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Intermittent Compression Devices DefinitionsDefinitions Edema - presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in extracellular tissue spacesEdema - presence.

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Presentation on theme: "Intermittent Compression Devices DefinitionsDefinitions Edema - presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in extracellular tissue spacesEdema - presence."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Intermittent Compression Devices

3 DefinitionsDefinitions Edema - presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in extracellular tissue spacesEdema - presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in extracellular tissue spaces Joint swelling-blood and joint fluid accumulated immediately following injury appearance and feel of a water balloonJoint swelling-blood and joint fluid accumulated immediately following injury appearance and feel of a water balloon Lymphedema- swelling in subcutaneous tissues results from excessive accumulation of lymph occuring over several hours following injuryLymphedema- swelling in subcutaneous tissues results from excessive accumulation of lymph occuring over several hours following injury Edema - presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in extracellular tissue spacesEdema - presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in extracellular tissue spaces Joint swelling-blood and joint fluid accumulated immediately following injury appearance and feel of a water balloonJoint swelling-blood and joint fluid accumulated immediately following injury appearance and feel of a water balloon Lymphedema- swelling in subcutaneous tissues results from excessive accumulation of lymph occuring over several hours following injuryLymphedema- swelling in subcutaneous tissues results from excessive accumulation of lymph occuring over several hours following injury

4 Purposes Of The Lymphatic System As plasma and plasma proteins escape from small blood vessels they are picked up by lymphatic system and returned to blood circulationAs plasma and plasma proteins escape from small blood vessels they are picked up by lymphatic system and returned to blood circulation Lymphatic system acts as a safety valve for fluid overload thus a sudden local increase in the interstitial fluid casues pitting edemaLymphatic system acts as a safety valve for fluid overload thus a sudden local increase in the interstitial fluid casues pitting edema Maintains homeostasis of extracellular environment by removing excess protein molecules and waste from the interstitial fluidMaintains homeostasis of extracellular environment by removing excess protein molecules and waste from the interstitial fluid As plasma and plasma proteins escape from small blood vessels they are picked up by lymphatic system and returned to blood circulationAs plasma and plasma proteins escape from small blood vessels they are picked up by lymphatic system and returned to blood circulation Lymphatic system acts as a safety valve for fluid overload thus a sudden local increase in the interstitial fluid casues pitting edemaLymphatic system acts as a safety valve for fluid overload thus a sudden local increase in the interstitial fluid casues pitting edema Maintains homeostasis of extracellular environment by removing excess protein molecules and waste from the interstitial fluidMaintains homeostasis of extracellular environment by removing excess protein molecules and waste from the interstitial fluid

5 Purposes Of The Lymphatic System Cleanses interstitial fluid and provides a blockade to spread of infection or malignant cells in lymph nodesCleanses interstitial fluid and provides a blockade to spread of infection or malignant cells in lymph nodes

6 Structure of the Lymphatic System Closed vascular system of endothelial cell lined tubes that parallel arterial and nervous systemClosed vascular system of endothelial cell lined tubes that parallel arterial and nervous system Lymphatic capillaries made of single layered endothelial cells with fibrils radiating from junctions of endothelial cellsLymphatic capillaries made of single layered endothelial cells with fibrils radiating from junctions of endothelial cells Closed vascular system of endothelial cell lined tubes that parallel arterial and nervous systemClosed vascular system of endothelial cell lined tubes that parallel arterial and nervous system Lymphatic capillaries made of single layered endothelial cells with fibrils radiating from junctions of endothelial cellsLymphatic capillaries made of single layered endothelial cells with fibrils radiating from junctions of endothelial cells

7 Structure of the Lymphatic System Fibrils support lymphatic capillaries and anchor them to surrounding connective tissueFibrils support lymphatic capillaries and anchor them to surrounding connective tissue Capillary is surrounded by interstitial fluidCapillary is surrounded by interstitial fluid Lymphatic capillaries called terminal lymphatics provide entry way into lymphatic system for excess interstitial fluid and plasma proteins Lymphatic capillaries called terminal lymphatics provide entry way into lymphatic system for excess interstitial fluid and plasma proteins Fibrils support lymphatic capillaries and anchor them to surrounding connective tissueFibrils support lymphatic capillaries and anchor them to surrounding connective tissue Capillary is surrounded by interstitial fluidCapillary is surrounded by interstitial fluid Lymphatic capillaries called terminal lymphatics provide entry way into lymphatic system for excess interstitial fluid and plasma proteins Lymphatic capillaries called terminal lymphatics provide entry way into lymphatic system for excess interstitial fluid and plasma proteins

8 Structure of the Lymphatic System These lymphatic capillaries join together in network of lymphatic vessels that eventually lead to larger collecting vessels in extremities Collecting vessels connect with thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct which join the venous system in the left and right cervical area These lymphatic capillaries join together in network of lymphatic vessels that eventually lead to larger collecting vessels in extremities Collecting vessels connect with thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct which join the venous system in the left and right cervical area

9 Peripheral Lymphatic Structure and Function Fluid moving into interstitial spaces pushes or pulls on fibrils supporting terminal lymphatics forcing endothelial cells to gap apart creating an opening in terminal lymphatics for entry of interstitial fluid, cellular waste, large protein molecules, plasma proteins, extracellular particles, and cells into lymphatic channelsFluid moving into interstitial spaces pushes or pulls on fibrils supporting terminal lymphatics forcing endothelial cells to gap apart creating an opening in terminal lymphatics for entry of interstitial fluid, cellular waste, large protein molecules, plasma proteins, extracellular particles, and cells into lymphatic channels

10 Peripheral Lymphatic Structure and Function Once the interstitial fluid and proteins enter these channels they become lymph If no tissue activity or interstitial volume increase takes place endothelial junctions remain closed Muscle activity, active and passive movements, elevated positions, respiration and blood vessel pulsation, all aid in the movement of lymph Once the interstitial fluid and proteins enter these channels they become lymph If no tissue activity or interstitial volume increase takes place endothelial junctions remain closed Muscle activity, active and passive movements, elevated positions, respiration and blood vessel pulsation, all aid in the movement of lymph

11 Formation of Pitting Edema Local edema formed by plasma, plasma proteins and cell debris from damaged cells all move into interstitial spaces Hormones released by injured cells stimulate small anterioles, capillaries and venules to vasodialate separating endothelial cells in vessel wall Local edema formed by plasma, plasma proteins and cell debris from damaged cells all move into interstitial spaces Hormones released by injured cells stimulate small anterioles, capillaries and venules to vasodialate separating endothelial cells in vessel wall

12 Formation of Pitting Edema Increased permeability allows more plasma, plasma proteins, and leucocytes to escape into local area Fluid in the form of a gel is trapped by collagen fibers and proteoglycan molecules Gel prevents the free flow of fluid and is referred to as pitting edema Increased permeability allows more plasma, plasma proteins, and leucocytes to escape into local area Fluid in the form of a gel is trapped by collagen fibers and proteoglycan molecules Gel prevents the free flow of fluid and is referred to as pitting edema

13 Formation of Lymphedema If edema causes an overdistention of lymph capillaries, entry pores become ineffective and lymphedema resultsIf edema causes an overdistention of lymph capillaries, entry pores become ineffective and lymphedema results Constriction of lymph capillaries or larger lymphatic vessels from increased pressure will also discourage lymph flow and cause intercellular fluid to increaseConstriction of lymph capillaries or larger lymphatic vessels from increased pressure will also discourage lymph flow and cause intercellular fluid to increase If edema causes an overdistention of lymph capillaries, entry pores become ineffective and lymphedema resultsIf edema causes an overdistention of lymph capillaries, entry pores become ineffective and lymphedema results Constriction of lymph capillaries or larger lymphatic vessels from increased pressure will also discourage lymph flow and cause intercellular fluid to increaseConstriction of lymph capillaries or larger lymphatic vessels from increased pressure will also discourage lymph flow and cause intercellular fluid to increase

14 Negative Effects of Edema Edema compounds extent of injury by causing secondary hypoxic cellular death in surrounding tissues Other ill effects of edema include –Physical separation of torn tissue ends –Pain –Restricted joint range of motion. –Prolonged recovery times –Interstitial fibrosis –Reflex sympathetic dystrophy Edema compounds extent of injury by causing secondary hypoxic cellular death in surrounding tissues Other ill effects of edema include –Physical separation of torn tissue ends –Pain –Restricted joint range of motion. –Prolonged recovery times –Interstitial fibrosis –Reflex sympathetic dystrophy

15 Treatment of Edema Immediate first aid following injury can minimize edema Use of ice, compression, electricity, elevation and early gentle motion retards accumulation of fluid and keeps lymphatic system functioning at an optimum level Any treatment that encourages lymph flow will decrease plasma protein content in intercellular spaces and decrease edema Immediate first aid following injury can minimize edema Use of ice, compression, electricity, elevation and early gentle motion retards accumulation of fluid and keeps lymphatic system functioning at an optimum level Any treatment that encourages lymph flow will decrease plasma protein content in intercellular spaces and decrease edema

16 Initial Control of Edema Elevation Compression Weight bearing exercise Cryotherapy Elevation Compression Weight bearing exercise Cryotherapy

17 ElevationElevation Gravity can be used to augment normal lymph flow by encouraging its movement The higher the elevation, the greater the effect on the lymph flow Gravity can be used to augment normal lymph flow by encouraging its movement The higher the elevation, the greater the effect on the lymph flow

18 CompressionCompression Rhythmic internal compression provided by muscle contraction will squeeze lymph through lymph vessels improving its flow back to the vascular system MRhythmic internal compression provided by muscle contraction will squeeze lymph through lymph vessels improving its flow back to the vascular system M Muscle contraction can be accomplished through isometric or active exercise or through electrically induced muscle contractionMuscle contraction can be accomplished through isometric or active exercise or through electrically induced muscle contraction Rhythmic internal compression provided by muscle contraction will squeeze lymph through lymph vessels improving its flow back to the vascular system MRhythmic internal compression provided by muscle contraction will squeeze lymph through lymph vessels improving its flow back to the vascular system M Muscle contraction can be accomplished through isometric or active exercise or through electrically induced muscle contractionMuscle contraction can be accomplished through isometric or active exercise or through electrically induced muscle contraction

19 CompressionCompression External pressure can be used to increase lymph flow. Massage, elastic compression, and intermittent pressure devices are most often used external pressure devicesExternal pressure can be used to increase lymph flow. Massage, elastic compression, and intermittent pressure devices are most often used external pressure devices External compression not only moves lymph along but also may spread intercellular edema over a larger area, enabling more lymph capillaries to become involved in removing plasma proteinsExternal compression not only moves lymph along but also may spread intercellular edema over a larger area, enabling more lymph capillaries to become involved in removing plasma proteins External pressure can be used to increase lymph flow. Massage, elastic compression, and intermittent pressure devices are most often used external pressure devicesExternal pressure can be used to increase lymph flow. Massage, elastic compression, and intermittent pressure devices are most often used external pressure devices External compression not only moves lymph along but also may spread intercellular edema over a larger area, enabling more lymph capillaries to become involved in removing plasma proteinsExternal compression not only moves lymph along but also may spread intercellular edema over a larger area, enabling more lymph capillaries to become involved in removing plasma proteins

20 Weight Bearing Exercise Weight bearing activities activate a venous pumpWeight bearing activities activate a venous pump –Mediated by release of an endothelial- derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and is not related to muscular activity of the limb. EDRF is liberated by sudden pressure changes and it diffuses locallyEDRF is liberated by sudden pressure changes and it diffuses locally Major action is to relax the smooth muscle and stimulate blood flow rates in the veinsMajor action is to relax the smooth muscle and stimulate blood flow rates in the veins Weight bearing activities activate a venous pumpWeight bearing activities activate a venous pump –Mediated by release of an endothelial- derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and is not related to muscular activity of the limb. EDRF is liberated by sudden pressure changes and it diffuses locallyEDRF is liberated by sudden pressure changes and it diffuses locally Major action is to relax the smooth muscle and stimulate blood flow rates in the veinsMajor action is to relax the smooth muscle and stimulate blood flow rates in the veins

21 CryotherapyCryotherapy Addition of cryotherapy to intermittent compression has shown the best results in the reduction of post acute injury edema

22 Intermittent Compression Treatment Parameters Inflation PressureInflation Pressure On/Off Time SequenceOn/Off Time Sequence Total Treatment TimeTotal Treatment Time Inflation PressureInflation Pressure On/Off Time SequenceOn/Off Time Sequence Total Treatment TimeTotal Treatment Time

23 Inflation Pressure Therapeutic pressure settings loosely correlated with blood pressure A pressure approximating diastolic blood pressure used in most treatment protocols Therapeutic pressure settings loosely correlated with blood pressure A pressure approximating diastolic blood pressure used in most treatment protocols

24 Inflation Pressure Arterial capillary pressures are 30 mm Hg Any pressure that exceeds this should encourage reabsorption of the edema and movement of lymph Arterial capillary pressures are 30 mm Hg Any pressure that exceeds this should encourage reabsorption of the edema and movement of lymph

25 Inflation Pressure Maximum pressure should correspond to diastolic blood pressure More may not necessarily be better Enough pressure is needed to squeeze lymphatic vessels and force lymph to move Maximum pressure should correspond to diastolic blood pressure More may not necessarily be better Enough pressure is needed to squeeze lymphatic vessels and force lymph to move

26 On/Off Sequence On and off time sequences are variable In lymphatic massage shorter on- off time sequences may have an advantage Athlete comfort should be a primary deciding factor On and off time sequences are variable In lymphatic massage shorter on- off time sequences may have an advantage Athlete comfort should be a primary deciding factor

27 Total Treatment Time Clinical studies show significant gains in limb volume reduction after 30 minutes of compression A 10- to 30-minute treatment seems adequate unless edema is overwhelming in volume or is resistant to treatment More treatment times per day may also be an advantage in controlling and reducing edema Clinical studies show significant gains in limb volume reduction after 30 minutes of compression A 10- to 30-minute treatment seems adequate unless edema is overwhelming in volume or is resistant to treatment More treatment times per day may also be an advantage in controlling and reducing edema

28 Equipment Set-Up and Instructions Compression sleeves come as either half-leg, full-leg, full-arm, or half-arm Deflated compression sleeve is connected to compression unit via a rubber hose and connecting valve On time should be adjusted between 30 to 120 seconds Compression sleeves come as either half-leg, full-leg, full-arm, or half-arm Deflated compression sleeve is connected to compression unit via a rubber hose and connecting valve On time should be adjusted between 30 to 120 seconds

29 Equipment Set-Up and Instructions Off time is left at 0 until the sleeve is inflated and treatment pressure is reached then adjusted between 0 and 120 seconds When unit cycles off patient instructed to move extremity 30-seconds-on/ 30-seconds-off setting is effective and comfortable Treatment should last between 20 and 30 min Off time is left at 0 until the sleeve is inflated and treatment pressure is reached then adjusted between 0 and 120 seconds When unit cycles off patient instructed to move extremity 30-seconds-on/ 30-seconds-off setting is effective and comfortable Treatment should last between 20 and 30 min

30 Cold and Compression Combination Combination of cold and compression has been shown to be clinically effective in treating some edema conditions –Jobst Cryotemp - controlled cold/compression unit Temperature adjustment ranges between o C Cooling accomplished by circulating cold water through sleeve Combination of cold and compression has been shown to be clinically effective in treating some edema conditions –Jobst Cryotemp - controlled cold/compression unit Temperature adjustment ranges between o C Cooling accomplished by circulating cold water through sleeve

31 Cold and Compression Combination Cryo-Cuff is anotherdevice which makes use of a combination of cold and compression which provides an inexpensive means of treating edema

32 Compression and Electrical Stimulating Currents Intermittent compression may also be used in conjunction with a low- frequency pulsed or surging electrical stimulating current to produce muscle pumping contractionsIntermittent compression may also be used in conjunction with a low- frequency pulsed or surging electrical stimulating current to produce muscle pumping contractions Facilitates resorption of injury byproducts by lymphatic systemFacilitates resorption of injury byproducts by lymphatic system Intermittent compression may also be used in conjunction with a low- frequency pulsed or surging electrical stimulating current to produce muscle pumping contractionsIntermittent compression may also be used in conjunction with a low- frequency pulsed or surging electrical stimulating current to produce muscle pumping contractions Facilitates resorption of injury byproducts by lymphatic systemFacilitates resorption of injury byproducts by lymphatic system

33 Linear Compression Pumps Incorporate sequentially inflated multiple compartment designsIncorporate sequentially inflated multiple compartment designs Designs have included a programmable gradient design Designs have included a programmable gradient design Linear pumps incorporate massage effects of a distal to proximal pressure with a gradual decrease in pressure gradientLinear pumps incorporate massage effects of a distal to proximal pressure with a gradual decrease in pressure gradient Incorporate sequentially inflated multiple compartment designsIncorporate sequentially inflated multiple compartment designs Designs have included a programmable gradient design Designs have included a programmable gradient design Linear pumps incorporate massage effects of a distal to proximal pressure with a gradual decrease in pressure gradientLinear pumps incorporate massage effects of a distal to proximal pressure with a gradual decrease in pressure gradient

34 Linear Compression Pumps Highest pressure in distal sleeve and is determined by mean value of systolic to diastolic pressure Middle cell is set at 20 mm lower than the distal cell, proximal cell pressure is reduced an additional 20 mm Highest pressure in distal sleeve and is determined by mean value of systolic to diastolic pressure Middle cell is set at 20 mm lower than the distal cell, proximal cell pressure is reduced an additional 20 mm

35 Linear Compression Pumps Length of each pressure cycle is 120 seconds Distal cell is pressurized initially and continues pressurization for 90 sec. 20 seconds later middle cell inflates and after another 20 seconds the proximal cell inflates A final 30-second period allows pressure in all three cells to return to 0 after which the cycle repeats Length of each pressure cycle is 120 seconds Distal cell is pressurized initially and continues pressurization for 90 sec. 20 seconds later middle cell inflates and after another 20 seconds the proximal cell inflates A final 30-second period allows pressure in all three cells to return to 0 after which the cycle repeats

36 Clinical Applications Intermittent compression has been recommended forIntermittent compression has been recommended for –Lymphedema –Traumatic edema –Chronic edema –Swelling –Intermittent claudications –Postoperatively to reduce the possibility of developing a deep vein thrombosis –Facilitate wound healing following surgery by reducing swelling Intermittent compression has been recommended forIntermittent compression has been recommended for –Lymphedema –Traumatic edema –Chronic edema –Swelling –Intermittent claudications –Postoperatively to reduce the possibility of developing a deep vein thrombosis –Facilitate wound healing following surgery by reducing swelling

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