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Introduction Some neurological conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),epilepsy can lead to severe motor disability. Such patients are.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Some neurological conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),epilepsy can lead to severe motor disability. Such patients are."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Introduction Some neurological conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),epilepsy can lead to severe motor disability. Such patients are referred to as locked-in. Thought Translation Device 2 Many patients cannot use conventional devices made for patients with severe motor disability, because these require consistent control over at least one muscle group.

3 Recent studies indicate that humans can learn to control certain components of their EEG and can use them as a new communication channel. EEG-based communication methods requires no neuromuscular control. In order to enable such patients to communicate, a technique was developed where subjects learn to control their slow cortical potential producing signal according to the task requirement. Thought Translation Device 3

4 What is SCP? SCP(slow cortical potential)one of the EEG signal Compared with other EEG signals, SCPs have two important advantages: First, they are present in the brain activity of every person. Second, the the control of SCP was found to be highly specific. Therefore, a SCP self regulatory method has been developed for communication purposes. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 4

5 3 Requirements 4 Communication First, the learning ability of completely paralyzed patients must be proven. Second, the EEG must be analyzed on-line for immediate reinforcement. The on-line analysis must include all the transformations necessary to extract the to-be- controlled signal. Third, the software has to be flexible in order to adjust it to the individual shaping procedure. Thought Translation Device 5

6 Technology used in TTD In its present form, the core of the TTD consists of a single computer program that runs under all MS- Windows versions. This software contains the functions of electroencephalogram (EEG)- acquisition storage, signal processing, classification,and various applications for brain- computer - communication such as spelling. It was written in C++ for windows and uses the BCI-2000 common standard. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 6

7 Block Diagram The EEG is recorded from Cz, C3, and C4 of the leads. SCP shifts from Cz (vertex) serve as the primary signal, which has to be controlled and used for operating the thought-translation device (TTD). The signals are amplified with an EEG amplifier set to a low-pass filter of 30 Hz and a time constant of 8 s and then digitized with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. EEG amplifier with a long time constant is essential. Thus we get many kind of signals i.e. signals for all the component s of EEG including background noise. We use filters to remove the background noise and again perform signal transformation to get the required signal and to perform cursor movement on the computer screen. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 7

8 Procedure Patients sit in wheelchairs or beds and viewed a color PC screen. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 8

9 two rectangles (goals) and a small moving object (ball) are displayed. viewing distance is about 140 cm. If the second (C3–C4) channel used, two more goals (on the right and the left frame of the screen) are displayed. Two alternating tones of different pitch, which followed each other in an interval of 2 s, held the patient to the rhythm of the program. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 9

10 The ball move during the low-pitch tone and the high-pitch tone (active phase) and remained in the center of the screen between the high-pitch tone and the low-pitch tone (baseline phase). The patients task is to move the ball in a specified direction toward one of the goals during the active phase. The minimum SCP amplitude difference between baseline and active phase necessary to move the ball from the center of the screen into a goal. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 10

11 If a negative potential has to be produced in the active phase, compared with the baseline interval, the ball moves upwards, and vice-versa (positivity), is true when the ball moves downwards. If there was no difference between the baseline interval and the SCP amplitude in the active phase, the ball remained in the center of the screen. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 11

12 Production of Language Goals used presented a word or letter sequence (the lower goal) and a space for the patients own text (the upper goal). In the case depicted, the patient has to select the letter M. In order to do this, the patient has to move the ball into the bottom goal. If the characters shown should not be selected (if it doesnt contain the required letter), the patients task would be to keep the ball away from this goal. HUMAN HU M Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 12

13 When EEG responses reach an accuracy of 80–85%, the method of choice is a dichotomic LSP structure. At the first level, the alphabet is divided in two parts, at the second level each half is divided into two quartiles, etc., up to the last level containing only one letter. In training condition, learning to use LSP proceeds from easy to more difficult task. It starts with two-level dichotomic structure to three, four and so on. Any of the above two methods can be used for selecting text. A B E HN P S T A BE HN PS T ABEHNPST Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 13

14 Merits TTD can achieve an accuracy level of 65–85%. The present software can easily be used for control of patients environment (e.g., call attendant, switch a light on or off, etc.) by means of short task sequences being linked with corresponding technical devices. Studies shows a reduction of epileptic seizures by teaching patients to voluntarily produce positive SCP shifts. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 14

15 Demerits SCP is the necessity of a low time constant and, hence, contamination by Electrooculogram (EOG) artifacts. It requires more time for communication. It is costly. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 15

16 Improvements Reliable techniques for on-line EOG artifact control during self regulation have developed. To achieve higher speed :- 1. Error rate should be reduced. 2. We should reduce the time necessary for each single response. 3. Complexity of the alphabet and language structure of LSP should be reduced. Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 16

17 Reference en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron ieeexplore.ieee.org Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 17

18 Thought Translation Device Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 18


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