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Seminar 2A 8:30AM-Noon April 10, 2007 EDUCAUSE Security Professionals Conference H. Morrow Long, CISSP, CISM, CEH Director - Information Security Yale.

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Presentation on theme: "Seminar 2A 8:30AM-Noon April 10, 2007 EDUCAUSE Security Professionals Conference H. Morrow Long, CISSP, CISM, CEH Director - Information Security Yale."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seminar 2A 8:30AM-Noon April 10, 2007 EDUCAUSE Security Professionals Conference H. Morrow Long, CISSP, CISM, CEH Director - Information Security Yale University Wireless Security for Mobile Devices

2 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 2 Copyright Notice Copyright H. Morrow Long This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non- commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.

3 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 3 Description A discussion of the security issues involved in a multitude of wireless data technologies including PPP over cellular, IEEE Cellular and Mobile Data (one way and two way pagers), IEEE a/b/g/i, WEP, WPA as well as IEEE 802.1X, WEP, WAPs WTLS, Bluetooth, ZigBee, CPDP, 1RTT, EVDO and SMS. A useful guide to the relative information security risks to an individual or organization involved in wireless data technologies including those used by pagers, cellphones, PDAs, assorted networked appliances and wireless WANS, LANS and PANs

4 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 4 Outside workshop scope: Private Mobile Radio Private Microwave Shortwave Radio IP DirectPC SkyDSL / Aloha Networks High Speed ISP Mobile Satellite data services Iridium (Motorola, et. al) GlobalStar (Qualcomm, Loral) Teledesic (Gates/McCaw) Digital cordless IrDA

5 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 5 Topics Introduction, History and Evolution of Wireless Data Terminology Definitions: Wireless Data Security Wireless Data Risks and Threats Pager Security Cellular Phone Security Analog Digital Wireless Data Security Non-IP Mobile Data Access Networks Wireless PANs / Pico-Nets Wireless LANs and VLANs / WiFi

6 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 6 Introduction Prediction for the Late 1990s Most people now carry a portable radio transceiver with a Touchtone keyboard. They have a wallet full of credit-card size overlays. When an individual is dialed, he can be reached in most parts of the country. The zones of radio in-accessibility are diminishing. It has been suggested that the public should be issued with transceivers that transmit their national identification number, even when switched off. These devices would help in controlling crime, which is still growing at an appalling rate. They would also be used in most financial transactions. - James Martin, 1971, Future Developments in Telecommunications, p. 355, Prentice Hall.

7 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 7 Introduction Workers connect wireless home LANs to the Internet at high speed. Workers set up office PCs to push data to PDAs over Internet. Senior US Government official told staff he wanted wireless access. They set up a demo of all kinds of reports and data availability. Turns out he just wanted an alphanumeric pager. INS considers a ban on the use of personal devices to hold data. Doctors are buying PDAs and putting notes & data on patients in them. Army Material Command giving senior managers Blackberry 2-way pagers. Pentagon issues a warning reminder that wireless LANs are not allowed in the Pentagon, nor may mobile wireless devices enter most DOD areas.

8 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 8 Mobile Wireless Voice – History Radio-telephones develop First wireless voice AM Radio – 1906 Commercial AM Radio Pitt PA – 1920 First FM broadcast – 1935 (FM is a big mobile radio help) Military walkie-talkies Two-way police radios – s Commercial RadioTelephone: MTS & IMTS s Private mobile radio services DC-NYC Metroliner phones – late 1960s CB Radios – 1970s 1G Cellular (Tokyo 1979, Sweden 1981, Chicago 1983)

9 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 9 Wireless Data – History and Evolution McClure's Magazine, February, 1902, pages : Marconis Achievement. Telegraphing Across The Ocean Without Wires.

10 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 10 Wireless Data – History and Evolution 1901 – First Transatlantic telegraph – Marconi Company 1920s commercial service – Marconi Company Mobile – 1908 Shipboard telegraph – Marconi Company Encrypted radiotelegraph messages Alohanet / Hawaii Radio WAN – 1970s TCP/IP over shortwave (Ham) radio – 1980s Cellular V.90 modems – 1990s PDAs and cellphones with digital wireless services $150 Wireless b Ethernet cards and base stations (Mobile Data + Mobile Internet + Internet) -> Supranet

11 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 11 Secure Wireless Data – History and Evolution Secure telephony over Radio A-3 – analog scrambling US/UK analog voice privacy system in use at WWII start Broken by Germans early in WWII, real time decryption

12 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 12 Secure Wireless Data – History and Evolution Secure telephony over Radio SIGSALY Secure Digital Voice Communications First useful use of : –Companded PCM encoding of voice (vocoder – BTL ) –Enciphered telephony, quantized speech transmission –Speech bandwidth compression –Spread Spectrum technology –multilevel Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) and FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex) as a viable transmission method over a fading medium –Weighted 90 tons, ocupied a large room. –Special phongraph records contained a secret key masking voices with white noise –Germans monitored but never broke the system –Declassified in US (BTL, DOD), UK (Turing)

13 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 13 Secure Wireless Data – History and Evolution Alan Turing

14 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 14 Secure Wireless Data – History and Evolution Spread spectrum radio transmission Actress Hedy Lamarr and composer George Antheil. Patent 2,292,387 given to DOD, Declassified in mid-1980s. Designed to defeat interception and jamming of sub signals to torpedo by sending multiple coded signals on different frequencies in random pattern.

15 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 15 Secure Wireless Data – History and Evolution Secure telephony over Radio – Other WWII methods Navaho code-talkers 1st Marine Division Ballarat 7 July 1943 Photog: Ashman Private First Class Preston Toledo (left) and Private First Class Frank Toledo, cousins and Navajos, attached to a Marine Artillery Regiment in the South Pacific will relay orders over a field radio in their native tongue. OFFICIAL U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO USMC #57875 (Paraphrased caption)http://bingaman.senate.gov/code_talkers/men/127-MN-57875/127-mn html

16 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 16 Wireless – Terminology Definition AMPS DAMPS TDMA CDMA GSM PCS ISP 1G 2G 2.5G 3G Dual-mode Tri-mode SIM GPS Spread- spectrum Frequency Hopping

17 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 17 Wireless Data – Terminology Definition CDPD PPP EVDO GPRS Portal WLAN W-VLAN WAP Web-clipping PQA – Palm Query App IEEE a IEEE b IEEE 802.1x IEEE e IEEE g Bluetooth HomeRF Jini

18 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 18 Wireless Data Security– Terminology Definition VPN Supranet Internet internet intranet extranet ISP PPP CHAP mode Firewall WEP SSL / TLS WTLS Encryption Authentication PKI LDAP Certificate

19 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 19 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Business Needs for Wireless Data Security Financial / m-commerce Enable Telecommuting for employees Secure current insecure applications (alerts, remote administration) Provide remote access to important internal information resources (e.g. ) Monitoring/Controlling sensitive and/or important real-world devices (sensors)

20 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 20 Wireless Data Risks and Threats – CIA / AAA /etc Confidentiality - Data Exposure Integrity - Data Modification/Tampering Availability - Denial of Service to Data/Resources Authentication - Identification vs Spoofing Authorization - Appropriate Access Control Accounting - Theft of Service (cloning, wireless ISP) M-commerce - Fraudulent transactions, CC # theft Malicious Software – Trojan Horses, Viruses, Worms, etc. Personal Privacy - Location exposure (new 911 law, GPS) Physical theft of device

21 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 21 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Confidentiality Sniffing / Eavesdropping / Interception from the air Sniffing / Eavesdropping / Interception at endpoint Via Compromise of mobile/wireless device Via Compromise of base station (cell tower / GSM POP) Stolen devices – stored data Stolen devices – use of keys & secrets for access Brute Force Decryption / Cryptanalysis Replay Attack

22 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 22 Alternatives to wireless data service provider encryption Secure corporate or partner portals SSL Web servers / Secure ASPs WTLS WAP servers Secured Applications (SSLized IMAP/POP) Secure Remote Access (Term/File xfer) SSH, Secure Telnet/FTP, FTP over SSL Multiuser NT/W2K (w/WinCE MS Term Srvr Client) Remote Console: CC, PCA, Timbukto, VNC PGP Encrypted Files for transfer over insecure links/

23 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 23 Wireless Data Risks and Threats – Integrity – Data/etc Modification Tampering with intercepted data in transit Tampering with stored data Tampering with keys & secrets for access Tampering with device identification credentials Tampering with device applications (programs) Replay Attack

24 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 24 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Availability Denial of Service via Signal Jamming (e.g. Israeli device) Netline C-Guard Cellular Firewall Non-malicious man-made problems Natural Disasters in cell areas

25 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 25 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Authentication - Identification Spoofing data in transit – Man in the middle Spoofing the endpoints Cloning analog phones Impersonating servers (e.g. m-commerce web servers or WAP servers) Cellphone credentials ID #s Phone #s GSM SIM cards User credentials PINs, Passwords, X.509 Certificates, Smartcards

26 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 26 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Authorization – Access Control Allowing a user or device access to a: Application Network Resource (file, printer, fax) E.g., Cellular phone companies authorize devices/users for access to their networks: Roaming Long distance calls Local calls 911 calls

27 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 27 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Accounting Theft of Service: Via cloning Via theft of wireless ISP access credentials Via theft of physical device Via compromise of base station / networked servers / etc. Via fraudulent registration with carrier or ISP

28 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 28 Wireless Data Risks and Threats M-Commerce Fraudulent transactions Credit Card number theft At WAP WTLS gateway At Web server endpoint At mobile device endpoint Other account (customer/employee/vendor) theft.

29 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 29 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Cellphone Malicious Software & WAP browsers too dumb to infect? Other push and pull content methods PIM synch First Cellphone Virus Hoax – Mobile Phone Virus Hoax – May 18, 1999 No Known Cellphone Malicious Software First Cellphone Messaging Attack – Spanish SMS

30 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 30 Mobile Phone Virus Hoax Dear all mobile phone's owners, ATTENTION!!! NOW THERE IS A VIRUS ON MOBILE PHONE SYSTEM.. All mobile phone in DIGITAL system can be infected by this virus..If you receive a phone call and your phone display "UNAVAILABLE" on the screen (for most of digital mobile phones with a function to display in-coming call telephone number), DON'T ANSWER THE CALL. END THE CALL IMMEDIATELY!!!BECAUSE IF YOU ANSWER THE CALL, YOUR PHONE WIL L BE INFECTED BY THIS VIRUS.. This virus will erase all IMIE and IMSI information from both your phone & your SIM card which will make your phone unable to connect with the telephone network. You will have to buy a new phone. This information has been confirmed by both Motorola and Nokia.. For more information, please visit Motorola or Nokia web sites: or There are over 3 million mobile phone being infected by this virus in USA now. You can also check this news in CNN web site: Please forward this information to all your friends who have digital mobile phones..

31 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 31 Mobilevirus Hoax – 3/19/2001 VIRUSINFORMATION VARNING !!!! Följande har hänt: Om din mobiltelefon ringer och det blinker: !?UNAVAILABLE!? på displayen. SÅ SVARA INTE. Din telefonen blir angripen av ett virus, som raderar alla IMIE och IMSI informationer, både från telefonen och SIM-kortet. Och då finns det bara en sak att göra, just det - köpa en ny telefon. Både Motorola och Nokia har bekräftat denne information. I USA har detta virus förstört 3 miljoner mobiltelefoner. VB DENNA TILL ALLA DU KÄNNER SOM HAR MOBILTELEFON.

32 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 32 PDA/Cellphone Malicious Software Clients and Web browsers Other push and pull content methods PDA PIM synch First PDA Virus Hoax – Hairy Palms 10/12/97 First PDA Malicious Software: Palm.Liberty.A8/28/00Trojan Horse Palm.Vapor9/22/00Trojan Horse Palm.Phage.Dropper 9/22/00Computer Virus PDA Anti-Virus Software Palm: Symantec, McAfee, CA, Trend, F-Secure EPOC: McAfee, F-SecurePocketPC: McAfee

33 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 33 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Personal Privacy Location exposure: Passive roaming transmit cellphone #ID continously in cell area. This method is used to track down fugitives today. Reg 911. New E911 law requirement and methods require greater accuracy: Triangulation within cell area – TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) AOA – Angle of Arrival (CDMA near-far problem as with TDOA) Location Pattern Matching GPS – Global Positioning System -- is one method likely to be used as well as included inside mobile wireless devices. Under user privacy control. Caller-ID / ANI / *69 Physical theft of device – stored data / credentials / etc. Phone card / Credit card numbers / PINs, Passwords, etc. Traffic Analysis – called #s recorded on mobile device

34 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 34 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Physical theft of device Loss / Destruction of mobile device Loss / Destruction of data: Sensitive business records secret access credentials Compromise/Abuse of secret access credentials Fraudulent use of mobile device True replacement cost of mobile device, new device + : Damage assessment – exposure of business data Replacing data Securing secret access credentials

35 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 35 Wireless Data Risks and Threats Reverse Tunneling Utilizing a VPN tunnel or other trusted connection to connect back to or burrow through to the users enterprise network and computer resources (if you can steal the device or hijack the connection) This is a particular Blackberry worry. Carpal Tunneling Also a particular Blackberry worry….

36 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 36 Pager Technologies and Security Typically low data rate, insecure, one-way short messages. Powerful ground transmitter networks. In CT and NY individuals are actively listening on pager traffic (PIs, news organizations, etc.). Dont use for anything private as there is no encryption. One Way POCSAG - Post Office Code Standardization Advisory Group – bps – 2400bps. ERMES – 1995 – International Standard FLEX (Motorola) Two Way reFLEX (Motorola) Mobitex (2 way paging and mobile data)

37 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 37 Zero G 0G PTT MTS IMTS AMTS OLT MTD Autotel/PALM ARP

38 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 38 One G 1G NMT AMPS/TACS/ETACS Hicap CDPD Mobitex DataTac

39 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 39 Cellular Techology and Standards 1G – 1 st Generation - Analog AMPS (US) 800Mhz (UHF) FM used NAMPS UK: TACS (1982), ETACS (1985) Japan: NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) – 1979 Data transmission is unreliable and 9.6kbps or less.

40 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 40 Two G 2G GSM iDEN D-AMPS IS-95/cdmaOne PDC CSD PHS GPRS HSCSD WiDEN CDMA2000 1xRTT/IS-2000 EDGE (EGPRS)

41 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 41 Cellular Techology and Standards 2G- 2 nd Generation – Digital PDC (Japan) Pacific Digital Cellular TDMA/FDMA GSM (World-wide) USDC (North American TDMA Cellular, aka US Digital Cellular) Dual-mode 800Mhz DAMPS: IS-54 (1992), IS-136 (1996) CDMA/FDMA IS-95 (CDMAone 1993) Dual-mode 800Mhz

42 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 42 Cellular Techology and Standards 2G- 2 nd Generation – Digital Cellular PCS – (Personal Communiations Services) 1.9 Ghz PCS is a misnomer, but was supposed to be for a different type of coverage range and/or service than cellular phone service. TDMA/FDMA DCS-1900 – Upbanded GSM J-STD-011 – Upbanded USDC CDMA/FDMA J-STD-008 – Upbanded CDMA Data rates from 9.6kbps to 14.4kbps. Slow.

43 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 43 Cellular Techology and Standards 2.5G- 2 1/2 Generation – Digital Cellular Enhanced HSCSD (High Speed Circuit-Switched Data) 38.4kbps GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) 144kbps EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) 384kbps

44 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 44 Three G 3G W-CDMA UMTS (3GSM) FOMA TD-CDMA/UMTS-TDD 1xEV-DO/IS-856 TD-SCDMA GAN (UMA) HSPA HSDPA HSUPA HSPA+ HSOPA)

45 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 45 Cellular Techology and Standards 3G- 3 rd Generation – Digital Next Generation 3GPP – UMTS/UTRA, WCDMA, ARIB UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecom System European implementation of IMT2000 standard WCDMA – Wide band CDMA (NTT Japan) CDMA CDMA2000 (US) Data rates from 144kbps to 2000kbps.

46 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 46 Four G 4G UMB 3GPP2 Project based on IS-95/CMDA (e.g CDMA2000) UMTS Revision 8 (LTE) 3GPP Project based on evolved GSM (UTMS) WiMAX

47 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 47 Cellular Techology and Standards - 4th Generation UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) OFDMA technology 3GPP2 CDMA200 upgrades brand name 280 Mbits/sec downstream, 75 Mbits up Std in 2007, commercialization in IP based -- but supports voice cell calls Interoperable with 1x and 1XEV-DO

48 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 48 Cellular Techology and Standards - 4th Generation UMTS Revision 8 (LTE) - 3GPP Long Term Evolution E-UTRA OFDMA down, SC-FDMA uplink 3GPP GMS/UTMS upgrades name - AKA SC- FDMA) 100 Mbits/sec downstream, 50 Mbits up Std in 2007, commercialization in IP based -- voice cell to WiMAX & UMB? Interoperable with GMS/GPRS or W-CDMA- based UMTS - WRT mobility hand-offs

49 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 49 Cellular Techology and Standards - 4th Generation WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access IEEE standard AKA WirelessMAN 100 Theoretical 70 Mbits (distance related) Kilometres radius IEEE e-2005 is called Mobile WiMax

50 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 50 Cellular Techology Security GSM has been criticized for cryptographic insecurity. It is a non-open, licensed system. In 1999 Adi Shamir and Alex Biryukov deciphered GSM A5/1. The SDA (SmartCard Developers Assn.), Ian Goldberg and David Wagner of UC Berkeley cloned a SIM card in 1998 (broke Comp128): Data rates from 10Mbps to 150Mbps!

51 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 51 GPRS Security GPRS - Global General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) 2.5G Packet-switched Mobile Data Service Built on GSM and IS-136 Uses GSM security. Superceded oler GSM CSD (Circuit Switched Data) Superceded by EGPRS (Edge GPRS) 200+ Kbps vs Kbps

52 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 52 1XRTT and EVDO EV-DO - Evolution Data Optimized Built on CDMA - 1x data available w/CDMA 1xRTT 50 Kbps-100 Kbps - burst to 144Kbps # EVDO Rev 0 400kbps-700kbps Download, bursts up to 2.0Mbps, 50kbps-100kbps Upload Speed, bursts to 144Kbps. # EVDO Rev A 450Kbps-800Kbps Download, bursts to 3.0Mbps, 300Kbps-400Kbps Upload Speed, bursts to 1.8Mbps. Uses CDMA built-in encryption / security.

53 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 53 Cellular Techology / Mobile Data SMS – Short Message Service Similar to paging Small text messages Encryption is supported NTT DoCoMo iMode

54 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 54 Cellular Techology / Mobile Data WAP – Wireless Application Protocol 4 or 5 line text menus in microbrowser Designed for use of numeric keypad on cellphones called Internet-enabled phones. Mobile Web: HTML/HDML/XML/WML files converted at WAP gateway. WTLS (Wireless Transport Level Security) provides single leg vs. end-to-end security using ECC (less cpu intensive), not RSA encryption. Uses X.509v3 certificates from root Trust CAs

55 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 55 Mobile Data Techology and Standards Public Packet Data Networks (WAN Tech) 19.2kbps – Ardis, RAM, CDPD 128kbps – Metricom (circuit-switched) Used by paging and wireless data services: RIM (Research in Motion) Blackberry AT&T Wireless Verizon Palm.net OmniSky

56 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 56 Mobile Data Techology Public Packet Data Networks (WAN Tech) Motorola DataTAC and ASTROs EDACS (Ericsson Enhanced Digital Access Communications System) TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) – Europe. Used by : Fedex US Govt Private companies who build their own mobile data networks.

57 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 57 Mobile Data Device Security Palm NotSync utility demonstrated an attack on the Palm via the use of the IR port to attempt to sync with the Palm. The Sync could be hijacked and important information (e.g. password) obtained. Any time you are beaming from a Palm you must be careful about any devices in IR range.

58 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 58 Blackberry Security Has message level security between BB & BES (Blackberry Enterprise Server) but not on Internet. Only allows signed applications to run - but these could infect & compromise.. Such an application could be used as a backdoor/proxy into enterprise networks. It could also read and send , SMS and Internet traffic. DISABLE the CAPABILITY TO INSTALL & RUN 3-rd Party Applications.

59 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 59 Wireless Data Tech and Standards Wide/Metro Area PPP over Cellular Analog (AMPS) – 9.6kbps Digital (US CDMA)– 14.kbps CDPD – 19.2kbps Metricom Richochet modem– provides encryption! Wireless ISPs for high speed access Several hundred kbps to several megabits per second Proprietary MAN technologies Native American Reservation high speed Internet access WiMax - 20 to 30 KM at 70 Megabits/sec.

60 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 60 PAN (Personal Area Network) Standards PAN/piconet networks PCs, printers, peripherals, applicances in a very small (10 – 20) personal area network. Meant as wire/cable replacements. Wireless LAN Technology Bluetooth (IEEE ) HomeRF Middleware: Jini – Sun Microsystems Java – provides authentication and security

61 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 61 1, 10 and 100 metre versions. Uses 2.4Ghz freq range. Bluetooth uses custom algorithms based on the SAFER+ block cipher for authentication and key derivation. The E22 algorithm.is used for initialization and master key generation. Encryption is via the E0 stream cipher. PINs have been cracked/hacked. Encryption to be upgraded. Bluetooth 3 to use UMB.

62 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 62 Bluetooth Security Threats Bluejacking - sending messages to Bluetooth-enabled devices. Bluesnarfing - stealing info from a Bluetooth device (contacts/addressbook) Bluestumbling - discovering and cataloging Bluetooth devices Buebugging controlling anothers device Bluetooth rifle can be used up to 1 mile to receive signal..

63 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 63 ZigBee (AKA HomeRF lite) 250 Kbps at up to 30 meters. Uses the 2.4GHz radio band - ala b/g and 868/915 MHz. HomeRF Lite plus the specification. AKA PURLnet, RF-Lite, Firefly & HomeRF Lite. CSMA/CA in varied topologies up to 50 metres Low Power

64 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 64

65 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 65 Summary and Unresolved Issues Wireless data over digitally encrypted channels (e.g. US CDMA) is better security in general than over analog un-encrypted. No encryption nor security mechanism is 100% secure. You need to assess risk threats and evaluate tradeoffs. For sensitive/critical data you should use end- to-end protection: either encrypted applications (e.g. SSL) or VPNs (or both) over wireless networks even those with digital encryption.

66 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 66 Questions?

67 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 67 Additional Resources 3G Wireless FAQ Official Bluetooth SIG Website: HomeRF Working Group, Inc. IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee: Wireless Application Protocol Forum Ltd.:

68 2007/04/10 EDUCAUSE 2007 Security Professionals Conference Sem 2A Wireless Security for Mobile Devices 68 Questions


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