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Configuring your VLAN Presented by Gregory Laffoon.

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1 Configuring your VLAN Presented by Gregory Laffoon

2 Overview of Networking Terms

3 Networking Terms Overview
OSI Model Defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy

4 OSI Model Of the 7 layers, we are concerned with the bottom 3 layers.
The top 4 layers are used more on host machines to support TCP/UDP, HTTP, other applications Application Layer (Layer 7) Presentation Layer (Layer 6) Session Layer (Layer 5) Transport Layer (Layer 4) Network Layer (Layer 3) Data Link Layer (Layer 2) Physical Layer (Layer 1)

5 OSI Layer 1 OSI Models This layer is the transmission media
Category 5e and fiber optic cabling Radio signal in terms of wireless Performs transmission of raw bits

6 OSI Layer 2 OSI Models Data packets are encoded and decoded into bits.
Divided into 2 sub-layers MAC (Media Access Control) Controls how hosts on the network gain access to the data and permission to transmit it LLC (Logical Link Control) Controls frame synchronization, flow control, and error checking

7 OSI Layer 3 OSI Models Routing and forwarding functions
Handles end to end addressing Provides the mean for separate networks to talk to each other IP (Internet Protocol) is at this level

8 Definition of Network Device Types

9 There are 5 general devices:
Network Device Types There are 5 general devices: Repeater Hub Bridge Switch Router

10 Network Device - Repeater
A Layer 1 device An electronic device to receive a signal on a port and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power Used when you need to go farther distances than the cabling will allow Usually has 2 ports (IN/OUT)

11 Hub Network Device - Hub A Layer 1 device
A device that contains multiple ports Has no logic or “brain” Simply passes data out all other ports In simple terms, it is a multi-port repeater

12 Network Device - Bridge
A Layer 2 device Connects multiple Layer 2 segments Has logic or “brain” Learns what Layer 2 MAC addresses are associated with each port Receives frames destined for a particular MAC address and only sends the data out the correct port

13 Network Device - Switch
A layer 2 device Basically a multi-port bridge Learns MAC Addresses to Port mappings Doesn’t flood data out every port unless the MAC address hasn’t been learned

14 Network Device - Router
A Layer 3 device Connects multiple Layer 3 networks Uses Layer 3 addressing (IP addressing) Allows communication between different Layer 2 segments Breaks up broadcast domains

15 A layer 3 device breaks up a broadcast domain
A broadcast domain is a network segment in which any network device can transmit data directly to another device without going through a router A layer 3 device breaks up a broadcast domain

16 So what is a VLAN?

17 What is a VLAN? A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain regardless of their physical location.

18 Traditional LAN A traditional LAN would require all users of the same requirements and same IP subnet (broadcast domain) be connected to the same equipment.

19 VLAN-based LAN By utilizing VLANs, the same users can be spread out over various geographical locations and still remain in their same IP subnet (broadcast domain).

20 How VLANs work?

21 VLANs are identified by a number
How VLANs Work? VLANs are identified by a number Valid ranges On a VLAN-capable switch, you assign ports with the appropriate VLAN number The switch then only allows data to be sent between ports with the same VLAN

22 How VLANs Work? Since almost every network is larger than a single switch, there needs to be a way to have traffic sent between two different switches One way to do it is to assign a port on each switch with a VLAN and run a cable between the switches Not very feasible or cost effective

23 How VLANs work? For example, if there were 6 hosts on each switch on 6 different vlans, you would need 6 ports on each switch to connect the switches together. This would mean that if you had 24 different vlans you could only have 24 hosts on a 48 port switch

24 802.1q – Provides a VLAN tag in front of the Layer 2 frame
How VLANs work? There was a standard develop to make it so that a single connection between two switches could be used to send traffic for all vlans 802.1q – Provides a VLAN tag in front of the Layer 2 frame

25 You enable 802.1q tagging (trunking) on the ports between the switches
How VLANs work? You enable 802.1q tagging (trunking) on the ports between the switches The switch receives the frame with the 802.1q header and strips it off It determines what VLAN and sends the data to the appropriate port

26 Benefits of VLANs

27 Limit the size of broadcast domains and limit broadcast activity
Benefits of VLANs Geographically separated users on the same IP subnet (broadcast domain) Limit the size of broadcast domains and limit broadcast activity Security benefits by keep hosts separated by VLAN and limiting what devices can talk to those hosts

28 Cost savings as you don’t need additional hardware and cabling
Benefits of VLANs Cost savings as you don’t need additional hardware and cabling Operational benefits because changing a user’s IP subnet (Broadcast Domain) is in software

29 Drawbacks of VLANs VLANs were used to allow grouping of users together with the same requirements and allowing them to be in separate locations The major drawback is that the general idea is to make all users that need the same requirements be in the same VLAN

30 Drawbacks of VLANs VLANs work at Layer 2 and that layer doesn’t handle redundancy in an efficient manner So when the network becomes mission critical, it is hard to provide fast convergence times for users when utilizing VLANs that span across multiple buildings

31 Drawbacks of VLANs VLANs were and still are a viable method for separating users into groups Today, redundancy is very important so to make the network stable the following guidelines should be followed:

32 VLANs should still be used to separate and group common users
Drawbacks of VLANs VLANs should still be used to separate and group common users VLANs shouldn’t span across the entire network They should remain in a building Common users in another building should be on a separate VLAN

33 Drawbacks of VLANs Then the two common user groups would utilize a router to talk to each other

34 Questions & Answers


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