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Thyristor Shawn Standfast. About Thyristors Thyristors can take many forms but they all have certain aspects in common Act as Solid-State Switches Become.

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Presentation on theme: "Thyristor Shawn Standfast. About Thyristors Thyristors can take many forms but they all have certain aspects in common Act as Solid-State Switches Become."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thyristor Shawn Standfast

2 About Thyristors Thyristors can take many forms but they all have certain aspects in common Act as Solid-State Switches Become low impedance current paths when triggered Remain on until input current drops below minimum threshold holding level Once triggered, most devices remain on even if trigger signal is removed

3 SCR Structure Most devices typically consist of four alternating layers of P-type and N-type materials Exact structure depends on the type of device Simplest form is the Semiconductor Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Current flows into one leg of the device (shown here as base terminal for the NPN device) and is amplified by the gain of the transistors Thyristor Theory and Design Considerations, On-Semiconductor ©2005

4 About Thyristors SCR space charge regions prior to reverse break-down Junctions 1 and 3 are forward biased while junction 2 is reverse biased As Avalanche breakdown begins of the J2 junction, the n1 region becomes more negative which increases V1 & V3 Device is capable of blocking voltages up to the reverse breakdown voltage of the J2 P-N junction Typical voltage ratings can vary between 50V to over 1KV Semiconductor Physics and Devices, Neamen, (c) 2003

5 About Thyristors SCR device in the low- impedance, ON state Common Base current gains α1 and α2 have increased to unity gain and regeneration occurs Both transistors are driven into saturation Device Latches into the on state Semiconductor Physics and Devices, Neamen, (c) 2003

6 I-V curve Thyristor Theory and Design Considerations, On-Semiconductor ©2005 Increasing the gate current results in lower reverse voltage required to enter breakdown Typically device turn-off requires removal of external current source.

7 Thyristor Limitations dI/dT limits – Because these device switch rather slowly, turn-on results in large instantaneous power dissipation unevenly distributed in the device which can lead to failure dV/dT limits – because of the internal capacitance of the J2 junction, fast voltage changes can lead to large collector currents, initiating device turn-on Noise sensitivity Thermal stability

8 TRIACs TRIAC – Triode for Alternating Current Two SCRs in Anti-Parallel Creates a four-Quadrant Switch Used to switch Bi-Polar signals

9 About Triacs In quadrants 1 and 2, MT2 is positive, and current flows from MT2 to MT1 through P, N, P and N layers. The N region attached to MT2 does not participate significantly. In quadrants 3 and 4, MT2 is negative, and current flows from MT1 to MT2, also through P, N, P and N layers. The N region attached to MT2 is active, but the N region attached to MT1 only participates in the initial triggering, not the bulk current flow. In most applications, the gate current comes from MT2, so quadrants 1 and 3 are the only operating modes.

10 Typical Applications of SCRs and Traics Over-Voltage protection Crow-bar protection devices Synchronous rectification Power Control

11 Other types of Thyristor Devices BCT Bidirectional Control Thyristor A bidirectional switching device containing two thyristor structures with separate gate contacts BOD Breakover Diode A gateless thyristor triggered by avalanche currentDiode DIAC Bidirectional trigger device DIAC GTO Gate Turn-Off thyristor GTO ETO Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor [9] ETO [9] LASCR Light-activated SCR, or LTT light-triggered thyristor MOS-controlled thyristorMOS-controlled thyristor (MCT) MOSFET Controlled Thyristor It contains two additional FET structures for on/off control.FET BRT Base Resistance Controlled Thyristor


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