2The Many Uses of Fluids A fluid is anything substance that flows Honey, water, and lava are all fluids – but so are gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxideWe use fluids to help us improve our lives
3The Many Uses of Fluids Fluids can transport solids A mixture of water and solids is called a slurryThe paper that you write on was once a slurry of wood pulp and waterHydroseeding is the process of spraying a slurry of seeds, fertilizer and sawdust to plant difficult to reach areas
4The Many Uses of Fluids Fluids can hold other materials For example, the cytoplasm in your cells hole the organelles that allow a cell to grow and replicateToothpaste is a fluid that holds materials designed to clean, polish and protect your teeth.
5The Many Uses of FluidsA slurry of water and cement is easy to transport. As it hardens it can be shaped to become a smooth, level concrete sidewalk
6The Many Uses of Fluids Each of these photographs show fluids in use 1. How are our lives improved by each of the uses shown2. What environmental issues are raised by each use?
7Fluids and The Particle Theory Matter is anything that has mass and volumeThe Particle Theory of Matter is a theory that describes matter. It explains the behaviour of solids, liquids and gasses.Copy the 6 postulates of the theory into your booklet from page 198 in your textbook.
8Fluids and The Particle Theory The particle theory states that particles are attracted to each other. However, particles in some substances may be more attracted to particles in other substances than they are to each otherParticles in a liquid can overcome some of their attraction to each other and slide past each other. This is why liquids flow and take the shape of their containers
9Fluids and The Particle Theory Gas particles can move so quickly and are so far apart that they overcome almost all their attraction to each other. This is why gasses flow and spread out to all parts of their container.
10Thermal Expansion and Contraction When the temperature of a solid, liquid or gas increase, its particles move faster and farther apart – as a result the substance expandsThermal expansion is an increase in the volume of a substance in response to an increase in its temperature
11Viscosity and Temperature Ketchup, like all liquids will flow. However, it is designed to flow slowly so it will stay on food.Thickness or thinness of a fluid is called viscosity.Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to flow.Fluids with a high viscosity do not flow as easily as fluids with a low viscosity
12Viscosity and Temperature Temperature can have a big effect on viscosityWhen heat is added to a liquid, the particles move faster and move farther apart. This allows the particles to move past each other more freelyAs the temperature of a liquid increases, its viscosity decreases.The cooler the liquid, the slower it flows.
13Viscosity and Temperature Temperature affects the viscosity of gasses differently from how it affects liquidsFriction is a force that works to slow down motion as a result of surfaces rubbing against each otherThe greater the rubbing, or friction between particles in any fluid, the higher the viscosity
14Viscosity and Temperature BUT in gases, the higher the temperature, the higher the friction and the higher the viscosity. The warmer the gas, the slower it flows.As the temperature of the gas decreases, the particles slow down and collide less often, so there is less friction. The viscosity decreases.The cooler the gas, the faster it flows.
15Viscosity and Flow Rate The flow rate of a fluid is a measure of speed at which a fluid flows from one point to anotherThe greater the viscosity, the lower the flow rate.
16DensityThe amount of mass contained in a given volume is called densityDensity describes how closely packed together the particles are in a substanceA substance is most dense when it is a solid, and least dense when it is a gas
17Density and BuoyancyRead page 216 in the textbook. Copy the three points in your booklet.If metal has a greater density than water – how is it possible for metal boats to float on water?
18Density and BuoyancyIf you consider the density of the air inside the boat and the density of all the objects in the boat, you would find that the combined density of all parts of the boat is less than the density of the water.
19Calculating DensityDensity is the ratio of mass to volume. The unit for measuring the density of liquids is usually grams per millilitre (g/ml)You can calculate the density if a substance by dividing its mass by its volumeDensity (D) = mass (m)Volume (v)
20Forces of FluidsA force is a push or pull on an object – but you already knew that We measure force in newtons (N)One newton is approximately equal to the force that you would exert to hold up a baseball.
21Forces of FluidsBuoyancy is the tendency of an object in a fluid to rise or sink due to density differences with its surroundings,Gravity attracts matter downwards towards the earths centre. A fluid however exerts an opposite force that pushes matter upward. This is called the buoyant force.Read page 220 to fill outthe chart in your booklet.
22Pressure in FluidsPressure is the amount of force applied to a given area. You may have felt the pressure of water when you swim deep in water. Air is a fluid and it exerts pressure around you all the time. Air pressure is why your ears may “pop” when you are on a plane.
23Changes in Pressure Air pressure changes with altitude There is less air pressure if we travel to a higher altitude, like a mountain, because there are fewer layers of air above us and the air there is less dense.
24Pressure and Depth Pressure in fluid also changes with its depth For example, the weight of the water in the upper part of a swimming pool presses down on the water on the lower part of the poolThe greater the dept of water, the greater the pressure at that point.
25Pressure and Fluid Flow If a fluid is allowed to move, it will always go from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressureYou make use of this property when you drink from a straw. Your mouth creates an area of lower pressure. The juice box is at a higher pressure, so it travels up the straw and into your mouth. Mmm.
26Pressure and Temperature An increase in temperature results in an increase in pressure.When the temperature increases, the particles move faster and hit the walls of the container with more energyIf the volume of the container cannot increase, its pressure increases, possibly resulting in an explosion
27Compression Compression is a decrease in volume caused by a force Compressibility is the property of being able to be compressedMaterials in a liquid state are said to be incompressible, which means they can not be compressed easilyYour foot compresses the airinside the soccer ball as youkick it.
28Fluid SystemsA fluid system is a group of parts, including at least one fluid, that interact with each other and function as a whole.Two examples found in nature areOur body’s circulatory systemThe movement of sap in trees
29Pascal’s LawBlaise Pascal made an important discovery in the mid 1600s.Pascal’s Law states that when force is applied to an enclosed fluid, the increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.For example, when you squeezea balloon in the middle and itbulges evenly at either end
30Hydraulic SystemsHydraulic systems are systems that use a liquid under pressure to transmit a force and do work.Rescue workers use hydraulic systems in the Jaws of Life to free people trapped in vehicles
31Hydraulic systemsLiquids can not be compressed. This means that when pressure is applied to a liquid in a pipe or a tube, the force can be transmitted over a distanceHydraulic systems can multiply the force exerted by a liquid.Read pages to explain how a hoist works,
32Pneumatic SystemsA pneumatic system is a system that uses a gas, usually air, under pressure to transmit a force.In order for a gas to be put to work in a fluid system, it must first be compressed.Two advantages of pneumatic systems are safety and cost.
33Pumps A pump is a device that moves a fluid through or into something. For example, your heat pumps blood to your lungs.
34Valves Valves are devices that control the flow of fluids For example, turning a tap one way allows water to flow out. Turning it the other way closes off the flow of water.Page 247 of your textbook describes 4 different types of valves.