4NMOS Structure Source: the terminal that provides charge carriers. LD is caused by side diffusionSubstrate contact--toreverse bias the pn junctionConnect to most negative supply voltagein most circuits.Source: the terminal that provides charge carriers.(electrons in NMOS)Drain: the terminal that collects charge carriers.
5Short-Channel MOSFETs Subthreshold CharacteristicsAlthough no current should ideally conduct before threshold, a small percentage of electrons with energy greater than or equal to a few kT have sufficient energy to surmount the potential barriers!As a result, there is a slight amount of current conduction below VT
6Short-Channel MOSFETs Potential contours in a long channel MOSFET.In a long channel MOSFET, the potential is uniform and parallel to the gate.
7Short-Channel MOSFETs Narrow Width EffectIf the Polysilicon gate is atop the region of a LOCOS isolation where the oxide is increasing in thickness.It is possible to form a channel under LOCOS away from the thin gate oxide! This is quite important for devices with L < 1 mm.
8CMOS Structure PMOS NMOS Connect to most positive supply voltage in most circuits.Reverse bias the pn junctionReverse bias the pn junctionPMOSNMOS
9MOS IV Characteristics Threshold VoltageDerivation of I/V CharacteristicsI-V curveTransconductanceResistance in the linear regionSecond Order EffectBody EffectChannel Length ModulationSubthreshold conduction
10Threshold Voltage 1. Holes are expelled from the gate area Depletion region (negative ions) is created underneath the gate.No current flows because no charge carriers are available.
11MOSFET as a variable resistor The conductive channel between S and D can be viewedas resistor, which is voltage dependent.
12Threshold Voltage (3)When the surface potential increases to a critical value, inversion occurs.No further change in the width of the depletion region is observed.A thin layer of electrons in the depletion region appear underneath the oxide.A continuous n-type (hence the name inversion) region is formed between the source and the drain. Electrons can no be sourced from S and be collected at the drain terminal. (Current, however, flows from drain to source)Further increase in VG will fruther incrase the charge density.The voltage VG required to provide an inversion layer is called the threshold voltage.
13Implantation of p+ dopants to alter the threshold Threshold voltage can be adjusted by implantingDopants into the channel area during fabrication.E.g. Implant p+ material to increase threshold voltage.
14Formation of Inversion Layer in a PFET The VGS must be sufficient negative to produce an inversion layer underneath the gate.
16Channel Charge A channel is formed when VG is increased to the point that the voltage difference between the gate andthe channel exceeds VTH.
17Application of VDSWhat happens when you introduce a voltage at the drain terminal?
18Channel Potential Variation E.g. VS=0, VG=0.6, VD=0.6At x=0, VG-VX=0.6 (more than VTH)At x=L, VG-VX=0 (less than VTH)VG-VX is reduced as youmove from S to D.VX the voltage along the channelVX increases as you move from S to D.
19Pinch Off Small VDS Saturation Region Large VDS LinearRegionSmall VDSSaturationRegionLarge VDSElectrons reaches the Dvia the electric field in thedepletion regionNo channel
20MOSFET as a controlled linear resistor Take derivative of ID with respect to VDSFor small VDS, the drain resistance is
21Transistor in Saturation Region I-V characteristicsTransconductanceOutput resistanceBody transconductance
26Channel Length Modulation As VDS increases, L1 will move towards the source, sincea larger VDS will increase VX .L is really L1ID will increase as VDS increases.The modulation of L due to VDS is called channel length modulation.
27Controlling channel modulation For a longer channel length, the relative change in L andHence ID for a given change in VDS is smaller.Therefore, to minimize channel length modulation, minimumlength transistors should be avoided.
31Detector zoology l [mm] X-ray Visible NIR MIR Silicon CCD & CMOS 0.3 188.8.131.5220HgCdTeInSbSTJ0.1Si:AsIn principle, an STJ is sensitive to radiation from the X-rays to the sub-millimeter regime. In practice, however, the simultaneous spectral range is limited by the different techniques required to collect and focus celestial radiation at different energies. The short wavelength cut-off of an optical/UV STJ device is set by the substrate material upon which the STJ is deposited and illuminated through. For the favored substrates of magnesium fluoride or sapphire, these cutoffs occur at about 115 nm and 145 nm respectively - i.e. in the far-UV well below the ~310 nm transmission cutoff of the atmosphere. The long wavelength limit of the STJ detector is set by the point at which the weak charge signal from low energy photons become lost in the thermal background signal from the telescope and surroundings, which typically occurs in the near-IR at wavelengths above a few micron. Hence an STJ-based instrument could be made to simultaneously cover nearly the entire optical and near-IR optical window open to ground-based observation. Its space-based counterpart would simultaneously cover more than a decade in wavelength, spanning the complete far-UV through near-IR region of the spectrum.In this course, we concentrate on 2-D focal plane arrays.Optical – silicon-based (CCD, CMOS)Infrared – IR material plus silicon CMOS multiplexerWill not address: APD (avalanche photodiodes)STJs (superconducting tunneling junctions)
32Step 2: Charge Generation Silicon CCDSimilar physics for IR materials
33CCD IntroductionA CCD is a two-dimensional array of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors.The charges are stored in the depletion region of the MOS capacitors.Charges are moved in the CCD circuit by manipulating the voltages on the gates of the capacitors so as to allow the charge to spill from one capacitor to the next (thus the name “charge-coupled” device).An amplifier provides an output voltage that can be processed.The CCD is a serial device where charge packets are read one at a time.
37CCD output circuitThis is the corner of the CCD where the output transistor is, on modern CCDs you usually get one of these in each corner, so you can move charge in different parts of the chip in different directions to speed up this process by a factor four. Charge is shifted through the output diode into a capacitor, this is measured by measuring a voltage change on the output from the readout transistor. The capacitor is then reset by the reset transistor.
38Charge Transfer Efficiency When the wells are nearly empty, charge can be trapped by impurities in the silicon. So faint images can have tails in the vertical direction.Modern CCDs can have a charge transfer efficiency (CTE) per transfer of , so after 2000 transfers only 0.1% of the charge is lost.Charge can be trapped as you read it out, although with modern buried channel CCDs this is much less of a problems than it used to be.good CTEbad CTE38
39These are some examples of publicity colour images from MegaCam, of course a CCD is not a colour camera, so these are colour composite images (separate RGB).Stop here Tuesday
40Threshold Voltage VG=0.6 V VD=1.2 V CMOS: 0.13 um W/L=12um/0.12 um NFET
44gm as function of region 0.13 um NMOSVGS=0.6 VW/L=12um/0.12 umVB=VS=0Y axis: gmX axis: vdssaturationlinear
45gds 0.13 um NMOS VGS=0.6 V W/L=12um/0.12 um Slope due to VB=VS=0 Y axis: gmX axis: vdsSlope due tochannel lengthmodulationsaturationlinear
46Body EffectThe n-type inversion layer connects the source to the drain.The source terminal is connected to channel. Therefore,A nonzero VSB introduces charges to the Cdep.The math is shown in the next slide.A nonzero VSB for NFET or VBS for PFET has the net effectOf increasing the |VTH|
49Subthreshold current Subtreshold region As VG increases, the surface potential will increase.There is very little majority carriersunderneath the gate.There are two pn junctions. (B-S and B-D)The density of the minority carrierdepends on the difference in thevoltage across the two pn junction diode.A diffusion current will result the electron densitiesat D and S are not identical.
50Conceptual Visualization of Saturation and Triode(Linear) Region NMOSPMOS
51I-V Characteristic Equations for NMOS transistor To produce a channel (VGS>VTH)(Triode Region:VDS<VGS-VTH)Saturation: VDS>VGS-VTH
52VTH as a function of VSB Body effect coefficient VSB dependent (VTH0: with out body effect)
53Sensitivity of IDS to VSB gm(chain rule)η=1/3 to 1/4, bias dependent