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I/O Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "I/O Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 I/O Systems

2 Outline I/O Hardware Application I/O Interface Kernel I/O Subsystem
Transforming I/O Requests to Hardware Operations Streams Performance

3 I/O Hardware There is incredible variety of I/O devices
There are shared common concepts Device communicates with system using a connection point Port Bus (daisy chain or shared direct access) Controller (host adapter) Handshake between CPU and device controller done with polling/interrupts Offloading to DMA for large I/O Device-registers (control, state, data) accessible via the controller of device allow a computer to control a device I/O instructions control devices Devices have addresses, used by Direct I/O instructions Memory-mapped I/O

4 A Typical PC Bus Structure

5 Device I/O Port Locations on PCs (partial)

6 Polling Computer system determines state of device using
Interrupts Polling determines state of device using certain commands command-ready bit Busy bit Error bit Command register Data in/out registers Busy-wait cycle to wait for I/O from device

7 Interrupts CPU’s Interrupt Request Line is triggered by I/O device, and CPU checks after each instruction, and device sets interrupt address Device raises interrupt CPU catches interrupt and dispatches it Handler clears the interrupt Interrupt handler receives interrupts Maskable to ignore or delay some interrupts Interrupt vector to dispatch interrupt to correct handler Based on priority Some unmaskable Chaining of handlers Interrupt mechanism also used for exceptions

8 Interrupt-Driven I/O Cycle

9 Intel Pentium Processor Event-Vector Table

10 Direct Memory Access Used to avoid programmed I/O for large data movement Requires DMA controller Bypasses CPU to transfer data directly between I/O device and memory CPU writes DMA control block DMA controller interacts with device using DMA-request raised by device to signal the DMA controller that device has data DMA-acknowledge raised by DMA to tell device to put data on data bus

11 Six Step Process to Perform DMA Transfer

12 Application I/O Interface
I/O system calls encapsulate device behaviors in generic classes Device-driver layer hides differences among I/O device controllers from kernel Devices vary in many dimensions Character-stream or block Sequential or random-access Sharable or dedicated Speed of operation read-write, read only, or write only

13 A Kernel I/O Structure

14 Characteristics of I/O Devices

15 Block and Character Devices
Block devices include disk drives Commands include read, write, seek Raw I/O (device is viewed as a linear array of logical blocks) or file-system access Memory-mapped file access possible Executing a program can be done with memory-mapping of the executable to VM Character devices include keyboards, mice, serial ports Commands include get, put Libraries layered on top allow line editing

16 Network Devices Varying enough from block and character to have own interface Unix and Windows NT/9x/2000 include socket interface Similar to electric sockets Local and remote sockets and connecting them with addresses Separates network protocol from network operation Includes select functionality that manage a set of sockets and inform the CPU which socket have data or are ready to accept more data Approaches vary widely pipes, FIFOs, streams, queues, mailboxes

17 Clocks and Timers Provide current time, elapsed time, timer
Programmable Interval Timer can be used for implementing timers (via periodic interrupts) OS can implement many timers using a single Programmable timer ioctl (on UNIX) covers odd aspects of I/O such as clocks and timers

18 Blocking and Nonblocking I/O
Blocking - process suspended until I/O completed Easy to use and understand Insufficient for some needs Nonblocking - I/O call returns as much data as available User interface, data copy (buffered I/O) Implemented via multi-threading Returns quickly with count of bytes read or written Asynchronous - process runs while I/O executes Difficult to use I/O subsystem signals process when I/O completed

19 Kernel I/O Subsystem Scheduling to improve performance
Some I/O request ordering via per-device queue Some OSs try fairness Buffering - store data in memory while transferring between devices To cope with device speed mismatch To cope with device transfer size mismatch To maintain “copy semantics” To allow programmer to overwrite user I/O buffer as soon as I/O command returns, without having to worry about when data have been output to the device Can also be implemented with VM and copy-on-write

20 Sun Enterprise 6000 Device-Transfer Rates

21 Kernel I/O Subsystem Caching - fast memory holding copy of data
Always just a copy Key to performance Sometimes can be used together with buffering Spooling - hold output for a device If device can serve only one request at a time i.e., printers, tape drives, etc Device reservation - provides exclusive access to a device System calls for allocation and deallocation of devices Watch out for deadlocks

22 Error Handling OS can recover from disk read, device unavailable, transient write failures Most return an error number or code when I/O request fails System error logs hold problem reports

23 Kernel Data Structures
Kernel keeps state info for I/O components, including open file tables, network connections, character device state Many, many complex data structures to track buffers, memory allocation, “dirty” blocks, etc Some use object-oriented methods and message passing to implement I/O

24 UNIX I/O Kernel Structure

25 From I/O Requests to Hardware Operations
Consider reading a file from disk for a process: Determine device holding file Translate name to device representation Physically read data from disk into buffer Make data available to requesting process Return control to process

26 Life Cycle of An I/O Request

27 STREAMS STREAM – a full-duplex communication channel between a user-level process and a device A STREAM consists of: STREAM head that interfaces with the user process using read/write or get/put message in a synchronous manner driver end that interfaces with the device and zero or more STREAM modules between them, that communicate via message passing in asynchronous manner Each module contains a read queue and a write queue Message passing is used to communicate between queues, and may implement flow control STREAMs provide a modular and incremental approach to developing device drivers and protocols

28 The STREAMS Structure

29 Performance I/O is a major factor in system performance:
Demands CPU to execute device driver, kernel I/O code Context switches due to interrupts Data copying Network traffic especially stressful

30 Intercomputer Communications

31 Improving Performance
Reduce number of context switches Reduce data copying Reduce interrupts by using large transfers smart controllers polling Use DMA Balance CPU, memory, bus, and I/O performance for highest throughput But where should I/O functionality be implemented? User process? Kernel? Device driver? Device controller?

32 Device-Functionality Progression

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