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Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © August 18 th, 2008 www.qatar.cmu.edu Introduction to Computer Architecture Lecture 1 – Introduction
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Teaching Staff Instructors -Prof. Majd F. Sakr (email@example.com) -Prof. Nael Abu-Ghazaleh (firstname.lastname@example.org) TA -Adnan Majeed (email@example.com)
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Where Do We Find a Computer/Processor? Cell phones ATMs Medical (MRI) Cars Microwave Traffic Controller ipodPDA Planes Watch Robots Cameras Music Design & Engineering Games
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Why Did We Develop Computers? Problem Solution Implementation Computer Result A solution to a problem! While thinking of a solution, think about: Cost $$$ Speed Energy/Power Size Efficiency etc…
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Types of Computers °Personal Computer °Workstation °Server °Supercomputer °Embedded
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Number of Computers Sold
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Computer Architecture Problem Solution Implementation Computer Result Compiler Our Area of Focus Our Area of Understanding
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Architecture Where is Computer Architecture and Engineering? *Coordination of many levels of abstraction I/O systemProcessor Compiler Operating System (Windows XP) Application (MediaPlayer) Digital Design Circuit Design Instruction Set Architecture Datapath & Control transistors Memory Hardware Software Assembler
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Anatomy: 5 components of any Computer Personal Computer Processor Computer Control (brain) Datapath (work) Memory (where programs & data live when running) Devices Input Output Keyboard, Mouse Display, Printer Disk (where programs & data live when not running)
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Computer Technology - Dramatic Change! °Processor 2X in speed every 1.5 years (since 85); 100X performance increase in last decade. °Memory DRAM capacity: 2x / 2 years (since 96); 64x size improvement in last decade. °Disk Capacity: 2X / 1 year (since 97) 250X size increase in last decade.
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Tech. Trends: Microprocessor Complexity 2 * transistors/Chip Every 1.5 to 2.0 years Called Moores Law
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Architecture & Organization °Computer Architecture What the low level programmer sees -Types of Instructions -Number of Registers -Types of Operations °Computer Organization How the designer Implements the Design -Layout -Interconnection (wires)
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Computer Architecture and Organization I/O systemProcessor Compiler Operating System (Windows XP) Application (MediaPlayer) Digital Design Circuit Design Instruction Set Architecture Datapath & Control Transistors Memory Hardware Software Assembler Layout & Technology Organization Architecture
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Architecture & Organization 1 °Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? °Organization is how features are implemented Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Architecture & Organization 2 °All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture °The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture °This gives code compatibility At least backwards °Organization might highly differ between different versions
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Course Path Computer Architecture Fall 08 Arithmetic Memory Systems I/O YOURCPUYOURCPU µProc 60%/yr. (2X/1.5yr) DRAM 9%/yr. (2X/10 yrs) 1 10 100 1000 198 0 198 1 198 3 198 4 198 5 198 6 198 7 198 8 198 9 199 0 199 1 199 2 199 3 199 4 199 5 199 6 199 7 199 8 199 9 200 0 DRAM CPU 198 2 Processor-Memory Performance Gap: (grows 50% / year) Performance Time Moores Law Performance Datapaths & Control opcodersrtoffset rdfunct shamt opcodersrt opcodersrtimmediate rdfunctshamt opcode rsrt rdfunct shamt opcodersrt Instruction Sets
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Homeworks and Projects °Quizzes (weekly) °Assignment (every ~2 weeks) °Project (every ~3-4 weeks) °End of Semester Project: Demo Oral Presentation Head-to-head Race Final Report
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Course Exams °Reduce the pressure of taking exams Exam I Exam II Final °Goal Our goal: test knowledge vs. speed writing (no memorization) Review meetings: before?
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Grading °Grade breakdown Exam I: 10% Exam II: 10% Final:20% Projects40% Homeworks 10% Quizzes 5% Attendance/Participation: 5% °No late homeworks or projects! °Written request for changes to grades
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Our Goals °Show you how to understand modern computer architecture in its rapidly changing form °Show you how to design by leading you through the process on challenging design problems and by examining real designs °Learn application analysis and new design techniques
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Text °Required: Computer Organization and Design, 3rd Edition, Patterson and Hennessy (COD) °Reference: Computer Organization and Architecture, 6thEdition, William Stallings Readings on web page http://williamstallings.com/COA6e.html °Reference: Structured Computer Organization, 4th Edition, Andrew S. Tanenbaum
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © The Big Picture
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Types of Processors
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Hardware/Software Divide Hardware System Software Application Excel Internet Explorer Visual Studio Windows XP Linux Solaris OS X PC MAC SUN
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Compiler Assembler Program Path to Execution High Level Language Program (.c file) Assembly Language Program (.asm file) Binary Machine Language Program (.exe file)
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © The Five Components of a Computer
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © The Motherboard: ALU & CU Input & Output M The five von Neumann components:
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Motherboard
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Inside the Processor
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Manufacturing Process
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © An 8-inch (200-mm) Diameter Wafer
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Modern Fabs °Current minimum feature size is 45nano meters (45x10 -9 meters) °Can fit over a million transistors on the tip of a hair °Fab facility costs 3 billion US $ Many chip designers are fab-less °Employs 100s of employees °Yield on the order of 30%
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Computers History 1 st generation: Vacuum Tubes °During World War 2 the Armys Ballistics Research Laboratory employed more than 200 people to solve essential ballistics equations using desktop calculators.
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © 1 st generation: Vacuum Tubes Professor Mauchly (EE) & his gradate student Eckert proposed to build a general purpose computer using vacuum tubes for the Ballistics Research Laboratory (BRL)
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © ENIAC (E lectronic N umerical I ntegrator A nd C omputer ) °ENIAC built in World War II was the first general purpose computer Used for computing artillery firing tables 24 meters long by 2.5 meters high and several meters wide Each of the twenty 10 digit registers was 1 meter long –Since then: Moores Law: transistor capacity doubles every 18-24 months
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © 1 st generation: ENIAC Completed in 1946 °Decimal (not binary) °20 accumulators of 10 digits °Programmed manually by switches & cables °18,000 vacuum tubes °30 tons °15,000 square feet °140 kW power consumption °5,000 additions per second Programming the ENIAC 12 3 4 5 6 8 7 9 0
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © The von Neuman machine - Completed 1952 °Stored Program concept °Main memory storing programs and data °ALU operating on binary data °Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing °Input and Output equipment operated by control unit Scientist at the Institute of Advanced Studies
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Structure of von Neumann Machine Main Memory Input/Output Equipment Arithmetic –Logic Unit Program Control Unit Central Processing Unit CPU CC CA M I/O R
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Commercial Computers °1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation °1 st successful machine: UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) °Commissioned by the US Bureau of Census for the 1950 calculations °Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation °Late 1950s - UNIVAC II Faster More memory Upward Compatibility
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © 2 nd Generation: Transistors °Replaced vacuum tubes °Smaller & Cheaper °Less heat dissipation °Solid State device (silicon) °Invented 1947 at Bell Labs The First Transistor
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Transistor Based Computers °Second generation machines °NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines °IBM 7000 °DEC - 1957 Produced PDP-1
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Microelectronics °Literally - small electronics °A computer is made up of gates, memory cells and interconnections °These can be manufactured on a semiconductor °e.g. silicon wafer
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Growth in CPU Transistor Count
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Moores Law °Increased density of components on chip °Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel °Number of transistors on a chip will double every year °Since 1970s development has slowed a little Number of transistors doubles every 18 months °Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Moores Law - Contd °Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance °Smaller size gives increased flexibility °Reduced power and cooling requirements °Fewer interconnections increases reliability
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Moores LawWill it continue? °A number of walls on the horizon Physical process wall: impossible to continue shrinking transistor sizes -Already leading to low yield, soft-errors, process variations Power wall -Power consumption and density have also been increasing Other issues: -What to do with the transistors? -Wire delays -Memory and I/O walls -New architectures? Multi-cores
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Yield Trends with Process Size
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 ©
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 ©
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © Computer Generations GenerationDatesTechnology Operations per Second 11946-1957Vacuum Tube40,000 21958-1964Transistor200,000 31965-1971 Small & Medium Scale Integration 1,000,000 41972-1977 Large Scale Integration (LSI) 10,000,000 51978-…Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) 100,000,000
Computer ArchitectureFall 2008 © And in conclusion... °Continued rapid improvement in Computing 2X every 1.5 years in processor speed; every 2.0 years in memory size; every 1.0 year in disk capacity; Moores Law enables processor, memory (2X transistors/chip/ ~1.5 ro 2.0 yrs) But the going is getting tough °5 classic components of all computers Control Datapath Memory Input Output } Processor
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