2Thought Translation Device IntroductionSome neurological conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),epilepsy can lead to severe motor disability.Such patients are referred to as “locked-in”.Many patients cannot use conventional devices made for patients with severe motor disability, because these require consistent control over at least one muscle group.
3EEG-based communication methods requires no neuromuscular control. Thought Translation DeviceRecent studies indicate that humans can learn to control certain components of their EEG and can use them as a new communication channel.EEG-based communication methods requires no neuromuscular control.In order to enable such patients to communicate, a technique was developed where subjects learn to control their slow cortical potential producing signal according to the task requirement.
4Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceWhat is SCP?SCP(slow cortical potential)—one of the EEG signalCompared with other EEG signals, SCPs have two important advantages:First, they are presentin the brain activity ofevery person.Second, the the controlof SCP was found to behighly specific.Therefore, a SCP self regulatory method has been developed for communication purposes.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
53 Requirements 4 Communication Thought Translation Device3 Requirements 4 CommunicationFirst, the learning ability of completely paralyzed patients must be proven.Second, the EEG must be analyzed on-line for immediate reinforcement.The on-line analysis must include all the transformations necessary to extract the to-be- controlled signal.Third, the software has to be flexible in order to adjust it to the individual shaping procedure.
6Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceTechnology used in TTDIn its present form, the core of the TTD consists of a single computer program that runs under all MS- Windows versions.This software contains the functions of electroencephalogram (EEG)- acquisition storage , signal processing, classification ,and various applications for brain- computer - communication such as spelling.It was written in C++ for windows and uses the BCI-2000 common standard .Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
7Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Block DiagramThought Translation DeviceThe EEG is recorded from Cz, C3, and C4 of the leads. SCP shifts from Cz (vertex) serve as the primary signal, which has to be controlled and used for operating the thought-translation device (TTD).The signals are amplified with an EEG amplifier set to a low-pass filter of 30 Hz and a time constant of 8 s and then digitized with a sampling rate of 100 Hz.EEG amplifier with a long time constant is essential.Thus we get many kind of signals i.e. signals for all the component s of EEG including background noise.We use filters to remove the background noise and again perform signal transformation to get the required signal and to perform cursor movement on the computer screen.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
8Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceProcedurePatients sit in wheelchairs or beds and viewed a color PC screen .Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
9Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation Devicetwo rectangles (goals) and a small moving object (ball) are displayed.viewing distance is about 140 cm.If the second (C3–C4) channel used, two more goals (on the right and the left frame of the screen) are displayed.Two alternating tones of different pitch, which followed each other in an interval of 2 s, held the patient to the rhythm of the program.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
10Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceThe ball move during the low-pitch tone and the high-pitch tone (active phase) and remained in the center of the screen between the high-pitch tone and the low-pitch tone (baseline phase).The patient’s task is to move the ball in a specified direction toward one of the goals during the active phase.The minimum SCP amplitude difference between baseline and active phase necessary to move the ball from the center of the screen into a goal.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
11Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceIf a negative potential has to be produced in the active phase, compared with the baseline interval, the ball moves upwards, and vice-versa (“positivity”), is true when the ball moves downwards.If there was no difference between the baseline interval and the SCP amplitude in the active phase, the ball remained in the center of the screen.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
12Production of Language Thought Translation DeviceProduction of LanguageGoals used presented a word or letter sequence (the lower goal) and a space for the patient’s own text (the upper goal).In the case depicted, the patient has to select the letter “M”. In order to do this, the patient has to move the ball into the bottom goal. If the characters shown should not be selected (if it doesn’t contain the required letter), the patient’s task would be to keep the ball away from this goal.HUMANHUMSapthagiri College Of Engineering
13Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceWhen EEG responses reach an accuracy of 80–85%, the method of choice is a dichotomic LSP structure.At the first level, the alphabet is divided in two parts, at the second level each half is divided into two quartiles, etc., up to the last level containing only one letter.In training condition, learning to use LSP proceeds from easy to more difficult task. It starts with two-level dichotomic structure to three, four and so on.Any of the above two methods can be used for selecting text.A B E HN P S TA BE HN PS TABEHNPSTSapthagiri College Of Engineering
14Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceMeritsTTD can achieve anaccuracy level of 65–85%.The present softwarecan easily be used forcontrol of patient’senvironment (e.g., call attendant, switch a light on or off, etc.) by means of short task sequences being linked with corresponding technical devices.Studies shows a reduction of epileptic seizures by teaching patients to voluntarily produce positive SCP shifts.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
15Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceDemeritsSCP is the necessity of a low time constant and, hence, contamination by Electrooculogram (EOG) artifacts.It requires more time for communication.It is costly.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
16Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceImprovementsReliable techniques for on-line EOG artifact control during self regulation have developed.To achieve higher speed :-Error rate should be reduced.We should reduce the time necessary for each single response.Complexity of the alphabet and language structure of LSP should be reduced.Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
17Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceReferenceen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuronieeexplore.ieee.orgSapthagiri College Of Engineering
18Sapthagiri College Of Engineering Thought Translation DeviceTHANK YOUSapthagiri College Of Engineering