Presentation on theme: "Medical Device Evaluation and Validation"— Presentation transcript:
1Medical Device Evaluation and Validation Harold Alexander. Ph.D.Medical Device Evaluation and ValidationHarold Alexander, Ph.D.Orthogen CorporationSpringfield, NJOrthogen Corporation
2Introduction Vast experiment underway Harold Alexander. Ph.D.IntroductionVast experiment underway20 million people (1 in 14) in USA with implantsVast experiment with no data collectionWith exception of occasional reports of clinical failures, little is know about biomaterials performance in the human clinical environmentOrthogen Corporation
3No good, long term, systematic studies have been performed. Harold Alexander. Ph.D.No good, long term, systematic studies have been performed.A registration system for implants and biomaterials?When we consider issues of long-term survival of biomaterials in vivo, the lack of attention to epidemiology and physiology are key issues. Researchers must become more careful and observant of clinical performance.A national database of clinical data is essential to this effort.Orthogen Corporation
4Harold Alexander. Ph.D.Materials SelectionCurrently used materials are survivors of a trial and error process.Materials borrowed from other industriesCost prohibitive for development of unique biomaterials.Industry, until recently, could not afford itLess than optimal materials.Orthogen Corporation
5Unique Biomaterials? Few new candidate materials waiting for adoption. Harold Alexander. Ph.D.Unique Biomaterials?Few new candidate materials waiting for adoption.Medical-legal environment argues for unique biomaterials.Tissue Engineering Efforts.Orthogen Corporation
6Biologic SafetyASTM F : Standard Practice for Assessment of Compatibility of BiomaterialsTripartite Biocompatibility Guidance
8Animal Functional Tests In use simulationSafetyEfficacy
9Clinical Studies Initial Studies, Short term safety Clinical Protocol Prospective, Controlled, RandomizedMulti-CenterAssess mid-term safety and efficacyMarketing ApplicationLong term follow-up (post-market?)
10Regulatory Primer Device Law passed in 1976. Methods to introduce new medical devices:Investigational Device Exemption ApplicationClinical trialsPremarket Approval Application.or510(k), substantial equivalency application.
17Sample Cases Manufacturing flaw Design flaw Excess blast material on a total knee replacementlarge grain size in ceramic ballDesign flawInadequate stress analysis of hip acetabular componentManufacturing procedure flawResidual machine oil on hip acetabular component
18DePuy LCS Knee Manufacturing flaw Excess blast material on a total knee replacement
39Ethical Concerns Professional Status Professional status creates special obligations to use one's specialized skill and knowledge to promote significant social values (e.g., health), to protect the interests of those (clients) who will use the products you design and build, and to be a loyal employee.
40Professional Obligations Professional obligations take many forms, including:a. using care in design to make sure that devices are safe and effective (promoting health);b. protecting consumer autonomy, the right to make informed choices about health problems;c. promoting and protecting your employer's legitimate interests.
41Harold Alexander. Ph.D.One of the vexing problems of professional ethics is that these areas of obligation are often in conflict, requiring ethical judgment about how best to balance these conflicting demands!Orthogen Corporation
43Bjork-Shiley artificial heart valve unexpected defects in the welding of the valve led to catastrophic failure in a small percentage of them;about 2/3 of those experiencing valve failure will die;Shiley failed to warn patients, who were then unable to make informed decisions about their possibly defective heart valves;there is evidence of poor manufacturing techniques at Shiley; what were the obligations of those who were aware of them?;
44Bjork-Shiley Valve (continued) Who should inform patients of possible defects? The patient's physician? The manufacturer? The Food and Drug AdministrationWhat should patients be told? Only scientifically valid and reliable research? Reports of poor manufacturing techniques?What if bioengineers are aware of a defective design or poor manufacturing techniques but the company is not responsive the their concerns?What policies should guide these issues concerning medical devices and the patients who receive them?
49Silicone Gel-filled Breast Implants First introduced in 1964.Grandfathered as pre-1976 device - 510(k) allowance.FDA advisory panel recommended IDE - PMA study in 1978 because of safety concerns (bleed, rupture, inflammation, capsular contracture, calcification, autoimmune disease).Plastic surgery lobby with aid of Ronald and Nancy Reagen prevented clinical review!Law suits started in Reached level of 10s of thousands of cases by early 1990s.
50Breast Implant (continued) Device removed from market because of safety concerns in 1992.To escape enormous legal liability, Dow Corning declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1995.Law suits against Baxter, Bristol Meyer Squibb, 3M and Dow Corning are now settling with an estimated total cost of 5 billion dollars.Who is at fault? manufacturers, their employees, FDA, plaintiff lawyers, surgeons?
51Silicone Gel-filled Breast Implants Inamed Corporation and Mentor Corporation have done new 4 year clinical trial.More than 300,000 women received breast implants last year.FDA advisory panel recommended approval in October 2003 and April 2005 in spite of no good long term study.Rationale was comparison to saline filled implants and economic infeasibility of requiring decade long study.
53Pedicle Screw Spinal Fixation Adjunct to spinal fusion surgery.Old hook and rod systems did not provide rigid fixation and required multiple level fixation.Pedicle screw fixation, developed in Europe, could be used in single spinal unit (one level) or more and provided more rigid fixation. It was hypothesized that this would result in higher fusion rate.Application to FDA for 510(k) allowance denied for lumbar pedicle fixation because of concerns of nerve damage, broken hardware, clinical efficacy.FDA required IDE-PMA studies. These studies were started, but never concluded.Manufacturers applied for 510(k) allowance for sacral, long bone or anterior screw fixation; a pre-1976 application. This was allowed by FDA.
54Pedicle Screws (continued) Using the argument that the FDA does not regulate the practice of medicine, manufacturers encouraged surgeons to use devices for posterior lumbar fixation, a non approved application. This was done. It became standard practice in USA.Injured patient sued manufacturers, surgeons and hospitals claiming the improper promotion and use of an unproven, unsafe product.10s of thousands of lawsuits resulted against Smith & Nephew Richards, Danek Medical, Acromed, and a number of smaller companies.
55Pedicle Screws (continued) At one time, Danek alone was spending a million dollars a week pursuing the defense of outstanding lawsuits.Acromed settled globally and others are both litigating and settling cases. Total cost of this litigation will probably be 2 billion dollars.Who is at fault? FDA, manufacturers, their employees, surgeons, hospitals, the law, lawyers?
56DePuy ACS Acetabular Cup This is a hip acetabular component where the polyethylene insert was designed with a thin lip that tended to be over-stressed and fractured in some sizes.The device was designed by a novice engineer who had been a draftsman for the manufacturer and had recently earned his BS degree. He had no biomedical engineering or biology training and was unfamiliar with the research literature on the appropriate design characteristics of an acetabular insert.The acetabular shell was porous coated for bone attachment without cement; an IDE-PMA product. However, the manufacturer applied for, and obtained, 510(k) allowance for cemented use; a pre-1976 application. Consequently, the device was never subjected to rigorous clinical testing.
57ACS Cup (continued)As failures started to occur (typically 25% have failed within four years) the manufacturer embarked upon a crash redesign project hoping to phase out the old product and phase in the new product without publically admitting the defective design. However, pressure from surgeons using the product prompted a recall before the switch was accomplished.A letter was written to selected surgeons and distributors announcing the recall. However, a number of patients were implanted with the product during the phase-out, phase-in period and even after the recall because of its incomplete notification. Additionally, patients with early stage failures were not promptly diagnosed because of incomplete notification to orthopaedic surgeons. Should all implanted patients have been informed?
58ACS Cup (continued)Thousands of lawsuits resulted, some seeking punitive damages for callous disregard by the manufacturer of the dangers inherent in this product after they were fully aware of the problems. To date, all suits have been settled out of court.Who is to blame? manufacturer, design engineer, his supervisors, employees who became aware of the problem, surgeons for using an unproven product, FDA for allowing the use of an unproven product, the law, the hospitals for allowing surgeons to use an unproven product, lawyers?
59Effect of Radiation Sterilization Harold Alexander. Ph.D.Effect of Radiation SterilizationRadiation in air embrittles polymers.This has been known since 1950s.Polyethylene components radiated in air.Are manufacturers responsible for early implant failures from poly damage?Orthogen Corporation
60Guidant Heart Defibrillators Ventak Prizm 2 DR and Contak Renewal.28,900 implanted.February failed at 1/month.March to May deaths.Circuit flaw found, but sold for months after.June recalled after 45 reported failures.J&J to purchase at $76/share.November Deal renegotiated to $63/share.
61Issues for DiscussionWhat can be done to prevent the introduction of potentially dangerous products yet not completely stop innovation?Can FDA be better insulated from political pressure?Should we change the law? (Tort Reform)What is the professional responsibility of the employee?How do we protect the employee from retribution when problems are reported?
62Issues for DiscussionShould the FDA regulate the practice of medicine?Biomaterials Access Assurance Act of Federal pre-emption of state law.Weigh decreased cost for manufacturers vs protection for patientsPunitive damagesPayment by insurance companies for experimental proceduresLong wait for FDA approvals
63Issues for Discussion Effect of managed care on innovation Competitiveness of the US medical device industry