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Massimo Cecchini 1*, Danilo Monarca 1, Andrea Colantoni 1, Fulvio Cavariani 2, Loredana Bedini 2, Marcello De Rossi 2, Mauro Pagano 3, Marco Fedrizzi 3,

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Presentation on theme: "Massimo Cecchini 1*, Danilo Monarca 1, Andrea Colantoni 1, Fulvio Cavariani 2, Loredana Bedini 2, Marcello De Rossi 2, Mauro Pagano 3, Marco Fedrizzi 3,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Massimo Cecchini 1*, Danilo Monarca 1, Andrea Colantoni 1, Fulvio Cavariani 2, Loredana Bedini 2, Marcello De Rossi 2, Mauro Pagano 3, Marco Fedrizzi 3, Mirko Guerrieri 1 Study of a Device for Reducing the Dust Concentration During Mechanized Harvesting of Hazelnuts 1 University of Tuscia – Department DAFNE, Viterbo, Italy 2 Viterbo Local Health Unit, Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Civita Castellana VT, Italy 3 Agricultural Research Council, Agricultural Engineering Research Unit, Monterotondo RM, Italy

2 Aim One of the main risk factors for workers derived by mechanized harvesting of hazelnuts is the exposure to respirable dust (Biondi et al., 1992; Monarca et al., 2005). One of the main risk factors for workers derived by mechanized harvesting of hazelnuts is the exposure to respirable dust (Biondi et al., 1992; Monarca et al., 2005). The aim of this paper is to test a device to be applied directly on the harvesters, that manages to give the soil suitable moisture, reducing the dust development. The aim of this paper is to test a device to be applied directly on the harvesters, that manages to give the soil suitable moisture, reducing the dust development.

3 Aim The problem becomes significant in those areas where the cultivation of hazelnut has spread. In some of these sites, harvesting was possible when the rainy season started, especially for hazel trees close to residential areas. The problem becomes significant in those areas where the cultivation of hazelnut has spread. In some of these sites, harvesting was possible when the rainy season started, especially for hazel trees close to residential areas. Even in 2011 (when tests were carried out), some local mayors have issued specific orders to shift the harvesting to the first rains arrival. The harvesting period (August and September 2011) was characterized by particularly high levels of drought. Even in 2011 (when tests were carried out), some local mayors have issued specific orders to shift the harvesting to the first rains arrival. The harvesting period (August and September 2011) was characterized by particularly high levels of drought.

4 Rain (in mm) in the municipalities delimiting the hazelnut area of cultivation Month Stations Bassano R.CorchianoVetralla Soriano C. (Station I) Soriano C. (Station II) Viterbo Year 2011 Monthly average Year 2011 Monthly average Year 2011 Monthly average Year 2011 Monthly average Year 2011 Monthly average Year 2011 Monthly average June July August September (ARSIAL, 2011)

5 The problem During the past years the problem was addressed through efforts that can be summarized as follows (Cecchini et al., 2005; Cecchini et al., 2010; Monarca et al., 2005; Monarca et al., 2008; Monarca et al., 2009; Monarca et al., 2010; Monarca et al., 2011): During the past years the problem was addressed through efforts that can be summarized as follows (Cecchini et al., 2005; Cecchini et al., 2010; Monarca et al., 2005; Monarca et al., 2008; Monarca et al., 2009; Monarca et al., 2010; Monarca et al., 2011): use of machines with cyclones; use of machines with cyclones; use of pick up machines instead of vacuum machines; use of pick up machines instead of vacuum machines; grass covered ground instead of tilled soil; grass covered ground instead of tilled soil; discharges of dust directed towards the ground rather than in the air. discharges of dust directed towards the ground rather than in the air. The mentioned solutions could not overcome the situation which still recurs every year, especially during particularly dry summers. The mentioned solutions could not overcome the situation which still recurs every year, especially during particularly dry summers.

6 Material and Methods The operations taken into account by the present study were tested on a self-propelled harvester (model Cimina 380 S) manufactured by the company FACMA S.r.l.. If compared with other machines produced by FACMA, Cimina 380 is characterized by a greater suction flow and the absence of cyclones used to reduce the dust The operations taken into account by the present study were tested on a self-propelled harvester (model Cimina 380 S) manufactured by the company FACMA S.r.l.. If compared with other machines produced by FACMA, Cimina 380 is characterized by a greater suction flow and the absence of cyclones used to reduce the dust

7 Material and Methods The device is based on the use of sprayers, already experienced in agriculture for irrigation and pesticide treatments. It uses the principle of pneumatic nebulisation at low volume. The device is based on the use of sprayers, already experienced in agriculture for irrigation and pesticide treatments. It uses the principle of pneumatic nebulisation at low volume. The device is composed of the following elements: The device is composed of the following elements: tank tank diaphragm pump diaphragm pump nozzles and nozzle holders nozzles and nozzle holders spraying bar spraying bar valves and pipes for transporting water. valves and pipes for transporting water.

8 Material and Methods The tank has been positioned within the carriage for the storage of the product. It is made of metal sheet, has a capacity of about 290 liters and is equipped with a discharge point located about 10 cm from the bottom. This is to avoid that any sedimented material can pass into the pipe connected to the pumpThe tank has been positioned within the carriage for the storage of the product. It is made of metal sheet, has a capacity of about 290 liters and is equipped with a discharge point located about 10 cm from the bottom. This is to avoid that any sedimented material can pass into the pipe connected to the pump

9 Material and Methods The nozzles (four Lurmark 04 M110 and four Lurmark 02 M110 were tested) are positioned on a bar mounted on the harvesting head.The nozzles (four Lurmark 04 M110 and four Lurmark 02 M110 were tested) are positioned on a bar mounted on the harvesting head. The hydraulic circuit is made by an electric pump (SHURflo )The hydraulic circuit is made by an electric pump (SHURflo )

10 Material and Methods The dust control is also achieved through appropriate devices, positioned along the exhaust pipes of the powder: water, delivered through nozzles to low volume sprayers, intercepts the flow of dust, leaves and twigs, before they're released outsideThe dust control is also achieved through appropriate devices, positioned along the exhaust pipes of the powder: water, delivered through nozzles to low volume sprayers, intercepts the flow of dust, leaves and twigs, before they're released outside

11 Material and Methods A first evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed device was performed by measuring, with appropriate instrumentation, the concentration of dust which affects the operator and persists in the environment. A first evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed device was performed by measuring, with appropriate instrumentation, the concentration of dust which affects the operator and persists in the environment. Six environmental samplings and six personal samplings on driver were performed, using portable analyzers for direct reading (DustTrak Aerosol Monitor TSI model 8520 for the environment and SidePak Aerosol Monitor TSI model AM 510 for worker). The instruments were equipped with a Door-Oliver selector for respirable fraction. Six environmental samplings and six personal samplings on driver were performed, using portable analyzers for direct reading (DustTrak Aerosol Monitor TSI model 8520 for the environment and SidePak Aerosol Monitor TSI model AM 510 for worker). The instruments were equipped with a Door-Oliver selector for respirable fraction.

12 Results

13 Conclusions The number of tests does not allow a statistical treatment of data. Because of the very high number of variables involved (e.g. air speed and direction, soil moisture, planting distance and so on), the implementation of assessment protocols - that can provide statistically acceptable regressions for instance between hydraulic flow/number of nozzles mounted on the machine and dust concentration - doesn't seem to be reasonable. The number of tests does not allow a statistical treatment of data. Because of the very high number of variables involved (e.g. air speed and direction, soil moisture, planting distance and so on), the implementation of assessment protocols - that can provide statistically acceptable regressions for instance between hydraulic flow/number of nozzles mounted on the machine and dust concentration - doesn't seem to be reasonable. However, the first tests show a decrease of dust concentration with sprinklers mounted in front of harvesting apparatus of the machine (the area where dust is generated). However, the first tests show a decrease of dust concentration with sprinklers mounted in front of harvesting apparatus of the machine (the area where dust is generated).

14 Conclusions The use of water as a method for reducing the concentration of dust during the harvesting of nuts seems an achievable goal. The use of the pump which sends the water to the nozzles has enabled progress in reducing the dust concentration. It can be improved as a result of tuning of the system. The use of water as a method for reducing the concentration of dust during the harvesting of nuts seems an achievable goal. The use of the pump which sends the water to the nozzles has enabled progress in reducing the dust concentration. It can be improved as a result of tuning of the system. The water consumption can be decreased through the use of a pump that generates a greater pressure and by mean of nozzles which deliver a lower flow rate, but with drops properly sized in order to achieve dust reduction. The water consumption can be decreased through the use of a pump that generates a greater pressure and by mean of nozzles which deliver a lower flow rate, but with drops properly sized in order to achieve dust reduction.

15 Conclusions With regard to the front of the machine, the ends of the bar will have to be equipped with asymmetrical jet nozzles, so that we can spray from the harvesting head to the side part of the land. This area is generally cleared of hazelnuts because they have been already aligned to the center of the row through a previous agricultural operation. Indeed a good percentage of dust raised in the site due to friction operated by rotating brushes. With regard to the front of the machine, the ends of the bar will have to be equipped with asymmetrical jet nozzles, so that we can spray from the harvesting head to the side part of the land. This area is generally cleared of hazelnuts because they have been already aligned to the center of the row through a previous agricultural operation. Indeed a good percentage of dust raised in the site due to friction operated by rotating brushes. The results of this study can help the research and development of new prototypes, in order to make significant reduction in dust emission. The results of this study can help the research and development of new prototypes, in order to make significant reduction in dust emission.


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