Presentation on theme: "Chad M Ruoff, MD Internal Medicine and Sleep Medicine Fellow 9.1.2010."— Presentation transcript:
Chad M Ruoff, MD Internal Medicine and Sleep Medicine Fellow
Anatomy of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Weight Loss Oral Appliances Mandibular Advancement Device Tongue Advancement Device External Nasal Dilator Strips (Breathe Right Strips) Wedge Pillow Positioning Provent Surgery Pillar Procedure CPAP TAP Device Using an oral appliance with CPAP Maxillary Expansion Future Nerve Stimulator
AHI RDI Oxygen desaturation
A 10 % weight loss may lead to about a 30% reduction in the AHI (Young et al) Neck circumference is an important predictor of sleep apnea. Men 17 Women 16
Mild to moderate sleep apnea In one case series, 50 to 80 % of patients have a reduction in AHI by at least 50% Severe OSA Success rates range between 14 and 61% Success rate defined as AHI less than 10 or a 50% reduction Protrudes the mandible forward from 6 to 10 mm. They also might open the mouth slightly
Predictors for Treatment Outcome Younger age Lower BMI Smaller neck circumference Positional OSA Increased amout of protrusion by appliance Better tolerated than CPAP 76 – 90% patients report regular use in recent studies.
Consider an oral appliance once fail a CPAP trial Adjustable appliances are better than fixed appliances An oral appliance is not as effective as CPAP Common side effects include mucosal drynesss, tooth discomfort, excessive salivation, and jaw pain Long term use associated with small orthodontic changes
Consider in patient with poor dentition, relatively large tongue, or a poor protrusive range Side effects include tongue soreness and excessive salivation Not as effective as a Mandibular Repositioning device
Mechanically pull the lateral nasal vestibule walls outward Increases nasal cross-sectional area FDA approved for temporary relief from transient causes of breathing difficulties resulting from structural abnormalities and/or transient causes of nasal congestion associated with reduced airflow May reduce maximum snoring intensity. Worsening of disease in some patients has been observed. Not indicated for the treatment of sleep apnea
Limited data suggest that these devices improve nasal resistance or airflow Available studies indicate that snoring intensity may be reduced Sleep, Vol 26, No. 5, 2003
There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend any systemic pharmacological treatment for OSA. In one study, topical fluticasone in patients with coexistent rhinitis and OSA reduced apnea Paroxetine, physostigmine, mirtazipine and acetazolamide have been shown to reduce the frequency of apneas, but the symptomatic response remains uncertain. We need more robust clinical trials. Drug therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. 2009
Minimizes the effects of gravity on the airway and may decrease reflux.
Minimizes the effects of gravity on the airway and may decrease reflux Use a T-shirt with a pocket sewn on the back with a tennis ball or golf ball in prevent supine sleep The Zzoma Positional Sleeper
In a recent trial, positional therapy is equivalent to CPAP at normalizing the AHI in patients with positional OSA with similar effects on sleep quality and nocturnal oxygenation. The non-supine AHI had to be less than 5 events per hour. Comparison of positional therapy to CPAP in patients with positional obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med Jun 15;6(3):
Uses nasal expiratory flow resistance to create positive airway pressures to prevent collapse of the airway Funded studies have shown reductions in AHI from 27 to 14
The overall response rate, defined as a 50% or more reduction in the AHI for this novel device during the initial three treatment nights was 59%. It dropped to 41% at the end of 30 days.
Prior to CPAP in 1981, this was the only treatment option available for sleep apnea.
Address the three regions of potential collapse in sleep apnea: Nose: Septum, Turbinates, and Nasal Valves Palate: Tonsils and Uvula Base of tongue: Tongue base
There is a lack of sound evidence documenting the benefits of surgery. We need more robust clinical trials.
We are really getting away from recommending this as a first line treatment option. However, it is still a common recommendation for the pediatric population.
Success rate of about 40%. However, this procedure is not routinely recommended. Side effects include dificulty swallowing, globus sensation in the throat, and voice changes
The cure or responder rate with proper candidate selection: About 80% (65 to 100%). Success typically defined as a 50% reduction or RDI 90%
This is typically not considered a primary therapy but rather an adjunctive procedure. Responders range from 25 to 70%.
Consider this therapy if experiencing significant nasal congestion with your CPAP or daytime symptoms of congestion In spite of heated humidification, nasal saline washes, and nasal steroids In one small trial after 8 weeks of procedure, 21/22 patients had about a 60% reduction in severity and frequency of nasal obstruction
Phase I: Address the nose, pharygneal space, and address hypopharynx area (e.g Laser, TCRF, GAHMS) Phase 2: Skeletal Midface advancement (i.e. MMO or Bimax)
Three small 18mm polyethylene terephthalate fibers permanently inserted within the muscular layer of the soft palate and hard palate junction
In one trial it produced bed partner snoring satisfaction in 40 % - 60% of cases Complications include high risk of implant extrusion and poor placement causing discomfort We do not recommend this as a treatment option.
This therapy combines an oral appliance with the CPAP. No published data to my knowledge
Consider this in a child with sleep apnea Decreases nasal resistance More room for the tongue to stay in a forward position
Nerve stimulation Hypoglossal nerve stimulation Nerve manipulation is already underway in refractory seizures and in severe movement disorders
CPAP Oral Appliance Weight loss with proper eating habits and consistent exercise Foam wedge pillow Positioning Surgery