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Computer Science Department Introduction To Computers and Programming Knowledge: Understand the concepts of computer, hardware, software and programming.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Science Department Introduction To Computers and Programming Knowledge: Understand the concepts of computer, hardware, software and programming."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Science Department Introduction To Computers and Programming Knowledge: Understand the concepts of computer, hardware, software and programming FTSM

2 TK1913-C Programming2 TK1913-C Programming 2 What is a computer? A device or machine which can be programmed to receive data and perform manipulation, such as arithmetic calculation and logic processing, and generate processed data systematically – DBP 1995

3 TK1913-C Programming3 TK1913-C Programming 3 History of Computer The 1st electronic computer was created by Dr John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry in year 1930s at Iowa State University. It was intended for postgraduate students in nuclear physics to calculate complex arithmetics ENIAC (electronic digital computer) was created in year 1946 at University of Pennsylvania under the American Defenses financial assistance. Its weight was 30 tans and size was 30x50 square feet now => Microcomputer (workstation), minicomputer, mainframe and supercomputer

4 TK1913-C Programming4 TK1913-C Programming 4 Computer Hardware Input Devices Capture/receive input from users Central Processing Unit (CPU) Execute instructions; compute, compare and transform data Primary Storage or Main Memory Temporary storage for data/programs Output Devices Produce output/result Secondary Storage Devices Permanent storage for data/programs

5 TK1913-C Programming5 TK1913-C Programming 5 Computer Hardware Keyboard (Input Device) Speaker (Output Device) Hard disk (Secondary Storage) Memory i.e. RAM & ROM (Primary Storage) Floppy disk (Secondary Storage) CD ROM, DVD ROM (Secondary Storage) Mouse (Input Device) Printer (Output Device) Monitor Screen (Output Device)

6 TK1913-C Programming6 TK1913-C Programming 6 Computer Software Program An organized list of instructions that, when executed, causes the computer to behave in a predetermined manner. Without programs, computers are useless. A program is like a recipe. It contains a list of ingredients (called variables) and a list of directions (called statements) that tell the computer what to do with the variables. The variables can represent numeric data, text, or graphical images. Software An executable program that is run in the computer 2 types of software: System Software System Software System Software System Software Application Software Application Software Application Software Application Software

7 TK1913-C Programming7 TK1913-C Programming 7 System Software Consist of programs that organise computer hardware resources and execute the required information processing tasks 3 classes of system software: Operating System Provides user interfaces, file and database retrieval and interfaces for communication system. Supporting System Provides system facilities e.g. diskette formatting Development System Provides facilities and environment for software development

8 TK1913-C Programming8 TK1913-C Programming 8 Application Software 2 types of application software: General Purpose/Generic Stand alone software which is produced by software development organisation that can be used for more than one application. E.g. Word Processor Bespoke/Customised Developed specifically for a particular task/customer/environment.

9 TK1913-C Programming9 TK1913-C Programming 9 Computer System The diagram below illustrates the anatomy of a computer system User App. Software Syst. Software Hardware

10 TK1913-C Programming10 TK1913-C Programming 10 Computer Environment Personal Computer All components are directly connected and not shared by others (stand-alone) Time-sharing Several users share hardware resources Client-server Computer tasks are divided between central computer and users computers

11 TK1913-C Programming11 TK1913-C Programming 11 Roles of Computer Data Processing Transform raw data into organised and meaningful information Control Control tools that are difficult to be controlled by human Design and Development Data Communication

12 TK1913-C Programming12 TK1913-C Programming 12 Concepts of Programming A planning process for a sequence of instruction to be executed by the computer Programming is performed to solve a particular problem Phases involved: Problem Analysis General Solution (Algorithm) Validation Detailed Solution (Coding) Testing

13 TK1913-C Programming13 TK1913-C Programming 13 Programming Languages Machine Language Consists of code 0 and 1 The only language that computer understands Symbolic/Assembly Language Uses symbols or mnemonic to represent machine language instruction Needs to be translated into machine language High-Level Language Resembles human language. E.g. English Language Needs to be translated into machine language

14 TK1913-C Programming14 TK1913-C Programming 14 Types of Programming Structured Pascal, C, COBOL, FORTRAN Functional Scheme, LISP Object-Oriented Java, C++ Logic-based Prolog Scripts Perl, Visual Basic, Javascript

15 TK1913-C Programming15 TK1913-C Programming 15 End of Lecture 1 Yes !! Thats all? Whats next??? ALGORITHM on the way … way …


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