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Mrs. Sparks. How has what Ive already been doing this year started to prepare me for the AP Exams Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

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Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Sparks. How has what Ive already been doing this year started to prepare me for the AP Exams Rhetorical Analysis Essay?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mrs. Sparks

2 How has what Ive already been doing this year started to prepare me for the AP Exams Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

3 Two Sections: Section One (1 Hour) - 54 Multiple Choice Questions - Only 1 hour to complete this section - Worth 45% of the total exam score Section Two (2 Hours) 3 essay questions Must complete all 3 essays in only 2 hours Worth 55% of the total exam score

4 Essay #1: Synthesis Essay (40 min.) Essay #2: Rhetorical Analysis Essay (40 min.) (According to Mr. Patel and Mr. Gutierrez, this is the essay that AP students struggle with the most, which is why I will spend time preparing you for it ahead of time.) Essay #3: Evaluating an Argument (40 min.)

5 Rhetoric = any strategies a writer uses to be clear, persuasive, and even subtly manipulative (in other words, what an author DOES to reinforce his/her claim and achieve his/her purpose) Examples of rhetorical devices: repetition, hyperbole (exaggeration), juxtaposition, diction, parallel structure Analysis = zooming in on the little details and speculating/explaining what they add to the text as a whole

6 Synonyms = rhetorical device, rhetorical strategy, literary device Distinction: Use the term rhetorical device/strategy when referring to non-fiction texts (speeches, essays, articles, editorials). Use the term literary device when referring to a fictional text (novel, short story, poem, drama). Use the term literary element when referring to the ingredients of a story (plot, setting, characterization, theme, irony, symbolism,…).

7 Some strategies/devices/elements are found only in certain types of genres. Ex: Plot is only in stories, not speeches. Many (like irony, symbolism, diction) are used in both fiction and non-fiction. Just remember: Fiction = literary device Non-fiction = rhetorical device/strategy Some have a different name when used in a different genre. Ex: A theme (novel, short story, poem) is also called a main claim (speech, article) or a thesis (essay)

8 Well, if the essay itself is called a RHETORICAL Analysis, then the text is probably non-fiction. Use the term rhetorical device or rhetorical strategy.

9 The Writing Task: Read a text and write an essay that analyzes HOW the author uses strategies/ devices achieve his/her purpose. How what the writer DOES reinforces what he/she SAYS.

10 All of the writing tasks are formatted the same and give away free info about the Rhetorical Context: Prompt Features Typical FormatExample Author Date Genre Intended Audience Hints about topics main issue, main claim, or purpose (Author), blah blah blah blah (information about author) blah blah blah. (Date) blah blah (audience and information about them) blah blah blah. Read the following (genre) and write an essay that analyzes how (author) uses rhetorical strategies to argue (hint about the topic, claim, or purpose). Benjamin Banneker, the son of former slaves, was a farmer, astronomer, mathematician, surveyor, and author. In 1791, he wrote to Thomas Jefferson, framer of the Declaration of independence and secretary of state to President George Washington. Read the following excerpt from the letter and write an essay that analyzes how Banneker uses rhetorical strategies to argue against slavery.

11 Already learned helpful writing strategies: (TREES, CETSCETH) Intro = just rhetorical context and thesis (do NOT need attention grabber!) Similar thinking and analysis skills as poetry analysis essay. Prior experience with AP level rhetorical context (Sonnet from Another Life and The Chimney Sweeper) Rhetoric Record has lots of rhetorical devices. Any strategy = fair game – even if you dont know what it is called. As long as you can describe something the author is DOING, then you can write about it.

12 Only 45 min. to read text AND write the essay! Texts = older, more challenging, highly intellectual political or social issues. Language = old or complicated vocabulary and sentence structure.

13 Expectation for your analysis = higher: Look at the BIG picture of the devices that are used more subtly and throughout the majority of the text, not just one little detail. Ex: the texts structure, tendency to use juxtaposition throughout, or a specific syntactical pattern Less often: the easier devices like diction, metaphor, imagery (They will be present in the text, but usually not the most important devices used throughout the text.) Focus is no longer just on the device, but more on what the device DOES. In the past, we focused on the device itself being what the author DOES (The author uses juxtaposition and metaphor express the claim that…) Now, we go a step further and focus on what the device DOES – what the author is DOING WITH that device (challenging, questioning, mocking,…)

14 Before, your thesis was one sentence and just needed the authors claim and a list of devices. Blake blends metaphor, juxtaposition, and rhythm in order to express the theme that the powerful in society are obligated to protect the weak. Now, your thesis will probably be 2 sentences long. First sentence: Rhetorical Context and what the author SAYS author, genre, title, date, purpose, audience, main claim In order to insist that the powerful in society must fulfill their moral obligation to protect the weak, the 18 th Century poet, William Blake, wrote The Chimney Sweeper, a satirical nursery rhyme that criticizes English Parliament for not passing a law to ban the practice of using children to clean chimneys. Second sentence: VERBS: What the author does WITH the devices (without listing/mentioning the devices): Challenges, questions, mocks, compares,… Blake illustrates how the boys were robbed of their childhood and mocks Parliaments selfish inaction with a condescending tone. (dreams juxtaposition of coffins of black with laughing in green fields and rivers = illustrate robbed of childhood) (childish rhythm of nursery rhyme = speaks to Parliament in condescending tone, treating them like children)

15 Youve already developed these skills with the poem analysis essay. Elaboration section = explained what author DOES WITH each device

16 Use the details and clues in the prompt and text to analyze its rhetorical context (genre, speaker, audience, purpose) and develop an accurate and thorough understanding of the main claim Study the text as part of a larger political or social conversation instead of just an isolated piece of writing Speculate about how the strategies and ambiguities connect to each other in a way that reinforces the texts purpose Explain HOW the authors use of rhetorical devices (DOES) contribute to his/her main claim (SAYS) and help him/her achieve his/he purpose for writing the text (VERBS that hes DOING WITH those devices) Support your speculations by referring to the text using embedded quotes and citations. Take a risk and do not always limit yourself to the most obvious strategies Instead of discussing diction or repetition, be bold enough to discuss syntax, structure, or ambiguity

17 Read the writing task and circle its clues about the rhetorical context (genre, audience, purpose, and claim) Carefully read and annotate the text to determine or verify the rhetorical context that you predicted from the clues in the prompt. REread the text to annotate for the authors strategies that reinforce the texts purpose and main claim. When you find a strategy, think of a VERB that the author is DOING WITH that strategy. TREE your essay: QUICKLY jot down some key words for the: T: Thesis (genre, purpose, audience, devices, and authors claim) R-reasons: list of VERB phrases that the author DOES WITH the strategies (each verb phrase will become the focus for each body paragraph) EE: name of strategies/devices and key words for embedded quotes to use for evidence (EE). Write your essay – Re-read parts of the text while you write.

18 Topic Sentence: Restate ONE of the VERB phrases the author DOES that you said in your thesis (each body will focus on a separate DOES phrase from the thesis) Only mention what the author DOES WITH the device, but do NOT mention the name of the device yet. Thesis: Blake illustrates how the boys were robbed of their childhood and mocks Parliaments selfish inaction with a condescending tone. Topic Sentence for Body 1: All throughout the poem, Blake illustrates how the boys were robbed of their childhood. Topic Sentence for Body 2: With his condescending tone, Blake mocks Parliament for not taking action to pass a law to protect the children.

19 Evidence: Embedded Key-Word Quote with paraphrased context Name of strategy/device Topic Sentence for Body 1: All throughout the poem, Blake illustrates how the boys were robbed of their childhood. Evidence: Within Toms dream, Blake juxtaposes the boys being locked up in coffins of black at the beginning of the dream with their freedom to run and laugh in green fields and rivers at the end of their dream (Blake ll ).

20 Elaboration: CETSCETH CETS: explain HOW the device and quote are DOING the VERB you said in the topic sentence The juxtaposition reinforces Blakes illustration of the boys being robbed of their childhood because it shows how, while the boys should have been free to run and play in the countryside, they were instead trapped in hard labor that only lead to disease and death. In fact, in the boys reality, death would be the only key that could free them from their bondage. CETH: explain HOW the author uses the quote and device to reinforce his main claim and achieve his purpose. The juxtaposition here also helps Blake to achieve his purpose of criticizing Parliament for its inaction because it emphasizes how Parliament could be the one to provide the children with a key to free them from their circumstances by making a law to ban this type of labor. Here, Blake is insisting that, as the ruling party that held the key to power, Parliament was morally obligated to protect these weak children who had no voice.

21 Thesis: In order to insist that the powerful in society must fulfill their moral obligation to protect the weak, the 18 th Century poet, William Blake, wrote The Chimney Sweeper, a satirical nursery rhyme that criticizes English Parliament for not passing a law to ban the practice of using children to clean chimneys. Blake illustrates how the boys were robbed of their childhood and mocks Parliaments selfish inaction with a condescending tone. Body Paragraph # 1: All throughout the poem, Blake illustrates how the boys were robbed of their childhood. Within Toms dream, Blake juxtaposes the boys being locked up in coffins of black at the beginning of the dream with their freedom to run and laugh in green fields and rivers at the end of their dream (Blake ll ). The juxtaposition reinforces Blakes illustration of the boys being robbed of their childhood because it shows how, while the boys should have been free to run and play in the countryside, they were instead trapped in hard labor that only lead to disease and death. In fact, in the boys reality, death would be the only key that could free them from their bondage. The juxtaposition here also helps Blake to achieve his purpose of criticizing Parliament for its inaction because it emphasizes how Parliament could be the one to provide the children with a key to free them from their circumstances by making a law to ban this type of labor. Here, Blake is insisting that, as the ruling party that held the key to power, Parliament was morally obligated to protect these weak children who had no voice.

22 Review your notes to HIGHLIGHT the parts that help you to answer this essential question: How has what Ive already been doing this year started to prepare me for the AP Exams Rhetorical Analysis Essay?


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