7School Survival Skills Interacts with adults and peers.Initiates interactions with adults and peers.Makes choices from visible and invisible references.Demonstrates turn taking in small groups.Demonstrates appropriate attention getting strategies.Expresses ideas to others.Communicates with peers and adults.Asks questions of others.Vincent, Lisabeth J.; Christine Salisbury, Gail Walter, Pansy Brown, Lee J. Gruenewald and Michael Powers, “Instructional Design for the Severely Handicapped,” W. Sailor, B Wilcox, and L. Brown (Eds.), Brookes Publishers, June 1980
8Preschool Classroom Environments that Promote Communication Interesting materialsOut of reach objects/materialsInadequate portionsChoice makingAssistanceSabotageSilly situationsFrom Ostrosky, M. and Kaiser, Ann. Preschool Classroom Environments That Promote Communication, Teaching Exceptional Children, 1991Does this just apply to preschool?
9They are actively engaged They are having fun! People Learn Best WhenThey are motivatedThey are actively engagedThey are having fun!
10The Questions: What does the individual enjoy doing? What do others her/his age enjoy doing?
11What is your student’s motivation to communicate? A think about …What is your student’s motivationto communicate?
15Quote by Jane Korsten, AT Expert I just figured out how many hours a typically developing infant is awake and exposed to language via the spoken symbol before they begin to use the spoken symbol expressively at around months of age. If you then look at a child with an AAC system who only gets exposure to his system 2 times a week for 20 minutes with the SLP, it will take him 84 years to have experience commensurate with the typically developing child. Taking that a bit further, we don't say language is in it's 'adult form' until between 9-12 years of age. That means that for that length of time, a typically developing child is practicing using the spoken symbol, getting feedback and correction from listeners, seeing it modeled over and over.... now you look at the child with a device who only gets access to the system twice a week for 20 minutes with the SLP - it will take him 701 years to have the same amount of experience as his typically developing counter part.... and all of this assumes that no one is ever sick or takes a vacation.... So when no one wants to use a device until it is 'mastered'.... in therapy..... hmmmm... what IS wrong with this picture... One might assume that an atypical developer might need MORE time to practice, NOT less time...
17Natural Language Development Brown’s stages of language development:Single WordsTwo-Word PhrasesTwo-Three Word Phrases & SentencesWhy would we expect an AAC user to develop differently?Vocabulary Acquisition Studies:9-13 words per day from age 1½ - 63 year old vocabulary: over 1000 words5 year old: up to 3000 words
18106 Most Frequently Used Words InterjectionsQuestion Wordsyes nothank you pleaseokaywhat whenwhere whowhy howPronounsAdjectivesI meyouhe sheit wetheyall morebig littlehot coldsame differentprettynew oldright wrongPam Elder, 1992
19106 Most Frequently Used Words Verbs (helping verbs)be am is arecan could do didhave had was werewill wouldVerbsask buy call cleancome eat feel findget give go helpknow like look makeneed put remember saystart take tell thinktry turn use wantwish work
20106 Most Frequently Used Words PrepositionsAdverbsabout atfor ofup downon offto fromin outwithnot nowhere theremuch veryDemonstrativesConjunctionsthis thatand butif because
22I don’t know where to start. What words do I teach first? Teach the first words children learnWordsINoYes/yeamythewantisitthatagomineyouwhatoninheremoreoutoffsomehelpall donefinished25 core words comprise more than 90% of the total words used by 34 toddlers whose speech was recordedBanajee, DiCarlo & Stricklin, (AAC 2000)
24How does the student learn best? What are their strengths? A think about …How does the student learn best?What are their strengths?
25Symbol Consideration Table for “dog” Object •duplicate •miniature •remnantPhotograph…of objects or activity (not person engaged inactivity)Line Drawings…of objects or activity (not person engaged in activity)Gesture/Touch Cues ex. pat hand to thighSignsSpoken wordWritten word dogdemandinglessSymbol SetJoey and his dogdemandingmore“dog”Every Move Counts Clicks and ChatsJane Korsten, MS/SLP Terry Foss, M.Ed.Lisa Berry, MOTR/L (2007)
48Core Vocabulary Makes up 75 - 85% of what we say Only a few hundred words used over & overSame words across:GenderAgeTopicSettingDisabilityMost are not nouns
49Core Vocabulary cont. Learned for a lifetime Same words used by 4 – 40 year oldEssential for language developmentcore words prior to 2-word utterencesReduces activity-specific programmingYou must have access to core vocabulary to communicate effectively
50Fringe Vocabulary Thousands of words, Large % of nouns Highly individualActivity SpecificFringe is still an essential part of communication
51Fringe Vocabulary Activities Pages General or specific words Critical Core is availableGame vocabularySpecific to a game – uno, draw four, skipGeneral for lots of games – deal, pick, roll win, cheat, losePagesCore not readily availableMay program words that are available on the coreGood when you need very specific vocabulary for a longer amount of timeGood for scripted events – speech, play
52Sample Sentences Can I have some of that jello? I think that game is boring.I want to go with you.What are we doing tomorrow?How much is this donut?My friend Joseph has been helping me.81% core, 19% Fringe
53Access to Single Words“Communication is based on the use of the individual words of our language. True communication is spontaneous and novel. Therefore, communication systems cannot be based significantly on pre-stored sentences. Communication requires access to a vocabulary of individual words suitable to our needs that are multiple and subject to change. These words must be selected to form the sentences that we wish to say.”ASHA’s AAC Glossary
54Spelling High Low Flexibility (generative power) Speed Goossens’, C., & Crain, S. (1992). Utilizing switch interfaces with children who are severely physically challenged. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
55PreStored Sentences High Low Flexibility (generative power) Speed Goossens’, C., & Crain, S. (1992). Utilizing switch interfaces with children who are severely physically challenged. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
56Words High Low Flexibility (generative power) Speed Goossens’, C., & Crain, S. (1992). Utilizing switch interfaces with children who are severely physically challenged. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
58Eight WordsIGoGoodMoreNotEatDrinkStopSay:Good.Not good.I not good.Eat More.Good, Eat More.not stop.At least 30 different messages can be created using these eight words.
59A Sensible use for Pre-stored Sentences? Efficient for messages that are used repeatedlyEssential for users with physical disabilitiesUse as a complement to a single word vocabularyMay provide phrases that offer the opportunity to chunk language together.
60A Think about …. “Give a man a message and he communicates for a day… Teach a man a language and he communicates for a lifetime.”
61Access to Single WordsAAC users: “Let me say exactly what I want as fast as I can say it”S: SpontaneousN: NovelU: UtterenceG: Generation
62Navigation vs. Sequencing ManualNavigation vs. SequencingMaster Page (Environments, Topics & Categories)Circle TimeClothesTrips to: Dr. Office Cinema Beach ZooZoo AnimalsCommunication PagesSpecial Vocabulary Page
63Navigation of Page Based Systems After 1 Year Master Page (Environments, Topics & Categories)Circle TimeGetting DressedDays of Week/ Months of YearWeatherWinter ClothesActivitiesDressy / ChurchZooDr. OfficeZoo AnimalsZoo FoodReptilesHolidaysBirthdaysSchool BusMoviesGrocery StoreAirplaneHospital
64ManualThe student indicates a wide range of emotions and preferences in response to teachers and family through gestures and facial expressions, but rarely communicates beyond this circleUse of the communication aid is deemed successful though it is used only to retrieve pre-stored responses in engineered situationsThe student’s good pragmatics leads the staff to believe she could use a speech generating device to communicate more independently and with a broader range of peopleThe speech generating device is less and less viewed as a tool for broad-range, independent communicationThe Navigation MazeInitial trial on a multi-page system encourages expectations for independent communicationEngineered participation in activities replaces conversational use of the deviceAfter a short time, the vocabulary becomes too limitingNew pages, designed and implemented daily, require the continuous participation of therapists, parents, teachers and aidesMore vocabulary pages are added with great careSearching for words across multiple pages is hard and confusing to the student. Her staff decides to do more whole-utterance programmingTo avoid navigation, more specialized pages are added – defeating the development of motor planningThe student is unable to navigate independently to and back from environment and activity pages to find needed vocabulary
65The Single Page Path to Independent Communication ManualThe Single Page Path to Independent CommunicationStudent has good pragmatics leading the staff to believe she could use a speech generating device (SGD)Language skills assist in literacyStopStaff broadens student’s environmentInitial trial on a single page system is successfulStudent continues to use core vocabulary as MLU growsStaff is challenged by the complex appearance of the systemStaff continues to challenge student with a broadened core vocabularyStudent begins to use the core vocabularyGrowth slows as student is satisfied with basic communicationStaff adds specialized vocabularyStaff teaches pronouns and basic verbs
66Beginning teaching strategies Give time to explore.Hide keysUse natural settings & routines – play, work/academics, eating, activities, jobs to do in the class.Use Activity Based Objectives – Kelly FonnerInterface with the computerInterface with infrared toys that can elicit core
67Language Therapy State Functions – What do you do with juice? Must consider the client’s language abilities and issuesOften same materials and methods can be usedState Functions – What do you do with juice?Categorization – Tell me three things that are round.Associations – What goes with a shoe?Similarities – How are a hat and a shoe alike?Differences – How are a hat and a shoe different?Define words – What is an apple?Super Duper Publications et al.“My client with AAC can’t be grouped with my other kids.”Now they can!
68Prepare Key vocabulary Expectations for each student Be aware of how much prompting you are doing – Kelly FonnerMake “cheat sheets”For you if you need themFor the studentYou don’t need to know all the vocabulary before you teach itYou’ll learn it with the studentKnow the language patternsTrainings are available online and face to faceTeach the associations to the picturesTeach strategies for getting the message across (ie: attributes)Use props
69Advantages of Books Can control the vocabulary Vocabulary repetition without “drill and kill”Provides carryover into the homeFits into the school curriculumPromotes literacy
70Adapting Books Do not photocopy a copyrighted book! Use images or symbols to go along with the book.Use pictures from eventsUse photos of studentsUse pictures from magazinesSimplify the text
71Adapting Books Age appropriate What is the goal? Say each word Label vocabularyCommentRepeated LinePredictAnswer “wh” questions
72Create Original Books Identify vocabulary Use existing patterns Brown Bear, Brown BearAdapt and re-write for older studentsRavens exampleUse photographsZoo Book
85Sources of books with Core Vocabulary DLTK – free books to downloadDolch Word Teaching Ideas – Zoo Book
86Topic Books - SSD’s Estories Wiki – Tar Heel Reader - https://iwiki.ssdmo.org/groups/estories/User name = estoriesPassword = estoriesTar Heel Reader -
87Make a Conversation Scrapbook (Picture of individual playing.)I am playing.
88Make a Conversation Scrapbook (Picture of individual working.)I am working.
89Make a Conversation Scrapbook (Picture of individual at school.)I am at school.
90Advantages of Games Personal and Social Skills: Turn Taking Patience – waiting your turnHonesty – not cheatingPersistence – finishing the gameCooperationTeam buildingSharingMaking friends
91Advantages of Games Language Skills Vocabulary development Following directionsCommentingRequestingAnswering questionsLanguage development
92Games and Toys Identify vocabulary Educational games & toys Off the shelf games & toysMake support materials
93Games to Download http://it.coe.uga.edu/wwild/pptgames/ game templates, homemade powerpoint gamesJeopardy, Millionaire, Hollywood Squares, Weakest Link, Mark E. Damon GamesJeopardy Games, Hardin County TeachersTemplates and pre-made games
94Games to Elicit Language Go Fish: Familiar Actions and Objects – Communication Skill BuildersBarnyard BingoMr. Potato Head Pals – Playskool Games – Hasbro, Inc.Outburst and Outburst Jr. – Hersch and Co.Scavenger HuntAny game that you need to interact with someoneelse.
95Songs Repeated patterns Rhythmic Vocabulary rich Fun Identify Vocabulary NeededSong Boards and propsAugmented communicators canChoose the songStart the songLead the repeated lineChoose the next verseStart/Stop the stereo via IR control
96Arts and Crafts What’s the goal? CommunicationFine MotorThe productHow do you balance all the materials AND the communication device?Students with good physical abilitiesSabotage itStudents with limited physical abilitiesWhat SHOULD the goal be?Augmented communicators should be controlling the activity vs. doing the activity
97Label the Environment Job Chart Set the table Do dishes Empty trash Water plants
100Writing Strategies Take pictures, write captions for stories Interface with the computerCreate writing templatesFill in the blanks using their deviceLetter writingStory writingReport writingJournal writing
101Speaking Strategies Social communication before academic communication Consider normal language developmentKnow when to useSingle wordsPhrasesSentencesStructure the environment to promote communication
102Speaking Strategies Pause – wait for a response Avoid yes/no questions – ask open ended questionsTeach categorization skillsUse photographs to stimulate languageConversation scrapbookTake pictures – tell stories
103Speaking Strategies Role play – phone calls, etc. Internet – zoo web camsTeach conversational skills –Pragmatic language cards –Wacky gift exchangeUse planned experiencesDo the activityTalk about what you didRole play situations
105Where are you from?What do you like to do?Do you want to play?How old are you?Who are you?
106I need help.Can you help me?Will you please help me?What is wrong with this?This is wrong.
107Title: Wacky Gift Exchange Description of Activity: Each child uses descriptive words to select a gift.Materials: White Elephant gifts brought from home. Wrapped in different color wrappings some with and some without bows.Objective: Each child chooses a gift using descriptive words to express his or her choice.Target Vocabulary: big, little, color words, ribbon, bows, box, object on the gift wrapping.Sample Words and Phrases: I want the box with the big blue bow. I want the little red box with the purple bow. I want the big box without a bow/ribbon.Adaptations (optional at times): · Each child takes a turn picking a toy or taking another child's toy. The children must use names, descriptor words and proper language. (i.e., "Mark, please give me your blue present."Sally, please let me play with your truck." · Have a discussion of what each child received and use descriptive language in thediscussion. · Have each child tell who chose the present they brought from home.Age: Preschool, Early Elementary, Late Elementary, Adolescent and Adult Vocabulary: Unity 128 Single Hit, Unity 128 Two Hit, Unity 128 Full Core,Unity 128 Condensed, Vanguard/Vantage Unity Single Hit, Vanguard/VantageUnity Full Core Language Objectives
108Homework Collect pictures of things you like to do Write a story about the pictures or prepare to tell about themRead a book (to a parent or friend)Make a phone call (practice/role play first)
109Homework Write a journal entry E-mail a friend or relative Practice/review vocabulary and grammarWrite sentences/paragraphs/storiesPlay a game
110Have the Device Available You can’t predict when the perfect communication and teaching opportunity will ariseHave the device availableLeave the device within access
111Computer Many high tech devices have computer emulation AAC Keys Alternative keyboardAlternative mouseControl a PowerPointControl Intellitools activities
112Environmental Controls Consider AAC devices with ECU capabilitiesTV/Stereo/VCRIR ToysCeiling fanGas fireplaceNot radio control (with a wire antenna)
113Have High Expectations “If necessity is the mother of invention, then, expectation is the mother of success.”Susan McCloskeyPennsylvania Technology CenterWhether you think they can, or whether you think they can’t, you’re right!
114Reasons People Don’t Use Their AAC Device It doesn’t say what they want it to say.They don’t have anything to say.They don’t understand what’s expected.They’ve been given the message that it’s not important.They get what they want/need without it.They don’t want to appear different.People interpret for them.Familiar people can understand their speech.Access issues
115Strategies for Fringe (Academic) Vocabulary: Low-Tech AAC Strategies:Eye gazeManual boardsVocabulary strip on the deviceFlip ‘n TalkCommunication notebookLow tech deviceWord wallAsk multiple choice questions
116Strategies for Fringe (Academic) Vocabulary High Tech AAC Strategies:Substitute core words for fringe wordsActivity row for fringe vocabularyUse word prediction for fringe vocabulary
117It Takes a Team system operator vocational rehabilitation counselor Parents/CaregiverssystemoperatorvocationalrehabilitationcounselorteacherpeersoccupationaltherapistcaseworkerphysicaltherapistSLPnurseaide
118Ten Wishes from a Student Who Uses Augmentative Communication To help you understand the feelings and thoughts of a student who usesaugmentative aids and techniques, children from across the United Stateswere asked,“If you could wish for one thing your teacher would do for you, what would it be?”Below are some of their answers.1. I wish my teacher would joke with me.2. I wish my teacher would learn how to work my communication aid.3. I wish my teacher would stop shouting at me like I can’t hear.4. I wish my teacher wouldn’t have a heart attack when my machine doesn’t work.5. I wish my teacher would remember that I don’t always spell very well.6. I wish my teacher would have more patience with me.7. I wish my teacher would call on me for “Share Day”.8. I wish my teacher would give me enough time to say what I’m thinking.I wish my teacher wouldn’t hit my machine when it doesn’t work– that’s my mouth she’s hitting.10.I wish I could walk and talk like my sister and brother.