect responses (10 RULE) If the Participant has not spelled at least 5 words correctly on the Spelling section, then administer Part 1: Letter Writing (5 RULE)

45 Spelling Subtest Specific guidelines for scoring Spelling responses are listed in the manual – including rules for two point items on Letter Writing Letter Writing - count the number of points earned and record in the space provided for the Letter Writing Raw Score Give the full credit of 15 points if 8 years or older Spelling - count the number of points earned and record in the space provided for the Spelling Raw Score Add scores and record the sum in the space provided for the Spelling Total Raw Score

46 Math Computation Subtest Two sections: (a) Part 1: Oral Math, which consists of 15 items (b) Part 2: Math Computation, which consists of 40 items - may be administered either individually or in small groups for Participants 8 and older, but it must be administered individually to Participants aged 7 years and younger.

47 Math Computation Subtest Materials: Test Form Administration instructions Spaces to record and summarize scores Response Form Used by the participant Pencil with eraser Clock or watch with second hand

48 Math Computation Subtest Hand calculators or other mechanical computing aids may not be used Part 2: Math Computation has a time limit of 15 minutes Ages 7 and Younger - Administer Part 1: Oral Math first, followed by Part 2: Math Computation Ages 8 and Older - Administer Part 2: Math Computation first If the Participant does not have at least 5 responses correct, then administer Part 1: Oral Math (5 RULE)

49 Math Computation Subtest Scoring keys are provided in Appendix B of the manual 1 point is given for each correct answer Record the number of items answered correctly for the Oral Math section in the space provided for the Oral Math Raw Score Give full credit of 15 points if aged 8 and older and did not take the Oral Math section Record the number of items answered correctly for the Math Computation section and record in the space provided for the Math Computation Raw Score Add and record sum in the space provided for the Math Computation Total Raw Score

50 Completion of Record Form Subtest Scores Normative conversion tables are provided in Appendixes C (age-based) and D (grade-based) of manual Contains tables for converting subtest raw scores to standard scores and confidence intervals In Appendix C, the subtest score-conversion tables for each form are provided for each of the 43 age groups In Appendix D, the subtest standard score-conversion tables for each of the three forms are provided for Fall and Spring, for each of Grade K-12 Percentile ranks, normal curve equivalents, stanines, and grade equivalents are provided in Appendix E

51 Combined Form Scores For an assessment based on more items than the number contained in a single form, you may wish to administer both the Blue and Green forms and combine the results The back page of the Test Form provides a space to calculate scores for the Combined Form Instructions for score calculation are included in the manual

52 Interpretation Mean of 100, standard deviation of 15 Examine score profile, deviations from the norm, and large differences between subtest scores Examine responses for qualitative trends and error patterns

53 Interpretation Implications of Reliability and Validity studies: Subtests measure beginning skills with considerable precision, a direct result of including the 15 preliminary skill items designated Letter Reading, Letter Writing, and Oral Math All of the subtests measure the beginning and average skill levels with precision throughout the entire age and grade ranges for which the WRAT4 is designed

54 Interpretation The Sentence Comprehension subtest and, to an extent, the Word Reading subtest, by their very nature, do not measure the skills of above- average and advanced readers at the later adolescent and early-to-middle adult years with the same degree of precision For these individuals, a reading comprehension test containing longer reading passages that measure literal and inferential reading skills is recommended

55 Application in the Schools Used by those professionals who need a quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of important fundamental academic skills Results by themselves are not intended to provide formal identification of learning or cognitive disorders - no single test can provide such information Can assist in the formal identification and diagnosis when used together with a broad array of comprehensive information

56 Application in the Schools Ease of administration and the simplicity of make it useful for assessment professionals who can use the results to: Collect initial data for psychological, educational, and vocational assessments Screen large groups of individuals to identify those who need to be evaluated more thoroughly for academic problems Reevaluate individuals diagnosed with learning and/or cognitive disorders Contribute to research projects needing assessment of basic academic skills for pretesting and posttesting purposes

57 Application in the Schools Evaluate achievement-ability discrepancies to identify specific learning disabilities Assess specific academic skills as part of a more comprehensive study of psychological and neuropsychological functioning Determine a minimal level of proficiency needed to perform in certain educational and/or vocational settings Assess an individuals academic progress over time


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