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ZigBEE. Fundamentals of ZigBee Low Cost Low Power Security-enabled Reliable Initial Target Markets were AMR, Building Automation, and Industrial Automation.

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Presentation on theme: "ZigBEE. Fundamentals of ZigBee Low Cost Low Power Security-enabled Reliable Initial Target Markets were AMR, Building Automation, and Industrial Automation."— Presentation transcript:

1 ZigBEE

2 Fundamentals of ZigBee Low Cost Low Power Security-enabled Reliable Initial Target Markets were AMR, Building Automation, and Industrial Automation (M2M Comms)

3 ZigBee Protocol Where Does ZigBee Fit? –Data Rate vs. Range vs. Battery Life (not shown) Range Peak Data Rate CloserFarther Slower Faster UWB Wireless Data Applications Wireless Video Applications IrDA g b a 2.5G/3G Bluetooth ZigBee Data Transfer Wireless Networking Wi-Fi® Cellular

4 Wireless Standards Comparison

5 The Value of Mesh: Extending Range Reduced Function DeviceReduced Function Device Point-to-MultipointPoint-to-Multipoint Communications FlowCommunications Flow out of range, no RF connectivityout of range, no RF connectivity

6 The Value of Mesh: Extending Range RF NodeRF Node Mesh Node HoppingMesh Node Hopping Communications FlowCommunications Flow leverage network nodes to increase range and establish RF connectivityleverage network nodes to increase range and establish RF connectivity

7 The Value of Mesh: Self Healing/Discovery RF NodeRF Node Mesh Node HoppingMesh Node Hopping Communications FlowCommunications Flow unexpected interruptions in the network can be automatically compensated for by re- directing communicationunexpected interruptions in the network can be automatically compensated for by re- directing communication

8 ZIGBEE PRO FEATURE SET Section 1

9 ZigBee Feature Sets ZigBee releases are defined as Feature Sets –A Feature Set refers to a group, or set, of features. There are two Feature Sets in the latest update to the ZigBee specification: ZigBee Feature Set and the ZigBee PRO Feature Set. ZigBee 2004, ZigBee 2006, and ZigBee 2007 are colloquial references and not endorsed by the ZigBee Alliance

10 Need for WPANs IEEE released ZigBee 2004 ratified ZigBee 2004 available ZigBee Feature Set available ZigBee PRO Feature Set available Smart Energy profile ratified Point-to- multipoint / peer- to-peer networks Feeble, mesh networking; tree- based addressing architecture; very small node density Enhanced mesh; pseudo- stochastic addressing; support for more dense networks; compatibility issues Significantly improved mesh; support for thousands of nodes; broad interoperability

11 ZigBee Feature Set (2004) RouterRouter Reduced Function DeviceReduced Function Device Communications FlowCommunications Flow Tree MeshTree Mesh CoordinatorCoordinator

12 ZigBee Pro Feature Set RouterRouter Reduced Function DeviceReduced Function Device Communications FlowCommunications Flow Stochastic MeshStochastic Mesh CoordinatorCoordinator

13 ZigBee & IEEE ZigBee uses the PHY and MAC defined by Accordingly, ZigBee is a WPAN network, but with added networking intelligence ZigBee inherits the RF characteristics of its platform: –RF Link Budget –Current Draw

14 Simplified ZigBee Stack

15 Protocol Specifications –Supported Networks Point-Point Point-Multipoint/Star –Types of Nodes Coordinator End Node –Reliable Delivery CSMA/CA MAC-level (pt-pt) Retries/Acknowledgments –64-bit IEEE and 16-bit short Addressing –16 DSSS RF Channels PHY MAC ZigBee Network ZigBee APS ZigBee AF ZigBee ZDO

16 Protocol Nodes in a PAN (Personal Area Network)

17 ZigBee Protocol Supported Networks –Point-Point –Point-Multipoint/Star –MESH Types of Nodes –Coordinator –End Node –ROUTER Reliable Delivery –CSMA/CA –MAC-level (pt-pt) Retries/Acknowledgments –MESH NETWORK-level (multi-hop) Retries/ACKs 16 DSSS RF Channels PHY MAC ZigBee Network ZigBee APS ZigBee AF ZigBee ZDO

18 ZigBee Protocol ZigBee Nodes in a PAN (Personal Area Network) End Device Several can be in a PAN Low power Router Optional Several can be in a PAN Mains-powered Coordinator One per PAN Establishes/Organizes a PAN Mains-powered

19 ZigBee Protocol ZigBee Specifications –Addressing 64-bit IEEE Address –Unique to every device in the world –Permanent, assigned during mfg 16-bit Network Addressing –Unique to each module within a PAN –Used in Routing Tables –Used for data transmissions, etc. –Volatile Address - Can Change PHY MAC ZigBee Network ZigBee APS ZigBee AF ZigBee ZDO

20 Data Transmission modes –Broadcast Mode To send a broadcast packet to all radios regardless of 16-bit or 64-bit addressing –Unicast Mode – Guaranteed Delivery 64-bit IEEE Addressing –Destination 64-bit Address to match 64-bit source address of intended receiver. 16-bit Network Addressing –Destination 16-bit Address to match 16-bit source address of intended receiver ZigBee Protocol needs/uses

21 PAN Network Formation –Coordinator must select an unused operating channel and PAN ID Energy scan on all channels BroadcastSends Beacon request (Broadcast PAN ID) Listens to all responses and logs the results –After the Coordinator has started, it will allow nodes to join to it for a time based on the specified Node Join Time ZigBee Protocol

22 Router Startup –A new Router must locate a Router that has already joined a PAN or a Coordinator BroadcastSends a Broadcast PAN ID on each channel UnicastReturns sent via Unicast –Router will then try to join to a Router or Coordinator that is allowing joining ZigBee Protocol

23 End node: Low-power Sleep Modes End Node Startup –A new End node must locate a Router that has already joined a PAN or a Coordinator BroadcastSends a Broadcast PAN ID on each channel UnicastReturns sent via Unicast –End node will then try to join to a parent (Router or Coordinator) that is allowing joining ZigBee Protocol

24 Single Point of Failure Common Belief: If a Coordinator fails, the network fails FALSE: If a Coordinator fails, the network continues to function, but without certain non-essential features of the Coordinator

25 Broadcast Transmissions - Relayed to All Nodes –No Acks are transmitted – Routers listen to neighboring Routers to know if message was retransmitted –Retransmit if neighbors are not heard (up to 2 times) –Broadcast Transaction Table used to ensure Routers do not repeat a message they have already repeated –Expensive time wise C R R R R R R R R R ZigBee Protocol

26 Route Discovery consists of the following commands: broadcast –Route Request (broadcast) 64-bit address used to find the local 16-bit address (Network address discovery) Routing tables based on 16-bit address unicast –Route Reply (unicast) Positive acknowledgement returned If node is gone- Network address discovery fails C R6 R5 R2 R3 R1 R7 ZigBee Protocol R10

27 Normal Data Transmissions (Unicast - established Network) R1 must transmit data to R10. MAC ACKs are transmitted for each hop. One Network ACK is transmitted from the Destination node back to the Source C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 ZigBee Protocol

28 C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 X Disabled Node ZigBee Protocol

29 C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 X Disabled Node broadcast New Route Discovery Request (broadcast) 64-bit address used to find the local 16-bit address (Network address discovery) ZigBee Protocol

30 C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 R10 R4 X Disabled Node unicast New Route sent back along best path (unicast) Coordinator not necessary after network setup ZigBee Protocol

31 Sleeping end node (child) –Associates with a parent Parent takes over Zigbee network communications while child is sleeping Parent must always be awake (router or coordinator) Number of childs per parent is limited C R6 R5 R3 R2 R7 R9 R8 R1 E10 R4

32 DIGIMESH Section 2

33 The Value of Mesh Mesh Node HoppingMesh Node Hopping Communications FlowCommunications Flow many common mesh technologies require different node types with a parent/child relationship to achieve mesh node hoppingmany common mesh technologies require different node types with a parent/child relationship to achieve mesh node hopping RouterRouter Reduced Function DeviceReduced Function Device CoordinatorCoordinator

34 DigiMesh Topology DigiMesh RouterDigiMesh Router Communications FlowCommunications Flow Peer-to-Peer MeshPeer-to-Peer Mesh

35 DigiMesh Network Overview Simple relative to Parent/Child-based mesh technologies Support for Sleeping Routers Unpredictable timing (like all mesh networks) Poor latency performance relative to multipoint technologies (like all mesh networks) Lower sustained throughput relative to multipoint products (like all mesh networks)

36 How DigiMesh is Different Parent/Child Mesh Parent/Child Hierarchy Multiple Node Types No Sleeping Routers Complex Setup Most Commonly 2.4 GHz Open Protocols Available DigiMesh Peer-to-Peer Hierarchy One Node Type Support for Sleeping Routers Simple Setup 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz Proprietary Protocol


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