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TOP Server: Understanding Modbus for Device Connectivity Presenter: Kevin Rutherford.

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Presentation on theme: "TOP Server: Understanding Modbus for Device Connectivity Presenter: Kevin Rutherford."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOP Server: Understanding Modbus for Device Connectivity Presenter: Kevin Rutherford

2 Modbus Protocol Training Agenda Overview Modbus Protocol Specifics Modbus Types Modbus Terminology Modbus Quirks Example Modbus packets TOP Server Modbus Suite Flexibility Supported Protocols Dealing with Non-Standard Modbus Devices Live Modbus Demo Configuration Troubleshooting Using Quick Client Using Channel Diagnostics Questions?

3 What is a Protocol? Protocols can happen at many levels and cover many things Cabling Electrical Packet structure Content of Packets Timing of Packets Rarely does ONE protocol cover all of these things Multiple protocols involved in making a full connection

4 What is a Protocol? Analogy – Train Tracks, Cars, & Cargo RS-232, 485, Ethernet define cabling and electrical protocols, i.e. the Train Tracks… In Ethernet connections, the transport defines the Train Cars (Packet structure) In Serial connections, the application protocol usually defines the Train Cars Whats in the Train Cars (packets) is the Cargo – the data – which is defined by the actual device/application protocol…. Physical Transport Media - RS-232, RS-422, 10-Base-T = The Train Tracks Network Protocol Transport – TCP/IP Ethernet, FTP, HTTP = The train and cars Application Protocols – Modbus TCP = Contents of the Train Cars

5 Parts of a Typical Application Protocol Many application protocols use some or all of these in their structures: Header/start characters Target Device ID Function Code, Sub-Function Codes Data Length Data Checksum/error checking Termination character Data section usually contains Read: Memory type, start location, length, or multiple locations in some protocols Write: Memory type & location to write, size to write, actual data to write Data contents is usually driven by what Function Code or Sub-Function Codes are used in the request Data is OFTEN communicated in Hex – Base 16!!!!

6 Modbus – Used Everywhere! Schneider/Modicon/Telemecanique PLCs Nearly every other PLC brand offers built-in Modbus or a Modbus option module Electrical transmission & distribution control & monitoring equipment Water/wastewater control equipment Temperature controllers AC Variable Speed Drives Servo Drives Pick a device – it just might support Modbus When in doubt – find out – is Modbus a choice on the hardware?

7 Modbus Types Serial – RS-232/422/485 electrical protocol Two possible transmission modes: Modbus RTU Modbus ASCII Proprietary – Vendor specific electrical protocol Modbus Plus Ethernet – standard TCP/IP Ethernet electrical +transport Modbus TCP or Modbus Ethernet Ethernet Encapsulated Modbus RTU or ASCII Gateway Devices Ethernet or Modbus Plus Modbus RTU or ASCII serial on other side Multiple serial devices on downstream side

8 Modbus Terminology Memory Types & Addressing Input coils = Digital inputs 1xxxxx address type 0/1 values Boolean data type Output Coils = Digital outputs 0xxxxx address type 0/1 values Boolean data type Input Registers = Analog inputs 3xxxxx address type 16-bit registers 32-bit data types use two consecutive registers Holding (Output) Registers = Analog outputs 4xxxxx address type 16-bit registers 32-bit data types use two consecutive registers

9 Modbus Terminology Read/Write Access Read Only: Input registers & Input Coils Read/Write: Output Coils and Holding Registers Addressing – 5 or 6 digits Original Modbus was 5 digits – i.e As PLC memories grew, went to 6, i.e Offset Modbus address offset is all digits after the first digit identify which memory type the address is Can be 0 or 1 based Pointer that specifies where into that memory type to go and start getting data or writing data

10 Modbus Terminology Modbus Node Address Used with serial devices Each device on serial connection has unique ID Slave ID values = 1 to 247 Masters dont have a Node address Modbus Function Codes Used by Modbus Masters to tell a Modbus Slave what they want it to do Read or Write? Memory Type? Single item or Multiple Items in a Transaction

11 Modbus Terminology Common Modbus Function Codes 01 – Read Coils (output coils), 0xxxxx memory 02 – Read Discrete Inputs (input coils), 1xxxxx memory 03 – Read Holding Registers, 4xxxxx memory 04 – Read Input Registers, 3xxxxx memory 05 – Write Single coil (outputs), 0xxxxx memory 06 – Write single Holding Register, 4xxxxx memory 15 (0x0F) – Write multiple coils (outputs) 16 (0x10) – Write multiple Holding Registers

12 Modbus Terminology Modbus Exception Codes Used by slaves to tell Master what it did not like about a request Examples: 02 - Bad memory address 01 - I dont understand this function code 0x0B - Slave didnt respond – gateway devices

13 Common Modbus Quirks Data Byte Ordering 32 bit data type word order 64 bit data type Dword order Byte order within words Addressing – 0 or 1 based Function Code support Use of user definable function codes Non-Modicon use of memory type + offset for addressing in documentation confusing

14 Modbus RTU Packet Framing PDU = protocol data unit Address field – 1 byte – node address of the slave CRC = error checking calculation, 2 bytes Function Code + Data depends on what you want to accomplish.

15 Modbus Packet Format Modbus RTU A MODBUS message is placed by Modbus Master into a serial frame that has a known beginning and ending point. This is an amount of time indicating to devices that receive a new frame to begin at the start of the message, and to know when the message is completed. In RTU mode, message frames are separated by a silent interval of at least 3.5 character times. Character time= time to send one chosen baud rate

16 Modbus RTU Example Read Holding Registers from Slave Node 01 Transmit: TX: B xx xx Receive: RX: B xx xx IMPORTANT Notice: 1.Request is in # of registers 2.Response is in # of bytes 3.1 Register = 2 bytes xx xx = 2 byte checksum

17 Modbus RTU Example Write Single Holding Register 2 with value of 3 on Slave Node 1 Transmit: TX: xx xx Receive: RX: xx xx xx xx = 2 byte checksum

18 Modbus RTU Example Exception Response Master asks for memory address that doesnt exist in the slave

19 Modbus Packet Format Modbus TCP A Modbus TCP Packet is put into a TCP/IP wrapper Notice similarity to Modbus RTU with function code + data MBAP Header=Modbus Application Protocol Header – similar to the address field in the serial framing MBAP = 7 extra bytes on beginning of transmission

20 Modbus TCP MBAP Header Contents Unit identifier used when using bridging to downstream serial devices. 0 = no bridging being used

21 Modbus TCP - Example Reading Input Register 30070, Reading through a gateway to slave device ID 1 on serial connection Request: TX: 08 3B B = MBAP 08 3B = Transaction ID = Protocol ID = 6 bytes follow from here 01 = Node ID = regular Modbus Read input Registers command 04 = Function Code = Starting address in hex 0x46 = 70 decimal = offset into input registers = Quantity of input registers to read Response RX: 08 3B B = MBAP 08 3B = Transaction ID – notice this matches the request = Protocol ID = 5 bytes follow from here 01 = slave ID = regular response to Modbus Read Input Registers 04 = Function Code 02 = byte count = Value in hex = 291 Decimal

22 TOP Server Modbus Suite Flexibility Protocols Supported Modbus RTU Serial Master and Slave Modbus ASCII Master Modbus Plus Modbus TCP Ethernet Master and Slave Flexible Settings for Non-Standard Modbus Zero or One-Based Addressing Holding Register Bit Mask Writes Specifying Function Code for Writes Data order manipulation

23 Live Demo Overview Modbus Protocol Specifics Modbus Types Modbus Terminology Modbus Quirks Example Modbus packets TOP Server Modbus Suite Flexibility Supported Protocols Dealing with Non-Standard Modbus Devices Live Modbus Demo Configuration Troubleshooting Using Quick Client Using Channel Diagnostics Questions?

24 Questions later? Kevin Rutherford x1326 TOP Server Modbus Suite (Info / Free Demo) Other learning opportunities Visit


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