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References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Front page Project Details Materials.

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Presentation on theme: "References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Front page Project Details Materials."— Presentation transcript:

1 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Front page Project Details Materials and Components Structural systems Construction Process Envelope Systems Design proposal Case Studies Regulations References and Acknowledgements

2 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Project Details This project requires teams of 5 architects and construction managers to undertake the design and documentation of a warehouse and office complex. Teams will be formed in the week 1 tutorial and maintained throughout the semester. These teams MUST be composed of a combination of architects and double degree/ construction management students. Team compositions will be confirmed in the week 2 tutorial session-from then on, you will work together. This project requires teams to undertake a significant amount of research into issues related to the design and construction of industrial and commercial buildings. This project requires teams to prepare a digital report (PowerPoint or webpage) demonstrating research into the following issues: Critical review of structural systems appropriate for warehouse and office spaces. This review should be framed in terms of comparisons between systems positive in relation to each other. Advice should be sought from architects and builders, as well as from websites and books to inform this critical review. The end result of this should be a recommendation of appropriate structural systems for the project Critical review of construction processes for commercial and industrial buildings of this scale, to be undertaken primarily through visits to job sites under construction. This critical review should provide an understanding of how constructability influences the selection of appropriate construction systems for the warehouse and office building. This should involve site visits by every team member Review of envelope systems appropriate for both warehouse and office spaces. What are the critical issues that influence the selection of envelope systems for both warehouses and office buildings? The end result of this should be a recommendation of appropriate envelope systems for the project Production of a chart for rules of thumb for indicative structural sections and sizes for elements of warehouse and office buildings. This is to determined through the measure-up of existing (built) structures and review of texts and should include information on span, spacing, member size and factors influencing loading upon structure Development of schematic design layout of building proposal. This layout should include building planning (including stairs, toilets, office layouts, pallet layout etc), This should include freehand plans and sections (1:100 min) based on the information gathered during the research.

3 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Steel General Information Structural system Envelope Systems Construction Process Rules of Thumb Fire Rating Conclusion Concrete General Information Structural system Envelope Systems Construction Process Drainage systems Rules of Thumb Fire Rating Conclusion Timber General Information Structural system Envelope Systems Construction Process Rules of Thumb Fire Rating Conclusion Glass / Plastic General Information Structural system Envelope Systems Construction Process Rules of Thumb Fire Rating Conclusion Masonry General Information Structural system Envelope Systems Construction Process Rules of Thumb Fire Rating Conclusion Other Retaining wall Drainage systems Rules of Thumb Fire Rating suspended ceiling Construction Process Conclusion Carpet Plaster Board Plywood Comparisons Materials and Components

4 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Structural Systems Steel One way rigid frame / one way braced Two way rigid framework Two way braced framework Bracing Mast Architecture Concrete Footings Roof Structure Wall Structure Timber Masonry Glass and Plastic Other Retaining WallsRetaining Walls 1 2 3123

5 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Steel Timber Concrete Footings Tilt up Pre Cast Glass and Plastic Glass Bricks Crystallised glassCrystallised glass 1 212 Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass Planar (structural Glazing) Glass BalustradesGlass Balustrades 1 212 Spider Tension Truss System Spider Glass Fin System Overhead Glazing Masonry General Trusses Space Trusses Portal Frames Structural sequence Portal Frames Construction Process

6 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Envelope Systems Interior Concrete Flooring Wall Cladding Ceiling Timber Exterior Steel Concrete Wall Cladding Roof Cladding Timber Glass and Plastic Polytetrafluoroethylene glass fiber coated fabric Glass Blocks Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass Crystallised glass Planar (structural glazing) Spider Tension Truss System Spider Glass Fin System balustrade Overhead Glazing Balustrade system Masonry

7 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Steel High strength and stiffness compared to other common construction materials such as reinforced concrete, timber, brickwork. Steel has great structural value due to its high strength in tension Steel is often chosen over other materials for structural systems due to its high strength in comparison to member sizes. Steel is commonly used in conjunction with concrete in footing systems, wall systems such as tilt up construction as well as in structural members such as concrete columns or beams. Steel is used independently in framing systems for roof and wall structures, bracing, flooring systems such as mezzanine floors and as structural members such as supportive columns. Concrete Concrete it is extremely strong under compression but weak under tension. It is for this reason that concrete is reinforced with steel, a material which can under go high tensile forces with less permanent deformation Concrete is often chosen over other materials for structural systems due to its excellent thermal and acoustic properties as well as its high fire rating value Common uses for reinforced concrete are in footing systems, panel wall systems as well as in structural members. Timber Parallel to the grain timber has a relatively equal compressive and tensile strength Timbers properties are generally not uniform, this is predominantly because of the variation in moisture content of the timber and the air, which can cause expansion and shrinkage of the timber. Timber is often chosen over other materials because it only requires a capenter to construct timber systems with no specialist tools which makes it a more economical alternative than steel or concrete. Timber is also commonly chosen for its aesthetically pleasing appearance Glass Glass can come in many different forms depending on the application, it can be toughened, glazed, crystalised, tinted etc. to suit the application. The transparency of glass allows natural light but blocks out the wind. It can be either coloured, patterned or not be seen at all. Glass is predominantly used as glazing in either block or sheet form. Masonry Brick and stone masonry, like concrete, is strong under compression but weak under tension. Due to the low time efficiency of masonry construction it usually chosen for use as cladding only and does not undergo any structural loads. It is also chosen for its high fire rating and good thermal and acoustic properties. Common uses for masonry are in wall cladding systems, fences and landscaping walls.

8 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Design proposal Scale 1:500 Schematics Warehouse plan Showroom floor plan Sectional plan office building Site plan / Warehouse plan

9 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Showroom floor plan

10 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies

11 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies

12 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Warehouse plan

13 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Pros High strength and stiffness compared to other common construction materials such as reinforced concrete, timber, brickwork. Steel has great structural value due to its high strength in tension (480MPa), and under compression (340MPa) and shear loads Suitable for situations of bending, compression and tension. Relatively easy to connect (welding or bolting) Common grades known as mild steel, but higher grades are available for certain situations steel has a high strength to weight ratio with good toughness and hardness qualities. Stainless steel and high tensile steel have higher structural strength as well, they are harder and tougher. Steel – General information Cons Heavy and expensive compared to other materials and thus should be used efficiently Care needs to be taken in the finishing with corrosion or rusting common in the presence of moisture and air in combination. Steel is also a generic term for many steel alloys that are in use within the construction industry with a wide range of steel quality available. Structural steel > 96% iron, + varying proportions of Carbon Phosphorus Manganese Silicon Sulphur Nickel Chromium Copper (Ref 56) (Ref 42)

14 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Steel – Structural Systems Framing system and layout considerations will be influenced by: Nature and level of loads to be resisted requirements and restrictions on useable space within the framework constraints imposed by architectural requirements These considerations can have a variety of solutions that are typically provided for by steel framed construction in a portal frame system (A continuous rigid frame with a restrained joint between the column and beam Hamsters website). This entails three basic framing systems (two way rigid, one way rigid/one way flexible or two way braced frameworks) in conjunction with two basic connection types (flexible or rigid) within One way rigid frame / one way braced Two way rigid framework Two way braced framework Bracing Mast structure Examples of structural steel would include Hot rolled – a universal beam is a good example of hot rolled structural steel. A hot billet of steel of forced through a series of rollers to form the pre determined shapes such as the I, C and L (also called angles). The I beam is predominantly replaced with the universal beam due to its square edges allowing easier jointing and welding. Cold Rolled Sections – C and Z sections are predominantly used in lesser structural elements such as girts and purlins providing light weight easily lifted supports for roofing or wall cladding and associated fixings. Sheet steel formed while cold are often treated with galvanizing or zincalume to increase product life against corrosion and oxidation. Rolled steel plates – often used in conjunction with Universal beams to construct base plates or intricate joints. High tensile steel – is an alloy which is typically used in pre stressed and post tensioned members where large elongation forces are resisted. Steel pipe and tubes are also used as structural elements in light weight construction. Roof members and structural supporting tubular members are common in contemporary steel house framing applications, cabled and masted structures. Steel Rods – are used as a structural element for lightweight masted structures as tension transferring elements as well as to resist racking forces as bracing commonly in portal frames and other buildings requiring resistance against large wind loads. Combinations of rods provide a steel mesh wuited to concrete reinforcing that provides tensional strength. (Ref 40) (Ref 42) (Ref 57)

15 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies One way rigid frame/one way braced One way rigid frames are used quite extensively due to their ability to resist bending loads in one direction with the inferior bending angle being able to be braced. In general, this system requires the construction of a rigid system along the flexible plane to resist racking forces. This could be constructed using a number of systems including cables, steel rods, wind girders, a rigid diaphragm (reinforced concrete floor or walls could constitute this) with proper connections, a concrete core, or boxed/tubular steel sections making up rods could provide a suitable structural solution for bracing. Advantages Cheaper joints used in braced plane Can utilize I columns – usually rolled. Utilises simple flexible joints in the braced plane. Can use plastic design methods and continuous beam design in plane of rigid connections – saving materials Disadvantages Restricts the layout as there are the requirements for bracing along one plane. Utilises rigid connections in one plane. Typical applications of one way rigid frameworks Low rise industrial frames (portal frames) Rectangular frames (especially where bracing can be accommodated within the perimeter) Industrial structures Architectural structures (bracing elements are often used as part of the architectural feature). Steel – One way rigid frame / One way braced (Ref 57)

16 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Basic Framing Systems Two way rigid framework Two way rigid frameworks comprise two planes of rigid frames intersecting at right angles using common columns at their intersection. Such frameworks resist lateral forces in both planes by frame action without the need for any separate stabilizing elements. All beam to column connections must be of a rigid type with the columns may need to be of equal stiffness in both directions, with boxed or tubular columns being suitable options. Typical applications for two way rigid frames are: Multi storey frames Low rise rectangular frames where layout requirements restrict the use of bracing elements Heavy industrial structures where planning needs restrict the us of bracing elements Architectural structures that can be modeled as two way rigid frames. Advantages Complete freedom in planning as there are no internal columns or requirements for bracing along the sides that would interrupt openings. Floor beams for multiple story buildings can be reduced due to the increased strength as a result of the fixed ends. Uses less materials Plastic design methods can be utilised. Rigid portal frames are more economical of the steel framed systems for the 15 to 45 meter range when compared to trussed construction for the same span. p 24 Disadvantages Necessitates more costly connections and columns to withstand greater forces without the assistance of bracing. Increased column section mass may reduce any savings in member size due to rigid ends resulting in larger bending moments. Columns should ideally have near equal stiffness in both directions which might entail fabricated box columns. Large column movements Note: if economical construction is the driving force behind the structure, then a balance must be met between the savings in materials versus the extra cost of rigid construction. Steel – Two way rigid frame (Ref 41) (Ref 57)

17 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Two way braced framework Two way braced frameworks rely on stabilizing bracing resisting racking forces in all directions. The framework itself can be constructed using simple pin connections in combination with a rigid floor system to resist distortion of the framework. This system Advantages Simple connections are possible and are the least costly type (which can offset the costs of heavy beam construction) The stabilizing elements can be arranged in a number of ways including braced panels, cores and orthogonally arranged shear walls which could be utilised in as walls around service blocks or external walls. External bracing could be used as an architectural feature. Usually use I columns Disadvantages Restricts the layout as there is the requirement for bracing all planes. Little interaction between elements Heavier beam sizes Steel – Two way braced framework (Ref 57) (Ref 60)

18 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Bracing elements Stabilising elements whose function is to provide a means of stabilizing the framework in either one or two planes may be divided into the following categories: Triangulated steel bracing panels using the X, K or diamond pattern of diagonal members. Vertical Vierendeel cantilevers in steel. Triangulated steel core. Reinforced concrete or masonry shear walls. Reinforced concrete or masonry cores or shear tubes Brick infill panels and walls Light metal cladding used on the stressed skin principle. Steel – Bracing Elements (Ref 57) STEEL CABLE AND ROD Steel Cable and steel rods are an increasingly common fixing method for modern design utilising suspended systems and glazing. Able to be purchased from wholesalers in diameters up to 26mm, cables are less rigid than rods but comparatively stronger as there are no threads that add weakness to the system For comparison, a grade 316 cable of 22mm diameter has a breaking load of 285 Kn versus rod at 22.2 mm, has a breaking strength of 169 Kn. (Ref 59)

19 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies An alternative building typology is the mast structure or tensile structure. Mast architecture consists of a tensile structure based on tall masts suspending smaller structural elements in suspension cables or rods as secondary support elements. Rigid decking and flooring or flexible roofing are able to be suspended off the mast in a number of formats and configurations depending on the design parameters using fundamental loading principles in more complex arrangements. In general terms, mast architecture is considered costly and inefficient for the majority of applications. Harris and Li suggest that in terms of scale, the larger the unobstructed space needed, the more likely is a masted structure to be an economic and effective solution page 139. Unobstructed spaces as large as 87 x 104 meters have been described as the remarkably economic and others considered the most economic with the most efficient use of material. But the same authors note that actually calculating the price of mast structures is difficult and time consuming which might account for the construction industrys lack of enthusiasm for these structural styles in Australia. There is also difficulty in calculating the economic contribution of a visually striking building and its appropriateness. Actual weight of steel used in a mast structure is less than in regular structures per square meter of floor area, which is difficult to gauge the usefulness of this information. Steel – Mast Architecture Next (Ref 39) (Ref 58)

20 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Mast structures Advantages Represent a significant alternative to traditional steel framed construction They represent progress in conceptual analysis and theoretical and practical understandings of how tensile structures behave. They demonstrate the successful use of new materials and components, their fixing and weatherproofing. They show how creative architect engineer collaboration can result in innovative structures which benefit both professions. They have introduced a new architectural genre with its own vocabulary and range of structural expression. The alternative arrangements of masts, tension stays and grouping of functional cells can meet a wide variety of demands and can be interpreted using many different materials and forms. The reduction or complete absence of internal masts or columns over large areas increase their internal layout flexibility. The regularity of the structural systems enables them to be easily extended, often with little disruption to the original fabric. The main structural foundations can be concentrated on areas of sound foundations and reduced where soil is less accepting. Externalising the structure reduces the visual scale of the building adding interest to the façade (an alternative to an anonymous big shed). Building volume can be reduced allowing fewer materials to be used, less visual impact and reduced heating expense. The structural efficiency of good design could lead to less structural materials and less costs as a result when compared to traditional methods. Reductions in component sizes can reduce transport costs and overall savings to design. The disadvantages There are likely to be higher costs due to difficulties in analysis, calculation and checking, and in detailing. Difficult to predict issues in construction and design due to generalized lack of previous examples. In most examples there will be increased thermal movement with implications to the detailing of the structure and the envelope. The loading of the structure will require more than usual consideration Increased costs in corrosion proofing of steel work. High performance roofing systems will usually need to be provided and maintained. Steel – Mast Architecture (Ref 37) (Ref 58)

21 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Steel – Envelope Systems External non structural steel would constitute cladding and sheet materials. Most steel sheet products are non structural in that they form a cladding envelope in the form of a roof or walls. Although there is some racking force resistance benefits, these light weight steel sheets are well suited to cladding arrangements. Jointing methods. Riveting – early steel construction utilised riveting predominantly which was slow, cumbersome, noisy and by todays standards very dangerous. Riveting utilses hot rivets being forced through pre drilled holes and forming a head on the stem to keep the rivet in place. Bolting – Still used for many situations to fix elements together on site, steel bolts and nuts are used to connect trusses, beams, floor plates, bracing. Welding – Welding essentially involves heating the metals to great temperature in a controlled manner so the metal will flow together and form one piece of metal. Developments in welding equipment sees much work done on site. Jointing beams and fixing shear connectors on decked concrete slabs is a good example of welding increasing productivity through this development in welding technology. (Ref 42) Steels tensile and compressive strength in fire situations where larger temperatures are encountered should also be considered during the design process. Application of post construction fire retardants can be utilised to reduce the impact of heating such elements by increasing the fire resistance rating of the elements (Ref 42) Steel – Fire Rating Steel column fire protection

22 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Simple judicial design of a steel structure can determine the potential economy of the structure. Through consultations with fabricators and builders, a clear picture of the best methods should be determined. The ability to design for the maximum amount of work to be completed off site is typically beneficial. Rolled universal sections are typically the cheapest for use in beams and columns. Composite columns could be used in high rise to good effect with square hollow sections giving good appearance. Base plates should be minimal in fabrication requirements and utilise larger plates in stead. Heavier gauge columns can save in stead of stiffners. Sizing. Sizing in beams depends on span, spacing and loading. If the beam carries more point loads, suggestions are even more difficult. In general for uniformly distributed loads the sizes are Imposed loadSpacingSpanSize compositeSize non composite 536254x102xUB25305x127xUB42 537.5305x102xUB33356x171xUB51 539356x171xUB45457x152xub60 5312457x191xUB67610x229xUB101 5318754x266xUB147762x267xUB103 (NB supporting beams will be 100 to 150 mm deeper than these above) Column size is not something easily reduced and columns should be no less than 250 mm wide for ease of detailing Trusses with centres of 3 to 6 meters carrying uniformly distributed is economic and reliable between one 12 th to one 15 th of the span. Steel – Rules of Thumb (Ref 13)

23 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Steel – Conclusion Intended Office recommendations for design Steel corrugated sheets for office roofing. Aluminium window framing Roof framing system Intended Warehouse recommendations for design Stainless Steel cable for tent structural support Hollow Steel Section for central column. Stainless steel fixings for exterior fixing requirements Steel columns for mezzanine support Steel roller doors for truck entry and exit

24 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete - General Information Concrete technology was first developed by the Romans more than 2000 years ago using a mixture of fine volcanic ash with hydrated lime cement, broken brick and stone. Modern Concrete is an artificial stone produced in a plastic condition by mixing together aggregates (sand and crushed rock) and Portland cement and water in controlled proportions. The characteristics of concrete depend largely on the qualities and proportions of these ingredients. Due to the nature of the chemical bonds which form concrete it is extremely strong under compression but weak under tension. It is for this reason that concrete is reinforced with steel, a material which can under go high tensile forces with less permanent deformation (Ref 42) (Ref 43)

25 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Structural Systems Next Footings Strip footings Overview A strip of reinforced concrete is poured into a trench dug in the foundations to support continuous walls. Pros Can be used independently or in a combination to support a range of suspended flooring systems common on sites with steep slopes Allows access to services after construction. Cons Can be used on flat sites but is a more expensive alternative to raft slabs on flat sites. Pad footing Pad footings Overview A pad of reinforced concrete is poured into the foundations to support distribute point loads from piers supporting the structure. Pros Can be used independently or in a combination to support a range of suspended flooring systems common on sites with steep slopes Allows access to services after construction. Cons Can be used on flat sites but is a more expensive alternative to raft slabs on flat sites. (Ref 44)

26 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Pier and Beam Overview On highly reactive sites and areas of collapsing or uncontrolled fill, piers or piles may be used to support the above structure. Piers are excavated and then poured with steel reinforcement before the system above is attached. Pros Effective solution for building on uncontrolled fill Cons Labour and time intensive Requires detailed design specifications by an engineer. Raft slab Overview A continuous slab of concrete is poured on the foundations with reinforcement to evenly distribute loads over a large shallow area. Pros Easy to construct on flat sites Minimum number of steps for access Provides a good working platform Low maintenance Low long term movement Robust and difficult to manage Good thermal properties Cons Not suited to large sloping sites Floor plan alterations difficult in the future (plumbing and other services) Costly to repair Can not detect structural integrity of slab Concrete – Structural Systems Previous (Ref 44)

27 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Structural Systems Next Roof Structure Shell and barrel roof Overview A steel reinforced concrete barrel roof is cast on site after walls are erected. Formwork must be erected and extensive calculations must be made by a structural engineer. Pros easily constructed if it permits use of standardised forms can achieve long spans without column support internally cast on site so no transportation costs Cons Labour and time intensive Extensive formwork required Wall Structure Tilt up Overview A concrete floor slab used as the principal casting bed and wall panels are cast on site capable of bearing the load of the roof construction. These panels are usually cast full height, with no horizontal joints, on the floor slab and are then tilted to their vertical position when cured. Pros No transport costs Easier lifting Wide range of applied finishes available Good acoustic properties Time efficient Can be used in either a load bearing or non-load bearing capacity Cons Limits usability of floor Causes imperfections in floor finish due to the effects of bond breakers Must allow for crane access

28 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Structural Systems Previous Pre cast Overview Reinforced concrete panels are cast off site capable of bearing the load of the roof construction. Like tilt up these panels are usually cast full height with no horizontal joints and are most effective when used in repetition. These panels are then transported to the site and lifted to their vertical position using cranes. Pros Greater degree of accuracy achieved than through tilt up method Can be designed to serve almost any building capacity Can be used in either a load bearing or non-load bearing capacity Good acoustic properties Wide range of applied finishes available Cons Transportation costs Must allow for crane access Pre Stressed Overview Steel reinforcement is stressed prior to pouring of concrete the pre-stressing process aims to place a tensile stress into the tension steel prior to the load being applied The system can be used both in situ and pre-cast work, a common example of this system are T-beams. Pros Eliminates cracking due to shrinkage while drying Deflection a member normally incurs under loading can be greatly eliminated and the waterproofing and load bearing qualities of the concrete improved Cons The same heights and spans can be achieved more effectively through used of steel members which are smaller in size

29 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Envelope Systems Internal Next Polished concrete Overview Concrete surface of slab on ground or suspended slab left exposed as the final floor finish. Liquid polishes, latex coatings, chemical sealers, grinding and colouring agents can be applied to achieve a variety of finishes. Pros Variety of colours, textures and finishes are available.Easily maintained, only regular cleaning required Cons Requires recoating at regular intervals depending on use of the floor. Structural integrity dependant on quality of concrete mix and workmanship. Flooring Bondek Overview Steel structural formwork and reinforcement system for composite slabs and beams. Used in combination with reinforced concreted to create a suspended slab. Pros Achieves thin, high strength slabs with minimal labour and time. Is suitable for mezzanine floors Acts as formwork and replaces bottom reinforcement. Cons Limited unsupported spaning capacitiesOnly available in standard lengths. (Ref 45)

30 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Envelope Systems Internal Previous Wall Cladding Fibro cement sheeting Overview Single-faced cellulose fibre reinforced cement building boards are available for use in exterior and interior cladding uses these are generally composed of Portland cement, ground sand, cellulose fibre and water. Pros Fire resistant Termite resistant When installed correctly is resistant to rot and warping Resistant to permanent water damage Cons No allowance for acoustic insulation Available in a limited range of lengths Ceilings Fibre reinforced cement Overview Single-faced cellulose fibre reinforced cement building boards are available for fixing between rafters on ceilings these are generally composed of Portland cement, ground sand, cellulose fibre and water. Pros Fire resistant Termite resistant When installed correctly is resistant to rot and warping Resistant to permanent water damage Cons No allowance for acoustic insulation Available in a limited range of lengths

31 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Envelope Systems External Next Wall cladding Tilt up Overview A concrete floor slab used as the principal casting bed and wall panels are cast on site capable of bearing the load of the roof construction. These panels are usually cast full height, with no horizontal joints, on the floor slab and are then tilted to their vertical position when cured. Pros No transport costs Easier lifting Wide range of applied finishes available Good acoustic properties Time efficient Can be used in either a load bearing or non-load bearing capacity Cons Limits usability of floor Causes imperfections in floor finish due to the effects of bond breakers Must allow for crane access Pre cast Overview Reinforced concrete panels are cast off site capable of bearing the load of the roof construction.Like tilt up these panels are usually cast full height with no horizontal joints and are most effective when used in repetition. These panels are then transported to the site and lifted to their vertical position using cranes. Pros Greater degree of accuracy achieved than through tilt up method Can be designed to serve almost any building capacity Can be used in either a load bearing or non-load bearing capacity Good acoustic properties Wide range of applied finishes available Cons Transportation costs Must allow for crane access (Ref 52)

32 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Envelope Systems External Previous Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks Overview Standard sized blocks made from chemically produced and steam cured lightweight concrete and are laid up using special adhesives. Pros Easily handled, accurate to shape and size, and can be cut and shaped with normal hand tools High fire resistance Excellent thermal and acoustic insulating properties Cons Easily damaged due to their softnes Through cement rendering they can be made reasonably resistant to normal abuses Concrete tiles Overview Concrete roofing tiles based on the Marseilles pattern without reinforcing. Pros In locations such as ocean frontages they are not affected by salt spray. Easily replaced as faults will most likely occur in one or two tiles at a time Cons Generally heavier than terracotta products Labour and time intensive to install Only suitable for certain roof pitches ie unsuitable for flat or steep roof surfaces.

33 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Drainage Systems Steel Reinforced Concrete Pipes Overview steel reinforced concrete pipes made from coarse and fine aggregates, cement and hard drawn deformed steel reinforcement, joined using either a flush joint or rubber joint. Pros Rubber Ring Joints provide concrete pipes with a high degree of flexibility to accommodate ground settlement or deflections. Pipeline systems can allow for curved alignment without loosing water tight jointing. Can be tailor designed to meet the most drainage requirements. Can withstand high pressures whilst still maintaining structural integrity Available in a wide range of sizes in either standard or custom lengths. Cons Certain pipelines may require council approval (Ref 55)

34 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Rules of Thumb Reinforced Concrete Slabs In-situ slabs are generally not less than 125 to 150mm thick. If the thickness is less it is difficult to get two layers of reinforcement in Sensible spans for light weight and normal concrete on metal deck or permanent formwork are 2.4 to 3.6m. One way spanning simply supported reinforced slabs. Sensible slab depths and spans are: 150mm 3.0m 250mm 6.0m 300mm 7.2m Above a 7.2m span it is economical to use a ribbed slab. Ribbed slab depths (ribs at about 600mm centres) and spans are: 500mm 10.0m 700mm 14.0m It is not usual to go much beyond 14m without using a beam and slab system. Two way spanning and continuious slabs can be a bit thinner. Sensible slab depths and spans are: 125mm 3.0m 225mm 6.0m 275mm 7.2m Large span two-way slabs are not usually used. Flat slabs are always continuous but need to be a bit thicker than two way slabs Sensible slab spans and depths are: 150mm 3.0m 250mm 6.0m 300mm 7.2m Above a 7.2m span it is usually economic to use a waffle slab. Rib centres are usually in the range of 900 to 1500mm centres. Sensible waffle slab depths are: 500mm 10.0m 700mm 14.0m It is not usual to go much beyond 14m. Reinforced Concrete Walls Walls should normally be at least 200mm thick. If the wall is thinner it is very difficult to get a vibrating poker down between two layers of reinforcement Walls need tp be thicker than 200mm when the storey height is greater than normal. Retaining walls need to e 250 to 300mm minimum and of a thickness appropriate to their vertical span. Freestanding cantilever walls need to be more massive to resist overturning. Reinforced Concrete Beams For edge beams to slabs when the beam does not carry point loads from other beams or columns above. Sensible beam depths and spans are: 500mm 6.0m 600mm 7.2m 700mm 8.0m Above this span allow span divided by 10 for sizing of all beams. Reinforced Concrete Columns Allow 0.15 per cent of the floor area supported for sway-braced columns assuming the column length is not greater than 12 times the width. Columns should not be less than 250mm wide. (Ref 13)

35 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Fire Rating Concrete column fire protection (Ref 20)

36 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Concrete – Conclusion Intended Office recommendations for design Tilt up walls for office space (south, east and west) Raft slab footings Intended Warehouse recommendations for design Retaining wall/ footing system Raft slab footing Concrete is a very versatile building material in that it can be cast in a wide variety of shapes and sizes to suit many building applications. Although concrete is weak under tensile stress when used in combination with steel in the form of reinforcement it is a strong building material. As concrete has a high resistance to the corrosive effects of water and minerals (with the use of admixtures) it can be used in a wide variety of building applications. Concrete also has extremely good thermal and noise insulation properties, it is for this reason that it is often used in a load bearing or non load bearing capacity in wall systems. Although concrete is often seen as cold and unpleasant to the eye it is commonly used as it is cost and time effective and can easily be treated with a variety of colours and textures to make it more aesthetically pleasing.

37 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber – General Information Timber is a very popular material, as it is organic, renewable and generally assembled with simple tools. Parallel to the grain timber has a relatively equal compressive and tensile strength One downside to the use of timber is that its properties are generally not uniform, this is predominantly because of the variation in moisture content of the timber and the air, which can cause expansion and shrinkage of the timber. It is on the other hand fire resistant when used in large sections. (Ref 21) Another downside of timber is the fact that without the correct detailing and regular maintenance it will have a long or successful structural life. Laminated timber has less defects and irregularities than normal timber, and the effects of their defects are reduced. This is because the grain of the thin slices of timber run perpendicular to the one next to them (i.e. the grain no longer lines up), and therefore the defects would no longer line up. Some of the common defects are knots, shakes and gum veins Manufactured timber products used in construction –Plywood –Laminated timber –Laminated veneer lumber

38 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber – Structural Systems Portal Frames Timber is good for portal frames because timber has a good strength-to-weight ratio. Laminated timber can span 10-30m, and can therefore be very useful in portal frame construction. Portal frames with curved knees are used as 3 pinned portals with spans up to 50m, with minimum roof pitch of 15 degrees Timber portal frames can be added to easily in the future For timber portal frames plywood or steel gussets are nailed at the moment joints (knee and apex), for added strength, and act as a reaction to the moment force at that particular point When creating a gusset it is more efficient to use a piece of plywood with a more pronounced strength in one direction. Glued laminated timber is especially suited to portal frame production as there is a freedom of location of moment joints as well as the placement of secondary member attachments. Typical Portal Frame (Ref 24) Curved Knee (Ref 24) Plywood Gusset (Ref 24) Steel Gusset (Ref 24) Plywood Gusset (Ref 24)

39 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Structural Systems Footings Timber is not commonly used as part of the footings on commercial construction Construction Timber on the whole is easy to handle, and doesnt require special tools unlike steel and concrete etc. When timber is used as the structural system for warehouses the majority of the construction process is carried out on site. Generally only a carpenter is needed when using timber in construction. Trusses Laminated timber is suitable for large spans and/or heavy loaded trusses. (Ref 21) Plywood Webbed Beams Plywood webbed box beams are good for large span structures as they have good lateral stability, along with increased buckling resistance. This occurs because the laminating process increases the strength of the timber member. (Ref 22) Roofing Plywood can also be used as a substrate for roofing. Flooring Timber is commonly used as floor structure in residential and some commercial construction. Used as floor joists, bearers and as flooring.

40 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber – Envelope Systems Internal When timber is used as rafters you can decide to expose them, in turn giving the building or room a very different aesthetic quality. Timber can also be used as decorative internal lining, therefore making interior surfaces that are also aesthetically pleasing. Plywood can be used as a decorative internal lining. When using plywood as flooring large areas can be covered quickly, making the process of laying much simpler. It is also very common to use as flooring, particularly in commercial premises such as offices.

41 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber – Envelope Systems External The most commonly used form of external cladding when referring to timber is timber boards (i.e. weather boards). It is for this reason that they come in a variety of profiles. When used externally timber can be left in its natural state, as there are some naturally durable species, or finished with a preservative, either clear, stained or opaque (i.e. Paint). It is for the reasons above that means that the external use of timber becomes integral part of the design. When used for external purposes especially there is a lot of maintenance required, as well as good detailing at joints, and adequate fixings. If timber is used as external cladding you also get the added advantage of extra stability, which is an asset in high quality work. While most timber products are suitable for external use laminated veneer lumber is not recommended for use in areas where permanent exposure to the weather is required. (Ref 35)

42 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Plywood – when dealing with fixings (Ref 36) Timber– Rules of Thumb When dealing with timber in general the major concern, and therefore crucial rules of thumb is to do with the detailing of the joints, the finishes, and the quality of the fixings

43 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber– Fire Rating Fire rating Main members (if solid timber) can be designed to support their design loads in even the severest of fires, as the surface of solid and laminated timber chars and then resists further burning According to the Boral Timber technical manual (July 98) visible timber based materials or components such as decorative wall or ceiling paneling and flooring which are accepted for use in building classed 2-9 should have a spread of flame index not more than 9, or a smoke development index not more than eight where the spread of flame index is more than 5. Timber Floors and Roofs –If half hour fire rating with load bearing capacity, integrity and insulation is required the internal lining needs to be 6mm thick, and you have 19mm tongue-and-groove flooring with a minimum 38mm joists at 600mm centres –If 1 hour fire rating with load bearing capacity, integrity and insulation is required, and you have concealed timber joists or exposed timber joists you will need 9mm thick internal lining, with insulation with a density of 60kg/m³ or greater and that is 40mm thick, along with timber floor boards that are 19mm thick. –If 2 hours of fire rating with load bearing capacity, integrity and insulation is required, you will need 2 x 12mm thick internal lining, with insulation that has a density of 60kg/m³ or greater and that is 50mm thick, along with timber floor boards that are 19mm thick. Internal Partitions – Timber Studs –If half hour fire rating, integrity and insulation are required the internal lining on each side needs to be 6mm thick, with insulation that is 60mm thick and has a density of 23kg/m³, and therefore the nominal thickness of 75mm –If an hours fire rating, integrity and insulation is required the nominal thickness of partition should be 81mm, the internal lining on each side needs to be 9mm thick, with insulation that is 80mm thick and has a density of 23kg/m³. –If 1.5 hours fire rating, integrity and insulation is required the nominal thickness of partition should be 81mm, the internal lining on each side needs to be 9mm thick, with insulation that is 50mm thick and has a density of 100kg/m³ or more. –If 2 hours fire rating, integrity and insulation is required the nominal thickness of partition should be 87mm, the internal lining on each side needs to be 12mm thick, with insulation that is 60mm thick and has a density of 100kg/m³ or more. Ref 20 (E 420.10 and E 460.10) Timber column fire protection

44 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber– Conclusion Timber on the whole is versatile, in that one of its many features is the fact that a timber structure can be easily added to after completion. Timber also has the ability to absorb high impact loads for short periods of time without causing any adverse effects. Timber can also be manufactured into long lengths and large section sizes. It is also economical because generally only a carpenter is required, with no need for specialized tools. It is also because of its natural pleasing appearance that timber is so commonly used, with relation to flooring and other internal linings, and why in some cases it is a preference over steel. Intended Office recommendations for design Exposed beam mezzanine hardwood floor Hardwood stairs Intended Warehouse recommendations for design Aluminium faced plywood cladding

45 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Polytetrafluoroethylene glass fibre coated fabric General Description : Fabrics woven from continuous filament glass yarns and coated with PTFE to give a stiff, flexible, fairly smooth surfaced material that is chemically inert with excellent release properties. (Ref 1) Envelope systemEnvelope system Glass Blocks General Description: small transparent glass bricks that can provide fire protection, thermal properties, light transmission and sound insulation. Envelope system Envelope system Crystallised glass General Description: It is made by the highly sophisticated and specialized technique of crystallization of glass. The crystallization process produces needle-shaped crystals called B-wollastonite (CaOSi02) and gives the glass a soft colour which results in the marble-like texture of Neoparies. (Ref 2) Envelope systemEnvelope system Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass General Description: Rooflite Fibreglass is a quality translucent fibre reinforced polyester sheet. (Ref 4) Envelope systemEnvelope system Glass and Plastic – General Information Glass Balustrades General Description: Bent, curved or straight glass sheets supported by posts or free standing. Envelope systems Envelope systems Spider Tension Truss system Glass sheeting suspended by cables Envelope system Envelope system Overhead Glazing Glass sheeting suspended by cables overhead Envelope system Balastrade system Envelope system Glass manufacture Constituents of glass Sand Soda ash Limestone Dolomite Alumina Heat to 1500 C, float over tn bath, annealed to 500 C Planar (structural glazing) General Description: Fully Fixed Pilkington Armourfloat® toughened safety glass panels can be supported by fully-fixed support structures using the Pilkington Planar® system. These can take the form of space frames, structural metalwork, masonry, or any other suitable structure. (Ref 5) Envelope systemEnvelope system

46 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic– Structural Systems Glass is not structural, for glass to be structural it requires other materials see the construction processesconstruction processes (Ref 8)

47 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems External (according to Ref 1) Pros used for permanent constructions material has very high tensile resistance Material is UV resistant, non-combustible and boasts a high reflective capability membrane is washed clean every time it rains and therefore normally does not require additional cleaning 100% PVDF on the surface, it provides effective protection against atmospheric pollution, soiling and climatic aggressions Solar Transmission 7% Solar Reflectance 12% Fire Performance Non-combustibility of Substrate Pass (ASTM E-136) Intermittent Flame Class A (ASTM E-108) Spread of Flame Class A (ASTM E-108) External Fire Exposure Roof Test Class AA (BS 476-Part 3) Fire Propagation Class 0 (BS 476-Part 6) Spread of Flame Class 1 (BS 476-Part 7) Chemical Resistance Electrical Properties Physical Properties Thermal Properties Polytetrafluoroethylene glass fiber coated fabric Is fabric that is stiff, flexible, and has a fairly smooth surface that is chemically inert with excellent release properties. Cons - Toxic Chemicals in the making of the material which may cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, ingested or absorbed via the skin. - Irritant Non-corrosive chemicals in the making of the material which, through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane may cause inflammation

48 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Chemical Resistance Acids - concentratedGood Acids - diluteGood AlcoholsGood AlkalisGood Aromatic HydrocarbonsGood Greases and OilsGood HalogensFair KetonesGood Electrical Properties Surface Resistivity ( Ohm/sq )>10 13 Volume Resistivity ( Ohmcm )>10 15 Physical Properties Density ( g cm -3 )2.08 Thermal Properties Lower Working Temperature ( C )-190 to -60 Upper Working Temperature ( C )260 (Ref 1)

49 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems External Pros Thermal protection (see chart)(see chart) Sound insulation Fire protection (see chart)(see chart) Glass Blocks can protect against fire and smoke, achieving Fire Resistance Levels from -/60/- to -/90/90 in extreme cases Can be used as floors or walls Need little maintenance offer great versatility where fire protection is required, but where natural light and/or transparency are desirable. Glass block walls offer a high degree of light transmission, up to 79% of vertically incident light. - colourless block DT 190 x 190 x 80 generally gives light transmission of approximately 80% Glass block walls can reduce the heating of rooms caused by direct sunlight in summer and warm rooms in winter by allowing heating from the sun while it is at a low angle Glass Block walls offer a high level of security, with steel reinforced joints acting as a security grill. Bullet resistant blocks are also available - Thermal Insulation and Energy transmission is equal to that achieved by standard double glazing Glass Blocks (Ref 3) General Description: small transparent glass bricks that can provide fire protection, thermal properties, light transmission and sound insulation. Cons Non load bearing - should not take anything but their own weight reinforcement is required must be fixed on two opposite sides, so that the horizontal forces from the wall are safely distributed Suitable expansion and sliding joints must be provided to ensure that wall movements, as well as compressive forces, are absorbed. Sliding joints must be provided at the perimeter, while expansion joints must be filled with a durable and weatherproof elastic material. The latter must be a minimum of 10 mm thick Vertical and horizontal reinforcement shall be spaced at a maximum of 600 mm centres -glass can be scratched -Panel Dimensions should be limited depending on the method of installation

50 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies (Ref 3)

51 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems External Pros marble like texture is brighter, smoother and more uniform in texture than marble superior to marble and granite in strength and resistance to weathering formation into curved surfaces because it can be softened and bent when heat is applied is used for exterior and interior walls of buildings, floors, and for counter tops and table tops Neopariés is superior to marble and granite in resistance to acid and alkali a zero-percent water absorption rate This makes this material about 30% lighter in weight than natural stone materials (Ref 2) Crystallised glass General Description: Neopariés is a versatile building material having a marble-like texture and greater strength and resistance to weathering than granite. It is used for exterior and interior walls of buildings, floors, and for counter tops and table tops. Neopariés can also be formed into columns and curved corners, as it requires only a simple process to make a curved panel. It is most cost effective. (Ref 2) Cons Non load bearing Needs structural support

52 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems External Pros Used where maximum light with minimum heat is required heat reduction of up to 70%. where improved smoke properties are required for easy and rapid installation Rooflite Polycarbonate can withstand a temperature range of -30°C to +120°C without losing any of its physical properties. by a co-extruded UV layer capacity of shielding up to 99% of the sun's rays See fig 1 and fig 2 for specifications Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass General Description: Rooflite Fibreglass is a quality translucent fibre reinforced polyester sheet. (Ref 4) Cons light transmission of 38% The following indices have been achieved: for AS 1530 Part 3 Ignitability Index: 15 Heat evolved Index: 10 Spread of flame Index: 9 Smoke Developed Index: 7 Physical Properties Barcol Hardness 45 Flexural Strength 90MPA Flexural Modulus 7GPA Compressive Strength 139MPA Shear Strength 90MPA Impact Strength 531CJ/M2 Thermal expansion 1.9x10 5 CM/°C Specific Gravity 1.45GMS/CC Water Absorption (24hrs) 0.24 Service Temperature Recommended: -20°C to 75°C Light & Solar Transmission Rooflite Fibreglass Rooflite Fibreglass COLOURLIGHT TRANSMISSIONHEAT TRANSMISSION Clear85%89% Opal55%65% Based on 2400gsm. Total Solar Transmission is the % of incident solar radiation transmitted by an object which includes the direct solar transmission plus the part of solar absorption re-radiated inwards. Fig 1 Fig 2 (Ref 4)

53 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Pros can provide a complete glass envelope for a building structure without the use of conventional frames or mullions.. It is engineered to permit glazing in any plane, enabling flush glazing to sweep up walls, slopes and over roofs on one continuous surface vertically or horizontally, or they can act in suspension manufactured in Australia to conform with Australian Standard 2208 "Safety Glazing Materials for use in Buildings vertical fins which may be either cantilevered downwards from the top support, cantilevered up and down from intermediate floors, or continuous for the full height of the assembly Aesthetic function can be achieved Has been used throughout the world, including areas which are prone to earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes Vertical fins can be placed in different ways for a desired affect differential movement is allowed for between the glass façade and the fins Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems External Planar (structural glazing) General Description: Fully Fixed Pilkington Armourfloat® toughened safety glass panels can be supported by fully-fixed support structures using the Pilkington Planar® system. These can take the form of space frames, structural metalwork, masonry, or any other suitable structure. (Ref 5) Cons Heat transmission Lack of insulation

54 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems Glass Balustrades Pros Armourview® Balustrades Pilkington ArmourView® Balustrading is ideal wherever a barrier protecting a difference in level must also maximize views and daylight: Stairways and landings. Commercial and retail premises, including atrium & light wells. Housing decks (viewing decks). High-rise apartments. Mezzanines, and changes in floor levels. Observation decks. Theatre boxes and cinema balconies. Windbreaks. Free-standing - eliminates the need for any form of frame structure allowing unrestricted views Low-maintenance Structurally tested Easy installation Heat Soak Treatment Glass Balustrades General Description: Bent, curved or straight glass sheets supported by posts or free standing. Cons Maximum height- 1200 Glass length minimum 1000mm. Max length- 2500 Design does not account for Panic loads that may be required, refer AS1170.1. Construction dust, leachate from concrete and rusting from steel can contribute to the formation of mild chemicals which may stain or otherwise damage the glass. Avoid causing extreme temperature changes as this may lead to thermal fracture of the glass, i.e. do not splash hot water on cold glass or freezing water on hot glass. (according to Ref 5)

55 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems Spider Tension Truss System according to (Ref 9) Pros Completely flush external appearance, uninterrupted by frames. Suspended point fixed glass with high tension stainless steel vertical rod trusses as wind bracing. Trusses are tensioned between the concete floor slab and roof 4m x 3m Tested with 5kPa wind pressure flexibility allows the austvision Spider Austfix Tension Rod Truss System designed as vertical and or horizontal truss support removes heavy wall structures and replaces it with a lightweight tension truss system can withstand specified earthquake and typhoon conditions Available for monolithic and double glazing installation unit. Available using tempered laminated without outside face having holes. Design freedom for mechanical fixtures to be small and neat to suit aesthetic objectives can be up to 6m high suspended glass wall structurally supported by a 19mm thick x 380mm wide glass fin For Frameless glass- overhead glazing including slope glazing and canopy the glass panel is point supported at and near its corners when under loading the glass panel to flex and bend, twist and shear at the fixing points Spider glass wall a system that allows the glass to move independently from the structure avoiding any twisting or bending of the glass Can have glazing from the floor to the ceiling All glass fully tempered and heat soaked, assuring safety and reliability Cons - Special requirements and specifications compliance as to the glass itself - Its support - fittings - tightness of the façade system - installation and maintenance - builders (everyone involved) must work in very close cooperation from the very start of the project CALCULATED MAX.CAPACITY OF 316 GR. S.S. SPIDER FITTING Confirmed by Tests (fy=220MPa) Safety Factor 2.0 SPIDER FITTING LATERAL CAPACITYVERTICAL CAPACITY PER ARM kN ARM'S DEFLECTIO N mm PER ARM kN ARM'S DEFLECTION mm 443/24.201.953.101.10 443/41.252.101.901.20 446/2M6.502.003.704.00 446/4M3.754.452.304.00 446/2C2.951.951.902.40 446/4C2.224.351.452.80

56 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems Overhead Glazing Pros glass panel can flex freely up to 7 degrees in any direction. All glass fully tempered and heatsoaked, assuring safety and reliability Aesthetically pleasing effect achieved Cons Special requirements and specifications compliance as to the glass itself Its support fittings tightness of the façade system installation and maintenance builders (everyone involved) must work in very close cooperation from the very start of the project (Ref 9)

57 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass and Plastic – Envelope Systems Balustrade system Pros Frameless glass balustrade minimum 10mm thick glass panel designed to resist impact load acting inward, outward or downward. Conditions designed to meet the SAA loading code Australian Standard AS1171 Part 1. Cons High maintenance concerning appearance Balustrade Elevation Balustrade Section (Ref 9)

58 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction dust, leachate from concrete and rusting from steel can contribute to the formation of mild chemicals which may stain or otherwise damage the glass. Use only cleaning material free of grit and grime (to avoid scratching and marking of glass surface) Use only detergents and cleaning solutions which are recommended glass cleaners. Mild detergents are preferable. Extra care is necessary where high performance reflective glass is installed. The coated surface can be susceptible to stains and scratches and therefore requires vigilance during the full construction process. Temporary screens may need to be installed if welding, sandblasting, floor sanding, cutting or other potentially damaging construction practices are used near glass. Glass installations which are adjacent to concrete (e.g. concrete slab floors) require extra care and cleaning due to the abrasive nature of concrete dust. Advise all tradesmen to beware of damaging glass and windows. WHAT NOT TO DO Do not store or place other material in contact with the glass. (This can damage the glass or create a heat trap leading to thermal breakage). Never use abrasive cleaners on glass. Scouring pads or other harsh materials must not be used to clean windows or other glass products. Powder based cleaners are to be avoided. Avoid causing extreme temperature changes as this may lead to thermal fracture of the glass, i.e. do not splash hot water on cold glass or freezing water on hot glass. Some tapes or adhesives can stain or damage glass surfaces. Avoid using such materials unless they are known to be easily removed. Glass and Plastic – Rules of Thumb (according to Ref 5)

59 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies PRODUCT COMPARISONS CONSTRUCTION COST COMPARISONS Solar Control - High performance glass minimising solar heat gains. Providing less heat gain than skylights, due to better shading co- efficient and vertical wall location Windowclad® Pilkington Windowclad is a low cost glass wall cladding system, that has been padcaged for new industrial buildings and the refurbishment of factories and warehouses. Glass and Plastic – Fire Rating Wall CladdingGlassSteel 3 Concrete 1 Daylight - TransmissionUp to 20%0% - ReflectivityLess than 20%Variable 2 Insulation6.1W/m 2 O C7.14W/m 2 O C4.5W/m 2 O C Noise ReductionSTC 34STC 30STC 44 Weight25Kg/m 2 4.9Kg/m 2 300Kg/m 2 1. Concrete panel 125mm Thick 2 Steel and concrete reflectivity is variable and dependant on surface finish 3. 0.48mm Steel Wall Construction (relative premium - per m 2 Floor Area) with WINDOWCL AD with WINDOW CLAD & Skylights Precast concrete walls (not fire rated) 0.7%1.4% Precast concrete walls to 2m high2.3%3.0% Steel cladding colour coated4.3%5.0% (Ref 5)

60 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Glass is an adaptable and a aesthetically pleasing material It is versatile, and provides access for natural light although also allows heat to enter the building It is generally brittle and therefore requires support from other materials In its different forms it can be used for flooring, walling, roofing, and even table tops also many other applications It needs to be insured that the correct type of glass is used for the correct job. Glass and Plastic– Conclusion Intended Office recommendations for design Full double glazed and tinted glass windows for North wall Glass balustrade for office wall. Glass top for reception desk Intended Warehouse recommendations for design N.A.

61 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies (Ref 6) Construction Process - glass bricks (Ref 2) FIRE RATED PANEL INSTALLATION

62 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Crystallised glass (according to Ref 7) To meet the requirements of modern architecture, optimum methods of construction using Neopariés have been worked out, based on concepts that differ from those of conventional architecture using natural stone materials.* The important point in the construction methods using Neopariés is the avoidance of its direct contact to the structure on which work is being done. The idea ' is to provide for some flexibility, in order to prevent transmission of the structure's expansion and shrinkage as well as its vibration to Neopariés. Exterior Wall Construction Method The illustration shows how Neopariés. is used as an exterior wall material. With the back surface pasted with a glass fiber mat, Neopariés. is attached to the base structure by means of stainless steel fastener. No mortar is used. Exterior Wall (Reinforced Concrete Structure) Panel-by-panel attachment Each panel is attached by metal fastener as an independent entity. This totally eliminates the possibility of panels in upper layers weighting down those in lower layers. Independence from deformation of base structure The use of metal fastener keeps the base structure and Neopariés. mutually independent of effects of deformation. Should some deformation occur in the base structure, Neopariés is not affected in any way. Mortar-less application method The absence of mortar as an adhesive eliminates generation of efflorescence and the resulting staining of surfaces. Also eliminated are the possibilities of accidents caused by mortar expansion and explosions caused by freezing. Glass fiber mat lining Thanks to the glass fiber mat lining, Neopariés. cannot fall off the base structure, even if broken into pieces. This is because the pieces remain firmly adhered to the glass fiber lining. Exterior Wall (Steel Structure) Next

63 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Crystallised glass (according to Ref 7) Previous Interior Wall and Roof Construction Method Application of Neopariés to interior walls and floors does not differ from that of ordinary stone materials. Interior Wall PC Method Neopariés -finished PC panels are easy to manufacture in factories. They are installed in exactly the same way as other materials, but certain flexibility is provided between Neopariés and PC panels. Stainless steel clamps are used to fix Neopariés to concrete surfaces, and a pendant is attached to the center of Neopariés. The back surface of Neopariés is lined with a glass fiber mat, which keeps this material separated from the concrete and provides flexibility. PC Method

64 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass General General (Ref 4) Drilling Holes should be pre-drilled using a sharp metal working bit. The diameter of the hole should be drilled 5mm larger than the diameter of the fastener to allow for expansion. Cutting For best results use a circular saw with a fine tooth blade, ensuring the sheet is held securely in place. The use of a dust mask is recommended Rooflite Fibreglass Rooflite Fibreglass Translucent sheeting is manufactured to match steel roll formed roof sheeting, it can generally be fixed utilizing the same fasteners per AS/NZS 1562.3:1996. Positive fixed profiles should be fastened in the rib or crest of the sheeting. In the wall cladding through the pan or valley. Fasteners should be fixed through every rib at the end purlins and laps, and alternative ribs at intermediate purlins. Fasteners for side laps are recommended for purlins and girt spans exceeding 1200mm. Galaxy Rooflite recommends the use of weatherlok washers or similar under the head of each roof fastener, also bulb tite rivets for side lap fasteners or equivalent. End laps should be a minimum of 300mm for roof and 200mm for walls. Safety Mesh should be used under all industrial sheeting installed in roofs, using foam tape or protection strips to cushion the fibreglass sheet. When stored all materials should be under cover, in a dry and ventilated area on a horizontal flat surface. The sheet under no circumstances is to come in contact with the ground or be exposed to sunlight during storage. Fixing specifications should be in accordance with AS/NZS 1562.11996 design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding. (Ref 4) Translucent sheeting is manufactured to match steel roll formed roof sheeting

65 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Planar (structural glazing) according to (Ref 5) (Ref 4) SUPPORT STRUCTURES (Ref 5): The following systems and structures can be used to support Pilkington Armourfloat® toughened safety glass panels using the Pilkington Planar® or patch system depending on the particular application fittings. Fully Fixed Pilkington Armourfloat® toughened safety glass panels can be supported by fully-fixed support structures using the Pilkington Planar® system. These can take the form of space frames, structural metalwork, masonry, or any other suitable structure. These structures can support the panels in any orientation from vertical through to the horizontal. Glass fins may also be used as a fully-fixed support with Pilkington Planar® fittings, but such a system would normally be limited to vertical applications only and where live load movement is small. Suspended Where large live load movements are involved, Pilkington Armourfloat® tempered glass panels can be suspended from a support structure at the top (head) only, by means of suspension hangers. Such a system is for vertical applications only, and the support structure must be capable of withstanding the sustained vertical weight of the panels as well as the loads imposed by wind pressure. Lateral loadings must be accommodated by mullions or transoms. These mullions or transoms can take the form of space frames, structural metalwork/masonry, or Pilkington Armourfloat® toughened safety glass fins. Construction details are variable to suit the particular application. The fins are firmly fixed to the supporting structure by means of right angle steel sections or a similar approved method. This structural detailing can be subsequently hidden by a false ceiling,. In some cases (such as fins cantilevered up from the floor), it is necessary to allow for differential movement between the glass façade and the fins. As the façade is suspended down from the top of the structure it expands downwards, whereas the fins, fixed at the base, expand upwards. Allowance for this movement is made quite simply by means of sliding fittings at the point where the fins are jointed to the façade. Further allowance for expansion is made at the bottom edge and sides of the façade where the glass is sealed into peripheral channels by means of neoprene strips or non-setting glazing compound. These methods of allowing for expansion also permit seismic and dynamic forces to be taken into account. Sill Supported Pilkington Armourfloat® toughened safety glass panels can be assembled to form sill supported glass systems up to a normal maximum height of 2 panels or 8 metres. Such systems will normally require some form of structural lateral support such as Pilkington Armourfloat® fins.

66 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Glass Balustrades according to (Ref 5) Description: The Pilkington ArmourView System consists of 10mm, 12mm or 15mm Pilkington Armourfloat® glass panels set upright either in a groove in the structural concrete, or in a steel channel. The glass panels are set on neoprene setting blocks in the groove and a special grout is used. The grouting is capped off with silicone sealant and gaps between adjacent panels of glass can be similarly sealed if required. The channel must be adequately designed to withstand the turning moments applied to the balustrade. Alternatively, the glass can be bolted into the floor system using Pilkington Planar® fittings. ARMOUR VIEW BALUSTRADE SYSTEM Design Load(3) Glass Thickness Maximum Height Maximum Length (2) Deflection under Load N/mmm Residential40010mm10001500 < 250023 600(1)10mm10001500 < 250034 40012mm1200< 150023 600 (1)12mm1100< 150027 Commercial75012mm1100250036 75015mm1200250022 FULLY FRAMED BALUSTRADES - Where glass acts as an infill panel. TOUGHENEDLAMINATED Nominal Thickness in mm Area (4) in m 2 Nominal Thickness in mmArea (4) in m 2 Infill Panel64.0 6.763.0 86.0 8.765.0 108.0 10.767.0 (Ref 5) Free-standing - eliminates the need for any form of frame structure allowing unrestricted views. Complies with the B.C.A. -(Building Code of Australia) requirements for balustrades loadings and areas. Low-maintenance - offering long life and durability. Structurally tested - and proven in-situ performance. Safety - by a solid, yet transparent barrier. Can be customised - with decorative permanent ceramic frits. Readily available in Clear or choice of tints. Easy installation. Heat Soak Treatment - We recommend all (structural) glass balustrading be Heat Soaked to ensure the highest quality Toughened Glass.

67 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Spider Tension Truss System according to (Ref 9) (Ref 4) The Austvision Tension Rod Truss Glass Façade System is supplied with suspended point fixed glass with high tension stainless steel vertical rod trusses as wind bracing. The tension rod system utilises two pre-stressed catenaries that carry inward and outward wind loading. Loads are transferred from the glass through Austfix countersunk screws to compression struts. The dead load of the glass is carried by the top hung vertical tension rods connected to the point fixed castings. The truss junctions consist of a combination of machined and cast components. The trusses are tensioned between the concrete floor slab and the steel roof structure. The system pretension loading and sizing of the tension rod is determined from the thermal load, dead load, creep, seismic loading and wind loading conditions specific to the supporting structure. Tension & Compression Tests on Spiders 446//4M (Ref 9) Specifications according to Ref 9 Installation according to Ref 9

68 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies 1. Setup the jig layout with the center to center dimensions of the spars and the end center fixing dimension as per drawings provided. 2. Unpack and check all components supplied by A.G.A. 3. Familiarize and check the tension truss detail and assembling drawings. 4. Check all the pre assembled tension truss components dimensions before connecting to the spars. 5. Place the pre-assemble Spar / node assemblies on to the specified position of the jig. 6. Connect Stainless Steel Rods to the spars. 7. Check final rod dimension and if adjustment is necessary turn the stainless steel rods until the required length is achieved. 8. Erect the truss into its correct position and tighten rods until the system is stiff and rigid. 9. Tighten the T-Brackets to the structure to achieve final tensioning. 10. Installation of glass panel on to the spiders and tension truss. Typical Sequence of Installation (Ref 9) (according to Ref 9)

69 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Specifications 3. The glass entrance area shall include: 3.1 Structural suspended tempered heatsoak tested glass, with intermediate vertical mullions on interior and Austvision Spider fittings. The Austvision fittings are to be designed to be flush on the exterior surface. The design of the system is the sole responsibility of the Glazing Subcontractor and the Supplier. The system shall be designed to prevent high stress concentration at the hole positions and must comply with all requirements of this section. 3.2 Glass thickness of façade elements and (separately) of mullion elements shall be determined as required to meet the specified criteria and shall be uniform throughout each visually separated area except where, in the opinion of the Architect, a thickness change will not affect either the performance or the appearance of the final installation. Minimum glass thickness shall be 12mm for face glass and 19mm for fins, the contractor shall determine glass thickness based on requirements of this section. 3.3 Glass systems shall be complete with all supporting steel, stainless steel cappings and framing, clamping or fixing devices, resilient pads and separators, as well as closures, gaskets and sealants as required for a complete installation in strict accordance with the manufacturers instructions. 3.4 Assembled façade glass shall float within peripheral metal glazing channels. Adequate clearance shall be provided within these channels to prevent metal to glass contact under any combination of loads and movements including, but not limited to design wind loads, floor deflections, gravity and gravity loads of system, thermal expansion and contraction. 3.5 Exposed metal fittings shall be manufactured from type 316 stainless steel supplied by Australian Glass Assemblies, finished to match approved samples, and shall be designed with capability to adjust and align façade and accommodate building movements and applied forces. 3.6 Mullion restraint boxes shall be recessed flush with the surrounding finish work. Coordinate with surrounding finish work as required for accessibility for glazing or reglazing. Furthermore, the mullion restraint box shall be concealed and flush with the floor level or top of concrete curb as required. Coordination with concrete work is required. 3.7 Fasteners shall be of type 300 stainless steel, of strength and type appropriate to their use, and shall be tightened (where necessary) to specific torques with calibrated wrenches. 3.8 All exposed metal framing, cappings, trim, closures, etc., for the glass mullion wall systems shall be clad with or manufactured from AISI type 316 stainless steel. 3.8.1 All exposed stainless steel surfaces shall have a #4 finish or as approved by the Architect. 3.8.2 To the extent possible, cladding elements shall be shop assembled. Field measurements shall be taken where required to assure proper fit and to minimize field joints and splices. 3.8.3 Assembly fasteners shall be concealed. 3.8.4 Components shall be designed to allow for building movements as well as thermal movements without causing buckling, loss of flatness or finished surfaces, excessive opening of joint or over stressing of welds and fasteners. 3.8.5 Exposed-top-view surfaces which exhibit pitting, seam marks, roller marks, lack of visual flatness or "oil canning", stains, discolorations or other imperfections on the finished units will not be acceptable. 4. Unless otherwise defined by Contract Documents, appearance of exposed elements, including width and depth, shall be consistent throughout project. 5. Unless otherwise defined by Contract Documents, overall thickness of each glass type, and component thickness of multiple layer glass types, shall be consistent throughout project. (according to Ref 9)

70 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Spider Glass Fin System according to (Ref 9) (Ref 9) Technical Data Spider Glass Fin System offers total frameless glass vision without obstruction and yet provides the freedom of creativity with the latest 'Spider' Austfix technology. Austvision Glass Fin System offers a total practical solution backed up by the assurance of ISO09002 quality and A.G.A. performance. Spider Austfix tested under static and dynamic loadings. CALCULATED MAX. CAPACITY OF 316 GR. S.S. SPIDER FITTING Confirmed by tests (fy=220MPa) Safety Factor 2.0 SPIDER FITTING LATERAL CAPACITYVERTICAL CAPACITY PER ARM kN ARM'S DEFLECTI ON mm PER ARM kNARM'S DEFLECTION mm 444/22.252.001.602.20 444/41.974.501.901.60 445/2M3.951.282.461.82 445/4M3.331.772.452.65 430/43.951.252.471.79 Prop. Cant. 1 Cant. 1 & Entry (Ref 9) INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS SUSPENDED GLASS ASSEMBLY SUMMARY OF ERECTION AND INSTALLATION COMPONENTS SUPPLIED BY AUSTRALIAN GLASS ASSEMBLIES. 1. Measure and mark the centre lines of all the glass fin locations and provide holes for anchor bolt fixings. 2. Measure and mark the locations of all the patch fittings located on the side of the columns. 3. Prepare and install all rebate channels, sill rails. including preparation of spacer and packing pieces and setting block pieces if required. These items are not supplied by A.G.A. Pty. Ltd. 4. Prepare and provide slots and/or holes in overhead structure for installation of glass panels suspension hangers as described in Section 3 and carry out same for glass fins. 5. Sub-assembly of top glass panel with hanger bracket as described in Section 3. 6. Erection of glass fins are described in Section 4. 7. Erect glass panels as described in Section 3 herein. 8. Check alignments of glass spacings and gap between panel and glass fin and check correct allowances for gap between:- (a) panel to panel 5 to 6 mm (b) panel to fin 6 to 10 mm (c) panel to door panel vertical gap 4 to 6 mm (d) transom panel to door panel horizontal gap 5 to 8 mm (e) central panel and bottom panel 5 to 8 mm 9. Apply glass to glass silicone sealant to all glass joints, glass fins and façade panel joints. 10. Finally apply approved sealant to all rebated channels, (not supplied by A.G.A. Pty. Ltd.)

71 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process – Overhead Glazing according to (Ref 9) Prop. Cant. 1 (Ref 9) Frameless glass overhead glazing is subject to wind, live seismic and snow loads. These loadings cause vertical and sideways movements of the building elements including glazing. It is essential at the design stage that the above factors are taken into account. Frameless glass overhead glazing point supported glazing system – i.e. each glass panel is point supported at and near its corners when under loading the glass panel to flex and bend, twist and shear at the fixing points. To avoid undue stress build-up concentrated at the point supported corners of the glass panel, an articulated swivel head assembly is fixed at the supported point. Insulated Glass Point Supported Unit The ET laminated glass panel is successfully made into Insulated Glass Units (IGU) or Double Glazed Units (DGU). (Ref 9)

72 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process – Balustrade system according to (Ref 9) (Ref 9) Technical Data 1. Austvision Free Standing System Frameless glass balustrade minimum 10mm thick glass panel designed to resist impact load acting inward, outward or downward. Conditions designed to meet the SAA loading code Australian Standard AS1171 Part 1. Loads kN Glass Thickness 10mm12mm15mm19mm Glass Height 1000mm x 1.01500mm1800mm2000mm2400mm 1.51300mm1500mm1800mm2100mm 2.01200mm1350mm1600mm1800mm 3.001000mm1400mm1600mm Typical Fixings Frameless glass balustrade minimum 10mm thick glass panel designed to resist impact load acting inward, outward or downward. Conditions designed to meet the SAA loading code Australian Standard AS1171 Part 1. (Ref 9)

73 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Masonry - General Information Stone has been a favoured material for permanent buildings for the last 5000years It holds a great resistance to fire, weather, insects and most chemicals, it is high in compressive strength (Ref 56) Raw materials for bricks Clays and shales Always contain secondary or water-containing minerals produced by the action of weathering agents (water and air) on primary or igneous rock minerals such as feldspars or micas (Ref 42) Eg, alumina, silica and water, with minor amounts of lime, magnesia, soda or potash, & iron components (Ref 56) Manufacturing process Three stages: Winning the raw materials; Shaping the brick shape; and Drying and firing Winning the raw materials is done using mechanical equipment Materials are cursed, milled and screened Brick veneer walls consist of an outer leaf of brickwork tied to a steel or timber supporting frame. The brickwork provides insulation fire protection to the supporting frame from an external fire source. ( Ref 12) Product Characteristic Unconfined Compressive Strength - f'uc MPa Characteristi c Expansion mm/m 15yrs Durabilit y Class *Bowral Blue>15<0.5mm/mEXP *Bowral Brown>10<0.5mm/mEXP *Capitol Red>10<0.5mm/mEXP *Charolais Cream>10<0.5mm/mEXP *Gertrudis Brown>6<0.5mm/mEXP Guernsey Tan>10<1.0mm/mGP Hereford Bronze>6<1.0mm/mGP Limousin Gold>10<0.5mm/mGP *Murray Grey Select>10<1.0mm/mEXP *St Paul's Cream>10<0.5mm/mEXP *Shorthorn Mix>6<1.0mm/mEXP Simmental Silver>6<1.0mm/mGP Light Red Mottle>8<2.0mm/mGP Red Mottle>5<1.0mm/mGP Light Choc Mottle>8<1.0mm/mGP Dark Choc Mottle>15<0.5mm/mEXP (Ref 11) The brick diaphragm wall is simply a wide cavity wall where the cavity is 1 to 2 bricks deep and the leaves of 102.5 mm brickwork are braced by cross ribs (also of 102.5 mm brickwork) at 1-1.5 m centres ( Ref13 ) (Ref 13) Cause of Deterioration (Ref 16) Rising damp from subsurface moisture sources. Windblown moisture in the form of rain. Condensation due to lack of ventilation. Moisture infiltration through deteriorated moisture joints. Moisture accumulation from the encroachment of vegetation. Moisture from inadequate surface drainage. Improper maintenance. Improper coatings that trap moisture. Failure of waterproofing, roofing, or protective coatings.

74 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Masonry – Structural Systems Pros (Ref 13) Full Brick Advantages Low maintenance (less painting) Superior weather insulating qualities Better fire resistance Better resistance to termites etc. Superior sound insulation qualities Greater resale value Child proof (less damage to walls etc.) Visually appealing Less contractors required No skirting boards required Thermal properties Pipe work / plumbing through bricks many different bricks available to choose from to suit different problems Cons Movement 1. External (a) Brick expansion due to temperature or growth (b) Foundation and footings movement (c) Frame movement (d) Temperature Movement (e) Frame Shortening 2. Internal (a) Horizontal Movement (b) Vertical Movement MOST COMMON PROBLEMS WITH EXPANSION GAPS DUE TO INADEQUATE SEALING: (a) Inadequate sealing. (b) Failure to ensure that gaps were clean and that no hard materials such as mortar droppings are left before sealing. (c) The use of joint fillers that are too rigid which have compressive strengths high enough to transfer forces across the joint. - need articulation joints every few meters - Wall ties - Weep holes - Gaps for water - Protection from wood - Bricks expand (bricks are porous) - Stain with salt - Suffer from expansion - Require lintels above doors and windows - Damp proof courses - Dags of mortar must be struck off and cleaned before setting - Brick veneer requires support by timber posts - Brick piers are required to be above 150 from the ground - Sub floor ventilation required in some areas - Very low value for tensile stress (only about one–twentieth of its compressive resistance) (Ref 13) (Ref 13)

75 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies (Ref 12)

76 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies (Ref 12)

77 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies (Ref 12)

78 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Masonry – Envelope Systems External Technical Information according to (Ref 10) Control Joints: Should extend for the full height of the wall and be spaced at a maximum distance of 6 metres apart where walls are not interrupted by full height doorways or window openings (Refer Australian Standards). Standards: All C&M concrete brickwork is manufactured to AS2733 and laying practices should conform with AS3700. Mortar should be accurately batched and conform to AS123 and AS3700. Joint Reinforcements: Masonry mesh is recommended at height intervals of 600mm, and in the two courses above and below all openings. Lap mesh at least 150mm at all joints and intersections, except at control joints where a slip joint must be provided. Cleaning: Care should be taken to keep bricks/blocks as clean as possible during laying. A weak acid mixture is recommended for cleaning down at no stronger than 1 part in 15 parts water. Walls should be wet thoroughly before application and washed thoroughly with clean water after application, high pressure water is not recommended. Bricks are manufactured to be of strength greater than 15Mpa. Higher strength grades are available to order. 80% of bricks have a frog and 20% are solid. Frogs should be laid upwards. (Ref 14) (Ref 15)

79 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Masonry – Rules of Thumb Rules of thumb according to (Ref 13) For internal walls, the thickness of the wall will need to be at least one-15 th of the height If the wall is not restrained at the top, it will be at least one-30 th of the height if restraint provided. For external cavity walls subject to wind loads, each skin will need to be at least 100mm thick. For high–rise buildings, brick cladding will generally need concrete backing walls in order to avoid very thick brickwork or block work. It is difficult to support stone cladding on masonry, so in-situ or precast concrete is normally used.

80 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Masonry – Fire Rating (Ref 10) Structural adequacy for the fire resistance period For width of brick walls: Single 90Single 110 Single 140Single 150 Single 110Single 140 Single 150Double 190 Double 230Double 90 Double 230Double 110 2.7 Protection of structural steelwork The minimum thickness for masonry used to provide fire protection to structural steelwork is 90 mm. (Ref12)

81 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Masonry construction has been used and developed over the last 5000y it comes in many shapes and forms to suit different applications Masonry can be used for internal and external cladding for aesthetic looks, it can be used for flooring and in necessary roofing although this is less common these days It possesses great thermal properties, sound insulation qualities, fire resistance, a resistance to termites and has superior weather insulating qualities. Also to install it masonry requires Less contractors. Masonry – Conclusion Intended Office recommendations for design N.A Intended Warehouse recommendations for design N.A.

82 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process Once the soil has been leveled and the footing has been prepared, the Masons line is set out and anchored by steel posts. Flashing is fixed to the lower section of the wall frame and the outer edge is mortared into the brickwork Weep holes are spaced along this brick course at regular intervals A Damp Proof Course is placed in the brickwork above ground level (close to the footings) to direct any water away As the brick courses are laid wall ties are fixed to the timber frame and mortared (these provide lateral strength to the veneer) Articulation joints are placed at regular intervals to prevent cracking Brick veneer is essentially brick cladding over a timber or steel frame the brick is non- load bearing but provides a weather barrier for the frame Before the mortar sets the dregs need to be struck off and wall ties cleaned. Masonry – Construction Process Construction Process according to (Ref 17) (Ref 17) 1. Lay the first course of stretcher bricks in the mortar. Beginning with the second brick, apply mortar to the head joint end of each brick, and then shove the bricks into place firmly so that the mortar is squeezed out of all side of the joints. Use a level to check the course for correct height, then place it on top to make sure that all the bricks are plumb and level. 2. Make sure that the head joint thicknesses correspond with your chalk marks. When you have to move a brick, tap it gently with a trowel handle; never pool on it because this breaks the bond. Be sure to trim off any excess mortar for the sides of the bricks. 3. Throw another mortar line alongside the first course, then begin laying the second, or backup, course. Use the level to make sure that the two courses are equal height, but do not mortar them together 4. Use the two half bricks to begin the second, or header, course. This will ensure that the first two courses are staggered for structural purposes 5. To finish the second course of the lead, lay three header bricks and make sure that they are plumb and level. As seen in the photo, the third and fifth courses consists of stretchers similar to the first course; the fourth course begins with single header, followed by stretchers. Use the level to make sure that the lead is true on each course. 6. Build another lead on the other end of the foundation. As the mortar begins to set, it is best to stop laying bricks and use a concave jointer to finish the mortar joints. Work along the vertical joints first; this will help as improve the appearance of the wall.

83 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other - General Information Aluminium Strength-to-weight ratio -Lightness benefits -Lightness combined with strength accounts for its wide use Workability -Most versatile of all the metals -Can be rolled to any thickness down to foil thinner than tissue paper -Theres no limit to the different cross-sectional shapes in which aluminium may be extruded -Any method of joining can be applied to aluminium -Normally requires no form of coating to preserve its structural integraty, although finishes can be applied Corrosion Resistance -Due to the very thin, hard protective film of aluminium oxide that forms instantly when bare metal is exposed to air -If oxide gets damaged it will reform Thermal Conductivity -High -Rapid transmission of heat from areas of higher temperatures to areas of lower temperature Reflectivity -Aluminium is highly reflective both to visible light and to heat energy Properties of aluminium -Surface attack -Although highly reactive, aluminium is remarkably stable in air because of its capacity to form instantly on exposure a very thin, tight, and adherent oxide film -Resistant to attack by the common acids, but readily dissolves in hydrochloric acid and is rapidly attacked by alkali hydroxides Building Construction -Aluminium is used because: -Appearance -Corrosion resistance -Formability -Finishing potential -Very high strength-to-weight ratio -Used in profiled roofing and wall cladding -Extruded shapes are used for windows, doors, entrances, etc. (Ref 32)

84 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other – Structural Systems Retaining Walls Next Concrib retaining wall systems Overview Walls are constructed from interlocking precast concrete components. When erected the walls are filled with free draining material and earth backfill, eliminating the hazards of hydrostatic pressure build up behind the wall. Pros Does not require skilled labor open web construction and use of free draining material eliminates build up of hydrostatic pressure and the destructive pressure of tree root systems Requires little or no maintenance Can be constructed to follow gentle curves, slopes and undulating terrains. Cons Rigid structures can not be built on top of a Concrib wall with reliance on the wall to support the structure Maximum height of three metres (Ref 46)

85 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other – Structural Systems Retaining Walls NextPrevious Soil Panel Overview Stability and structural support is given to a slope by nailing the newly excavated face and bolting heavily galvanised steel cages to the protruding nails across the exposed face. Pros Variety of face finishes; vegetated or stone Assured establishment and sustainable growth of vegetation Protection of structural elements in the event of collision or fire damage No special foundations required Minimises muck away, saves on Landfill Costs Factory assembled units and latest construction techniques for speed and economy Cons Not suitable for retaining wall systems in water surrounded areas. (Ref 46)

86 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other – Structural Systems Hollow Core Block Walling Overview Concrete product retaining wall system composed of interlocking hollow concrete blocks which incorporate drainage, setback and reinforcement. Pros Superior drainage. Faster drying in wet environments. Better resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. Improved efflorescence control. Easier handling, faster installation, lower labor costs. Block-to-block interlock from granular infill material. Lower production and freight costs. Fluid curves are easily achievable. Mortar less construction allows the wall to be dismantled and reconstructed. Cons Maximum height of continuous wall is 3.7m Previous (Ref 53)

87 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other – Drainage Systems Agricultural Pipes and Geo textiles A combination of pipeline systems and geo textiles are commonly used to discourage water pressure on retaining walls. An example of this is the use of a geo textile such as filter wrap in conjunction with a perforated pipeline system such as agricultural pipe. (Ref 47)

88 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other – Drainage Systems Polydrain Overview Allows free flowing drainage using a continuously slotted pipe resulting in the unrestricted in-flow of water. Water captured is drained to either an existing gutter, drain or stormwater connection. For convenience it is often easier to use the unslotted Polydrain Pros Light weight Resists corrosion in harsh weather conditions Designed to flex Cons Not suitable for use in applications requiring high pressure tollerances. (Ref 48)

89 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other – Rules of Thumb Retaining Walls Surcharge LoadingBackfill TypeWall Setback Near Vertical1:8 Setback No Surcharge LoadingPoor700800 Average8001000 Good9001200 15 degree Poor600700 Sloped backfillAverage700900 Good8001100 Driveway/CarparkPoor400500 Loading (5kPa)Average500600 Good600800 (Ref 50)

90 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Other – Fire Rating Suspended Ceiling If a 2hr fire rating with integrity is required the ceiling lining needs to be 9mm thick. This would give a 2hr protection or integrity to general building services. For fire separation of general building services from protected lobby and corridor, a 2hr fire rating with integrity and insulation from fire above and below is required. Therefore 2 x 9mm thick ceiling lining is used together with insulation that is 80mm thick and has a density of 100kg/m³ or 100mm thick with an 80kg/m³ density. (Ref 20)

91 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Using the retaining wall as a footing for the steel cables Other – Conclusion Intended Office recommendations for design N.A. Intended Warehouse recommendations for design Concrete retaining wall Agricultural pipe and drainage system for the retaining wall Aluminium faced plywood cladding

92 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies After slab is laid and cured columns (usually mild steel universal beams) are dyno bolted to the slab. Rafters (usually mild steel universal beams) are then attached to the columns MS plate cleats are welded to rafters to provide clearance for purlins from rafter (10mm required) 20mm diagonal cross bracing is attached to the rafters Purlins (Z, C section, cold formed) are attached to rafters Girts (Z, C section, cold forms) are attached to columns Wall bracing attached as required Safety mesh for working on roof is attached to rafters Sarking and insulation are attached as required Roof cladding is installed (often corrugated steel sheeting) Exterior cladding installed (Ref 61) Construction Process - Steel

93 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Timber Fixings and Detailing Things to consider: maintenance is crucial timber has to be isolated from masonry when timber components are joined together, and brought in to contact with other structural members or materials, care must be taken to avoid trapping water at the joint external cladding sheets must be joined on studs timber cladding on walls should finish at least 150mm above ground level cladding should be fixed so that the boards are free to shrink and swell therefore reducing the chance of cupping, cracking and splitting nails mustn't fix adjacent boards together needs to be effectively protected against weathering Fixings for the isolation of timber from masonry (Ref 24) Fixings for the isolation of timber from masonry (Ref 24) Fixings for the isolation of timber from masonry (Ref 24)

94 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Trusses are derived from triangular geometry Compression, tension and thrust forces are resolved internally within the truss Trusses are also designed to resist bending moments Top and bottom truss members are called are called top and bottom chords Members between chords are web members Plain trusses have all members in a single plane Trusses are generally more economical than beams and girders when dealing with long span construction Rules of thumb –Roof trusses at 3 to 6m centres carry only uniformly distributed loads –Trusses can be as shallow as 1/20 of the span –Reasonable depth of trusses is around 1/12 or 1/15 of the span –If the span is 80-100m the truss should be 1/10 of span –Trusses carrying columns need to be deeper (Ref 13) Construction Methods Trusses (Ref 21)

95 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Methods Space trusses Space trusses have members in 3D configuration Space trusses are known as space frames, they span in two directions and have pinned and rigid connections Space trusses are achieved by staggering top and bottom chords in both directions to get inclined trusses with common chords (Ref 27)

96 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Methods Portal Frames By using portal frames the need for internal columns can be eliminated, therefore large clear spaces can be provided The rigid base type is the most economical choice When planning: main roof beams span the shortest length Portal frames are easily fabricated, and rapidly erected Using portal frames allows roof decking to be fixed at an early stage Side walls can be light weight Portal or rigid frame construction is extremely adaptable to architectural expression Portal frames work well in resisting lateral loads (i.e. the loads caused by the wind) (Ref 24)

97 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Concrete Footings 1.An appropriate footing system is selected according to requirements of the structure and the site. 2.The site is prepared and trenches are dug out for the services, concrete beams and trench mesh. 3.Service pipes are put into place and buried. 4.Formwork and reinforcement are put into place 5.The concrete is then poured, leveled and left to cure (Ref 44)

98 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Concrete Tilt Up Construction 1.Plans for the panels are drawn up by the engineer 2.Once the foundations have been laid the casting bed is prepared with release agent and all the embedded items and lifting and bracing inserts are placed. 3.The concrete is then placed in the panels, it must be evenly vibrated to ensure structural integrity and uniform finishes on the faces of the panels. The upside of the panel can be screed-, trowel- or broom-finished as desired. 4.Panels are then left to cure 5.When cured bond breakers are applied to the panels to release them from the casting bed 6.Craneage systems are attached to the lifting inserts and the panels are lifted free of the casting bed. 7.Panels are lowered into place and connected with the footings 8.Temporary bracing is erected to provide lateral support against winds and other forces 9.When all panels are in place they are joined using steel brackets and permanent bracing is fixed (Ref 49)

99 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process - Concrete Pre Cast Construction 1.Plans for the panels are drawn up by the engineer 2.Panel formwork is laid out to precise calculations and all the embedded items and lifting and bracing inserts are put into place 3.Concrete is then poured into the formwork, vibrated, leveled and left to cure 4.Once cured panels are transported to the site and lifted into place using cranes. 5.Temporary bracing is erected to provide lateral support against winds and other forces 6.When all panels are in place they are joined using steel brackets and permanent bracing is fixed (Ref 49)

100 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Construction Process – Retaining Walls Keystone Retaining Walls 1.The site is excavated and the base level is prepared by creating a level pad of compacted clean sand or 12-20mm crushed stone. 2.The first course of Keystone units are laid side by side over the prepared base. 3.For curved walls the first course is laid with a small gap between adjacent units. This gap / overlap will decrease with placement of additional courses. 4.High strength fibreglass connecting pins are placed into each keystone unit, these pins guide the position of the next course of units. 5.Backfill to 300mm behind each course of units using a 12- 20mm clean, free draining granular material. 6.Additional courses are placed. 7.Cut sections of geogrid are hooked over the pins in the keystone to ensure secure connection. 8.The geogrid unit is pulled taut to eliminate loose folds and is staked before continuing backfill and compaction. The next units are installed. 9.Gravel drainage is placed in and behind Keystone units. 10.Backfill material is compacted to a minimum of 95% standard compaction. 11.Capping units are laid and backfill is completed to the required grade. (Ref 9)

101 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Carpet Pros Insulating Fire retardant Acoustic insulation Prevents wear on other surfaces Protects under surface Aesthetically pleasing Cons Requires weekly vacuuming Collects dirt Colour fades Wears out over time Needs replacing when becomes thread-bare (Ref 18)

102 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Plasterboard Pros (according to Ref 19) Can be suited to fire-rated or non-fire rated construction Designed to withstand lateral (wind) pressures Manufactured in accordance with A.S 2588-1983 Lightweight (can provide up to 75% dead load reduction when compared with finished concrete masonry construction thus reducing structural framing and foundation requirements Fast assembly Fire resistance of up to 3 hours Prefabrication available High acoustic ratings Thermal insulation values Walls can be constructed to heights in excess of 9 metres and can be designed to come with wind loads Cons Needs timber or steel support (Ref 34)

103 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Plywood Pros It is strong, durable and comes in a variety of thicknesses Suitable for structural and non-structural flooring Superior strength and durability (lasts more than 50 years) To a certain extent plywood is insect resistant Plywood can also be used as flooring in wet areas and as decking It too can be used in areas of high humidity and condensation if treated correctly Sheet layout –Place face grain at right angles to the supports Fixing of sheets 7mm or 3 fasteners dimeters form the sheet edges Fix no more than 15mm from sheet edges Fasteners should be corrosion resistant (Ref 24) Plywood I beam Plywood box beam

104 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Fire protection of columns Crucial, as the performance of steel can be significantly reduced (up to 50%) Steel columns –Columns need to be encased to the full height by either 1,2 or 3 layers of wall lining panels, depending on the size of the columns, and how long it is require to remain standing in a fire Concrete columns Column should be fully encased so that it achieves the desired fire rating Timber column –Protection for timber columns ranges form ½ and hour to 2 hours, and it is this time duration that determines the thickness and no. of layers of plaster board that needs to be attached. (Ref 34)

105 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Bunnings Warehouse Corio Rays Tent City VISY Recycling Plant Leopold Primary School Multi Purpose Room Deakin University Printing and Packaging Centre Waurn Ponds Todds Road Service Centre Sydney Myer Music Bowl The Laminex Group Corio Hypothetical Case Studies

106 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Pictures 1 2 3 4 5 6 Case Studies – Bunnings Warehouse Corio Spanning a total of 50 metres, with a central column at 25 metres. Therefore 2 x 25 meter spans. 450ub for outside columns at 8 metre spacings 150 SHS for central column This was a study of an existing building using a rigid steel frame system with column support at the apex.

107 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Bracing on both wall and roof Roof framing system Roof cross bracing Cement loading dock Large area for trucks to be unloaded At least 6m to back fence Fly bracing on wall Attached to concrete wall Concrete wall only half way up the shed for protection from forklifts Electric fence surrounding the premises allows for storage of some materials outside Drive through loading bay Rigid Joint Pipes fixed to beam PreviousNext

108 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Roof framing system Roof bracing connection Support for insulation Overlapping of rafters Joint of apex Joint of supporting column to apex Roof bracing Sky lighting Short wall bracing Column from the apex Stacking shelves for the timber Sky lighting strips Height advisory bars for forklifts and other machinery PreviousNext

109 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Fencing used as walling Not necessary to have weather protection for the timber Electric fence along fence Support for electrical wires to support the cash registers and other signage Fly bracing for roof system PreviousNext Electrical wiring track pipes

110 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Attachment of column to ground Imbedded into the slab Sky lighting Fly bracing Joint of rafters (overlapping) Office above to view store PreviousNext Electricity and wires for cash registers coming down

111 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Support for electrical cables Electricity box Height comparison of center beam Shelving can be roof height Storage on top of shelves (plastic wrapped and lifted up by the fork lift) Electricity station Plumbing Office above reception desk Double glazed windows Can view store PreviousNext

112 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Electricity tracks around the store Small office below reception for incoming goods Joint by ceiling for Bunnings Bunnings is brought to site and is put together like a Meccano set Previous

113 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Case Studies – Rays Tent City Corio total span approx 35 meter continuous span. outside columns = 300 and 350 UB at 6 meter spacings. Central column = 450 UB Intermediate columns under mezzanine 120 CHS Timber portal frame was 1 metre deep at base and approx 100 mm profile. 20 metre span Divided into two main sections: Timber portal frame with steel roof Steel portal frame Pictures 1 2 3

114 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Flybracing Steel structure connection lighting Rigid joint detail Insulation Electrical wiring Timber connection to carry services Connection of plumbing Track for electrical wiring (same as used in Bunnings) Masonry wall that extends to roof height Roof system Roof bracing Lighting in the same formation as Bunnings and Laminex Group

115 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Steel roof structure Connection of rafters to purlins Plywood gusset Connection of plywood portal frame to steel roof system Detail of steel joints in roof system Timber bracing joint Electrical wiring Timber portal frame span Roof bracing Note no supporting columns for apex Detail of column and rafter joint

116 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber fly bracing detail Note galvanised steel braquets Joining of timber portal frame to timber purlins Apex of portal frame Attachment of portal frame to floor Wall bracing Plywood gusset Fly bracing Roller door attachment

117 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Case Studies - VISY Recycling Plant Plans 1 2 Photos 1 This was a large steel frame building using a steel truss system capable of spanning considerable distances. (Acc. 2)

118 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies PreviousNext

119 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies PreviousNext

120 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Detail of truss joining to main framing system Truss system Detrail of truss system Fly brace to rafters Insulation in the roof Previous Joining of steel column to concrete walls Joining of truss to wall column Bracing c connection Protective concrete wall

121 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Case Studies - Leopold Primary School Multi Purpose Room Pictures 1 2 This study was a timber and steel framed primary school multi purpose room under construction. Site could not be accessed

122 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Timber stud wall Colourbond cladding Timber stud wall Temporary bracing Bracig for outer edge in steel Steel joint Steel frame Tempoary bracing Main entry to building Steel frame enclosing opening PreviousNext

123 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Windows marked for tradies to see that there is glass there Brick then rendered cement Corner detail Note lintel above door Metal bracing of wall Joint to metal column Footing Ant cap Timber footings Previous

124 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Case Studies - Deakin University Printing and Packaging Centre Waurn Ponds Photos This study was on a considerable slope Dealt with issues of entry, exit and loading This was a steel construction

125 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Note slope of land Retaining wall at back Infill on front Empty pallets stacked Receiving office to sign in goods Timber detailing representing pallets Roller doors Loading area Forklift filling shelves Idea of scale Forklift Previous

126 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Case Studies - Todds Road Service Centre Picture 1 2 3 4 This study was of a cable and mast construction in the form of covering for a service station and food outlet

127 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Detail of cable connection to mast Canvas sails Footing for mast connection Mast and supporting cables Large tensioning column Footing for cable connection PreviousNext

128 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Mast and tensioning cables Tent structure above service centre Canvas connection to mast Double connection detail of canvas to mast Connection deail of canvas to mast Footings for cable connection PreviousNext

129 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Connection detail of canvas to large column Connection detail of cables to central mast Connection detail of canvas to mast Central mast of tent structure Connection of tent system to central tower above service station Connection of canvas to large column PreviousNext

130 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Footing for mast Adjustable mast and footing Previous Connection detail of canvas to mast Connection of tent system to central tower above service station

131 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Case Studies - Sydney Myer Music Bowl The Sidney Myer Music Bowl was designed by Yuncken Freeman, with assistance from Bill Irwin, an engineer, and many other scientific consultants aided in its completion in 1958. When designed and constructed it was an experiment with the use of structural steel and the architectural expression of structural form. (Ref 29) The vast tent like roof is open along one side. The main cable along this open edge of the canopy comprises of 7 ropes, each about 9cm in diameter and 173m long, that are then anchored deep into the ground in concrete blocks. Within the structure there are longitudinal cables that hold the roof up while transverse cables hold it down. (Ref 28) The canopy itself consists of a thin membrane (half an inch weather proofed plywood sheeted on both sides with aluminium) that is then attached to the cobwebbed frame of steel cables, which is then supported by 21.3m masts pivoted to the earth. (Ref 28) The vast free form roof has a total area of 4055m², and acts as a large scale sound shell (Ref 29) that is both sophisticated and bold. It is this soft, rounded form of the shell that blends well with the rolling contours of the surrounding terrain, creating a totally unique construction. (Ref.30) (Ref. 29) Next

132 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Sidney Myer Music Bowl (Ref 23) Previous

133 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Case Studies – The Laminex Group Corio Pictures 1 2 3 4 This was a study of an existing building using a steel truss system with no column supports.

134 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Office Joint of truss system Wall bracing Roof bracing Sky lighting (not as much as Bunnings) Free span bracing at Apex Fly bracing over truss system Roof bracing attachment to trusses PreviousNext

135 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Fully asphalted loading area Lines marked for designated areas Allowed for access of fork lifts from both sides of the truck (Bunnings the truck had to turn around) Wall fly bracing shelving Attachment of column to tilt-up wall This bolted connection allows for the expansion and shrinkage of the tilt-up wall Attached to slab with bolts PreviousNext

136 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Roof to wall fly bracing Truss and column connection Roof truss system Corner detail of exterior facade Aesthetically noticeable front Made of Laminex paneling Roller door attachmentWall to roof fly bracing PreviousNext

137 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Footing connection by roller door Corner connection Free-span truss system Fly bracing to roof Column free Pre-cast concrete facade Faulty connection Didnt align the connection or could be cause of settling of building Apex connection Showing purlins and roof bracing Previous

138 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Hypothetical Case studies Pictures 1 2 3 4 5 Table Comparison Comparison of different sized hypothetical steel sheds (Acc 1)

139 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Hypothetical Case Study 1 Span9m Overall dimensions 12 x 9m 4 bays @ 3m spacing Eaves height 3.3m Apex height5.9m Roof slope30 deg Rafter10 of single C20019 @ 4.77m Column10 of single C20019 @ 3.9m End mullion2 per end of C20019 Fascia Girt6 of TS06410 @ 3.1m long Purlin4 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.27m spacing Side girt2 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.51m spacing End girt3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.51m spacing Roof cladding Corrugated 0.42 CB @ 5.25m Wall cladding Monoclad 0.42 CB @ 3.3m Knee braceC10010 @ 1.5m long Apex braceC10010 @ 3m long BracingBracing strap (per 50m roll) 32 x 1.6 diagonally. Flybracing included at 2.5m centres for purlins and girts Down pipesC/B 100 x 50 Mezzanine---- FootingsConcrete block locally under each column 650x650x650mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 400mm min. depth

140 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Hypothetical Case Study 2 Span7m Overall dimension s 9 x 7 m 3 bays @ 3m spacing Eaves height 3.0 m Apex height 6.56m Roof slopeMansard Rafter12 of double C15019 @ 2.41m Column12 of double C15019 @ 3.6m End mullion 1 per end of C15019 Fascia Girt6 of TS06410 @ 3.1m long Purlin3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.09m spacing Side girt2 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.36m spacing End girt3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.6m long and 1.36m spacing Roof cladding Corrugated 0.42 CB @ 2.63m Wall cladding Monoclad 0.42 CB @ 3m Knee braceC10010 @ 1.5m long Apex brace C10010 @ 2.33m long BracingBracing strap (per 50m roll) 32 x 1.2 diagonally Down pipes C/B 100 x 50 MezzanineBearers C30030 @ 3m spacing Joists Z15015 @ 400mm spacing Max. 3kPa FootingsConcrete block locally under each column 600x600x600mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 400mm min. depth

141 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Hypothetical Case Study 3 Span6m Overall dimensions 9 x 6m 2.4m high 3 bays @ 3m Eaves height2.4m Apex height2.98m Roof slope11 deg Rafter8 of single C15012 @ 2.81m Column8 of single C15012 @ 2.9m End mullion1 per end of C15012 Fascia Girt6 of TS06475 @ 3.1m long Purlin3 rows of TS06475 @ 3.1m long and 0.98m spacing Side girt2 rows of TS06475 @ 3.1m long and 1.06m spacing End girt2 rows of TS06475 @ 2.9m long and 1.18m spacing Roof cladding Corrugated 0.42 CB @ 3.09m Wall cladding K-panel 0.35 CB @ 2.4m Knee braceNot used Apex braceNot used BracingNot required Down pipesC/B 100 x 50 Mezzanine----- FootingsConcrete block locally under each column 450x450x450mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 300mm min. depth

142 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Hypothetical Case Study 4 Span35m Overall dimensio ns 100 x 35m Bays 5.6m spacing Eaves height 7.0 m Apex height 10.4m Roof slope 11 deg Rafter72 of double C40030 @ 17.22m Column72 of double C40030 @ 7.53m End mullion 4 per end of C40030 Fascia Girt 36 of C15024 @ 5.56m long Purlin14 rows of TS12090 @ 6.01m long and 1.26 spacing Side girt4 rows of TS12090 @ 6.01m long and 1.67 spacing End girt5 rows of TS12090 @ 7.24m long and 1.67 spacing Roof cladding Corrugated 0.42 CB @ 17.88m Wall cladding Monoclad 0.42 CB @ 7m Knee brace C30030 @ 4.9m long Apex brace C30030 @ 11.67m long BracingBracing strap (per 50m roll) 32 x 1.6 diagonally Down pipes C/B 100 x 50 Mezzanin e ---- FootingsConcrete block locally under each column 1200 x 1200 x 1300mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 600mm min. depth

143 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Hypothetical Case Study 5 Span7.5m Overall dimensions 10.5 x 7.5m Bays 3.5m spacing Eaves height 4.2m Apex height4.93m Roof slope11deg Rafter8 of single C15019 @ 3.57m Column8 of single C15019 @ 4.2m End mullion 1 per end of C15019 Fascia Girt6 of TS06410 @ 3.6m long Purlin3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.6m long and 1.23m spacing Side girt4 rows of TS06410 @ 3.6m long and 0.98m spacing End girt5 rows of TS06410 @ 3.9m long and 0.98m spacing Roof cladding Corrugated 0.42 CB @ 3.86m Wall cladding K-panel 0.35 CB @ 4.2m Knee braceC10010 @ 1m long Apex braceC10010 @ 2.5m long BracingBracing strap (per 50m roll) 32 x 1.2 diagonally Down pipesC/B 100 x 50 MezzanineBearers 2C25024 @ 3.5m spacing Joists Z15015 @ 400mm spacing Max 3 kPa Footings150mm slab thickened locally under each column by 300x300x400mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa

144 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Span6m7m7.5m9m35m Overall dimensions 9 x 6m 2.4m high 3 bays @ 3m 9 x 7 m 3 bays @ 3m spacing 10.5 x 7.5m Bays 3.5m spacing 12 x 9m 4 bays @ 3m spacing 100 x 35m Bays 5.6m spacing Eaves height2.4m3.0 m4.2m3.3m7.0 m Apex height2.98m6.56m4.93m5.9m10.4m Roof slope11 degMansard11deg30 deg11 deg Rafter8 of single C15012 @ 2.81m12 of double C15019 @ 2.41m8 of single C15019 @ 3.57m10 of single C20019 @ 4.77m72 of double C40030 @ 17.22m Column8 of single C15012 @ 2.9m12 of double C15019 @ 3.6m8 of single C15019 @ 4.2m10 of single C20019 @ 3.9m72 of double C40030 @ 7.53m End mullion1 per end of C150121 per end of C15019 2 per end of C200194 per end of C40030 Fascia Girt6 of TS06475 @ 3.1m long6 of TS06410 @ 3.1m long6 of TS06410 @ 3.6m long6 of TS06410 @ 3.1m long36 of C15024 @ 5.56m long Purlin3 rows of TS06475 @ 3.1m long and 0.98m spacing 3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.09m spacing 3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.6m long and 1.23m spacing 4 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.27m spacing 14 rows of TS12090 @ 6.01m long and 1.26 spacing Side girt2 rows of TS06475 @ 3.1m long and 1.06m spacing 2 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.36m spacing 4 rows of TS06410 @ 3.6m long and 0.98m spacing 2 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.51m spacing 4 rows of TS12090 @ 6.01m long and 1.67 spacing End girt2 rows of TS06475 @ 2.9m long and 1.18m spacing 3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.6m long and 1.36m spacing 5 rows of TS06410 @ 3.9m long and 0.98m spacing 3 rows of TS06410 @ 3.1m long and 1.51m spacing 5 rows of TS12090 @ 7.24m long and 1.67 spacing Roof claddingCorrugated 0.42 CB @ 3.09mCorrugated 0.42 CB @ 2.63mCorrugated 0.42 CB @ 3.86mCorrugated 0.42 CB @ 5.25mCorrugated 0.42 CB @ 17.88m Wall claddingK-panel 0.35 CB @ 2.4mMonoclad 0.42 CB @ 3mK-panel 0.35 CB @ 4.2mMonoclad 0.42 CB @ 3.3mMonoclad 0.42 CB @ 7m Knee braceNot usedC10010 @ 1.5m longC10010 @ 1m longC10010 @ 1.5m longC30030 @ 4.9m long Apex braceNot usedC10010 @ 2.33m longC10010 @ 2.5m longC10010 @ 3m longC30030 @ 11.67m long BracingNot requiredBracing strap (per 50m roll) 32 x 1.2 diagonally Bracing strap (per 50m roll) 32 x 1.6 diagonally. Fly bracing included at 2.5m centres for purlins and girts Bracing strap (per 50m roll) 32 x 1.6 diagonally Down pipesC/B 100 x 50 Mezzanine-----Bearers C30030 @ 3m spacing Joists Z15015 @ 400mm spacing Max. 3kPa Bearers 2C25024 @ 3.5m spacing Joists Z15015 @ 400mm spacing Max 3 kPa ---- FootingsConcrete block locally under each column 450x450x450mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 300mm min. depth Concrete block locally under each column 600x600x600mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 400mm min. depth 150mm slab thickened locally under each column by 300x300x400mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Concrete block locally under each column 650x650x650mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 400mm min. depth Concrete block locally under each column 1200 x 1200 x 1300mm -suitable for A,S, or M soil, and load of 100kPa Columns embedded in mass concrete – 600mm min. depth

145 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Regulations Regulations according to the Building Code of Australia Exits –Paths to exits need to be clear –Doors must be self closing with the latch located between 1.5 and 1.65m above the floor. (D2.21) –Distance to travel to an exit is 20 m –Height throughout exit must be no less than 2m except for the unobstructed height of doorway which can be reduced to 1980 mm –Path to exit and exit itself, (except for doorway) can be no less than 1m or 1.8 in a corridor or ramp used for the transportation of patients or beds (BCA D1.6) –If storey accommodates between 100 and 200 people the unobstructed width (except doorways) must be 1m plus 250 mm for each person in excess of 100 or 1.8m where transport of beds is required (D 1.6) –Access to exits is vital, an occupant should be able to reach an exit without having to pass through another sole- occupancy unit (D 1.2) –For class 5-9 buildings at no point on the floor should be more than 20m from an exit, and if there are two exits available in different directions the max distance to one of the exits must be no more than 40 m Sprinklers –Sprinklers are required when paint, varnish and solvent products are being used, as they are hazardous. They are also required when combustible goods with an aggregate volume exceeding 2000m 3 and stored to a height greater than 4 m Combustible goods –Foam rubber or plastic –Paper products –Plastic, rubber, vinyl in other sheets in the form of off cuts and random pieces –Textiles –Timber products –Required in warehouses Fire control centres –Needed in a building with an effective height of more than 25m (E 1.8) Fire precautions during construction –After building reaches an effective height of 12m working fire hydrants and fire hose reels that are on storeys recovered by the roof or the floor structure above, except the 2 upmost storeys (E1.9) Next

146 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Regulations according to the Building Code of Australia (Continued) Car parking –Spaces for people with disabilities –Space needed for each person (D 3.5) Factory –Machine shop 5m 2 /person –Fabrication areas 50m 2 /person –Space in which layout and natural use of fixed plant or equipment determines the number of persons that occupy a space during work hours (area / person determined by use) (D1.13) Protection of Openings in external walls –3m from boundary –6m from far boundary (or road) –6m from another building –Can have doorways in fire walls if the correct precautions are taken (C3.2) –Adjoining buildings need separations of firewall (C2.7) Large Isolated Buildings –Automatic fire protection –Automatic smoke exhaust system –Automatic smoke and heat vents (C2.3) Fire doors Partitions and Ceilings –All must be fire safe if a form of an exit –Fire partitions need to be full height of wall (floor to ceiling) –Services within fire escape routs must be enclosed. PreviousNext

147 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Unloading of truck Roller door at back Unloading of trucks Lifting up of both sides of truck possible Forklift for great heights Bendie fork lift By using this less space between the shelves is possible The thinnest isle needed is 1900mm The maximum height is 3660 The maximum weight lifted is 1.8T The weight of the forklift is 6040kg Manual Pallet jack Truck size (in comparison to Andrew) Stacking of empty pallets Previous

148 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Ref 1 http://www.shade-to-order.com.au/technical.php?i=No_Triangles date accessed 07.03.04 Ref 2 http://www.glassblocks.com.au/ date accessed 12.03.04 http://www.selector.com.au/index.php?pid=10460&e=A&a=&target=normal&sp=&t=1 Ref 3 http://www.obeco.com.au/ date accessed 12.03.04 Ref 4 http://www.galaxyrooflite.com.au/ date accessed 13.03.04 Ref 5 http://www.pilkington.com.au/Australasia/Australia/English/default.htm date accessed 13.03.04 Ref 6 http://www.obeco.com.au/sys_mort.html date accessed 23.03.04 Ref 7 http://www.selector.com.au/index.php?pid=10460&e=D&a=&target=normal&sp=&t=1 date accessed 12.03.04 Ref 8 http://www.belron.com/resources/smashed+glass.jpg date accessed 04.04.04 Ref 9 http://www.buildingindex.com/company/austglas.htm date accessed 04.04.04 Ref 10 http://www.cmbrick.com.au/bricks_techinfo.html date accessed 25.03.04 Ref 11 http://www.bowralbricks.com.au/ date accessed 18.03.04 Ref 12 http://www.brickbydesign.com/downloads/publications/cbpi_manual_5.pdf date accessed 16.03.04 Ref 13 Compilation of Deakin university, Construction & Structures 2 Reader, Deakin University, Geelong, 1998 Ref 14 http://www.30504.com/Nederland_web/friesland/Brick_wall.jpg date accessed 20.03.04 Ref 15 http://www.cnn.com/interactive/style/9912/saladino.entrance/4.jpg date accessed 20.03.04 Ref 16 http://www.nps.gov/goga/history/seaforts/chap9&10/brick.htm date accessed 04.04.04 Ref 17 http://www.quikrete.com/diy/BasicBrickConstruction.html date accessed 31.03.04 Ref 18 http://www.selector.com.au/index.php?pid=10824&target=subproduct&e=I&subdirectory=01 date accessed 03.04.04 Ref 19 Boral Plasterboard 3.03, Boral plasterboard for a technical solution, May 1995. References and Acknowledgements (the majority of resources were web-sites because the books found were general out of date) Next

149 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies 20. Promat, Passive Fire Protection, 98/99 E 420.10, E460.10, E 450.10, E465.30 21. Timber Manual: Design and specifications 1, National Association of Forest Industry Ltd, 1989, p.2, 9-11 22. www.oak.arch.utas.edu.au By: Peter J. Yttrup and Tom Evans accessed on 12/3/04 23. Drew, Philip. Tensile Architecture. Granada Publishing Ltd., St. Albans, Herts, 1979, p.169-172 24. Timber Manual: Design and specifications 2, National Association of Forest Industry Ltd, 1989, p.8, 10 25. Moore, Fuller. Understanding Structures, McGrawtlill Companies Inc. USA, 1999, p.37, 46, 233 26. Vandenberg, Maritz. Cable Nets: Detailing in Building, Academy Editions, Great Britian, 1998, p. 14, 19, 29, 74, 79 27. Lin, T. Y., Stotesbury, S. D. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers, John Wiley & Sons Inc., USA and Canada, 1981, p. 111, 196, 294-299, 456-461 28. www.vicartscentre.com.au/sidneymyermusicbowl/index.htm accessed on 17/3/04 29. www.architecture.com.au accessed on 17/3/04 30. www.oncueonline.com.au accessed on 16/3/04 31. www.findarticles.com accessed on 16/3/04 32. Aluminium Development Council of Australia, Aluminium Technology, Book 1: Aluminium the metal, Ronald Sinclair Associates Pty Ltd, Sydney. 1971 p.16-19, 75 33. Information Booklet, Asphalt Basics, Australian Asphalt Pavement Association, 1996 34. Boral Plasterboard manual, issue no 2, Jan 96 35. Weathertex, Weathertex Pty Ltd, NSW, 2004 36. Flooring Manual, Carter Holt Harvey, Engineered Wood Products, 1997 PreviousNext Ref and ack

150 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies 37. www.redskyshelters.com/ tensilehistory.html date accessed 06.04.04 38. http://www.christellefv.com/holidays/holland/photos/46-Jan04-Efteling-Entrance.jpg date accessed 06.04.04 39. http://www.rvib.org.au/eventscal/carols_images/bowl_1998.jpg date accessed 06.04.04 40. http://www.chenbros.com.tw/image/p1-1.jpg date accessed 06.04.04 41. http://www.contemporasteel.com/images/03r2.jpg date accessed 06.04.04 42.Ward-Harvey, Ken. Fundamental Building Materials, Royal Australian Institute of Architects, ACT, 1997. 43. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia, Guide to Concrete Constrution, Standards Australia, Sydney, 2002. 44. Cement and Concrete Association, The Housing Concrete Handbook, pdf file, p. 7-8, 18-19. 45. www.bluscopesteel.com.au, Bluescope Steel, accessed on 25/3/04. 46. www.concrib.com.au, Concrib Retaining Walls, accessed on 3/4/04. 47. www.allanblock.com.au, Allan Block, accessed on 3/4/04. 48. www.ppi.com.au, PPI Corporation Pty Ltd, accessed on 5/4/04. 49. Ham, Jeremy, Tilt Up, Deakin University lecture notes. 50. www.boral.com.au, Boral Ltd, accessed on 25/3/04. 51. http://www.buildingindex.com/extras/ceind3.html, accessed on 5/4/04 52. http://www.concrete.net.au/, accessed on 18/3/04 53. http://www.hollowcore.com.au/, accessed on 18/3/04 54. http://www.cement.org/, accessed on 18/3/04 55.http://www.humes.com.au, accessed on 3/4/04 56.Lecture notes from Building Material Science, 57 Australian Steel Construction, Economical Structural Steelwork, 1997 58 Harris, James B, Li, Kevin P, Structures in Architecture, Architectural Press, Oxford 1996 59 Ronstan Architectural Rigging Systems catalogue. Viewable at www.ronstan.com 60 Ham, Jeremy, Steel construction, Deakin University lecture notes 61 Ham, Jeremy, Portal Frames, Deakin University lecture notes PreviousNext

151 References Acknowledgments Construction Process Envelope Systems Materials + Components Structural Systems Case Studies Previous Acknowledgments Acc 1. David, Add-A-Shed & Garage Pty Ltd Acc2. Carl Findlay, Max Findlay & Associates Pty Ltd People we would like to thank: Bunnings Warehouse Corio Rays Tent City Corio VISY Recycling Plant Lyons Construction Deakin University Printing and Packaging Centre Waurn Ponds The Laminex Group Corio A special thank-you to: David from Add-A-Shed & Garage Carl Findlay from Max Findlay & Associates


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