3THE “WHAT” DEFINE POETRY! Poetry (from the Greek "ποίησις", poiesis, a "making") is a form of literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning. Poetry may be written independently, as discrete poems, or may occur in conjunction with other arts, as in poetic drama, hymns or lyrics.WHAT DOES ALL THAT MEAN??!!
5UP TO YOU!TAKE A MOMENT TO WRITE YOUR OWN DEFINITION OF POETRY AND LET’S DISCUSS IT…
6THE “WHY” WHY IS POETRY IMPORTANT? Poetry takes a simple concept and makes it more powerful and beautifulWhich one of these poems is better? Why?The Turtlebreaks from the blue-blackskin of the water, dragging her shellwith its mossy scutesacross the shallows and through the rushesand over the mudflats, to the uprise,to the yellow sand,to dig her ungainly feeta nest, and hunker there spewingher white eggs downinto the darkness…By: Mary OliverThe Turtlecomes out of the waterwalks across the sanddigs a nestand lays some eggsBy: Mr. Brooks
7WHAT IS FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE? Figurative language presents ordinary things in fresh ways, communicating ideas that go beyond words’ ordinary meanings.HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES…
8FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: IT’S LIKE A SIMILE – a comparison of two unlike things using the words like or as.Examples of simile:“Life is like a box of chocolates.”“The girl is as beautiful as a rose.”“The willow is like an etching…”
9FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: IT IS A METAPHOR – a comparison of two unlike things without using the words like or as.Examples of metaphor:“My father is a tall, sturdy oak.”“The hotel is a diamond in the sky.”“who know’s if the moon’s a balloon…”
10FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: PERSONIFICATION – the giving of human qualities to an animal, object, or idea.Examples of personification:“Hunger sat shivering on the road.”“The flowers danced on the lawn.”“SpongeBob SquarePants” and “Smokey the Bear” are personified characters.
11FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: HYPERBOLE - an exaggerated statement used to make a point.Examples of hyperbole:“An apple a day keeps the doctor away.”“I could sleep for a year.”“This book weighs a ton.”
12FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: IMAGINE THE IMAGERY -figures of speech or vivid descriptions used to produce mental images (appeal to the five senses).Examples of imagery:“Her clammy back felt like bark of the tree after a summer’s rain.”“…the small pond behind my house was lapping at it’s banks…”“The willow’s music is like a soprano…”
13WHAT IS A SOUND DEVICE?The effect of a poem can depend on the sound of its words.HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES…
14SOUND DEVICE: SOUNDS LIKE ONOMATOPOEIA - the use of words whose sounds suggest their meanings.Examples of onomatopoeia:“The bang of a gun.”“The hiss of a snake.”“The buzz of a bee.”“The pop of a firecracker.”
15SOUND DEVICE: REPETITION - the repeating of sound, words, phrases or lines in a poem used to emphasize an idea or convey a certain feeling.Examples of repetition:“Sing a song full of faith that the dark past has taught us, Sing a song of the hope that the present has brought us…”“I think I can, I think I can, I think I can, I think I can…”“The isolation during my vacation created a situation of relaxation.”
16SOUND DEVICE: I RHYME ALL THE TIME AND I GUESS IT SOUNDS FINE… - repetition of sound at the ends of words. (Rhyme occurring within a line is called internal rhyme. Rhyme occurring at the end of a line is called end rhyme)Rhyme Scheme – the pattern of end rhyme in a poem. Lines that rhyme are given the same letter.Example of internal rhyme, end rhyme, and rhyme scheme:I looked at the shell in the ocean aI looked at the bell in the sea, bI noticed the smell and the motion aWere very peculiar to me.” b
17SOUND DEVICE: DO YOU HAVE RHYTHM? LET’S CLAP! – the pattern of sound created by stressed (more emphasis, `) and unstressed (less emphasis, υ) syllables. Many poems are given diacritical markings (` and υ) depending on the rhythm. Example of rhythm: “I looked at the shell in the ocean I looked at the bell in the sea, I noticed the smell and the motion Were very peculiar to me.”
18SOUND DEVICE: ASSONANCE - repetition of VOWEL SOUNDS at the BEGINNING, MIDDLE or END of at least two words in a line of poetry.Examples of AssonanceRepeating the “eh” sound in the words: “crescent,” “flesh,” “extending,” “medicine” and “death”
19SOUND DEVICE: CONSONANCE - repetition of CONSONANT SOUNDS at the BEGINNING, MIDDLE or END of at least two words in a line of poetry.Examples of ConsonanceRepeating the “sh” sound in the words: “shush,” “wish,” “sharp,” “cushion” and “quash”
20SOUND DEVICE: ALLITERATION - repetition of CONSONANT SOUNDS at the BEGINNING of at least two words in a line of poetry. Example of alliteration:Examples of Alliteration“the frog frolicked frivolously on the forest floor.”“…Little skinny shoulder blades Sticking through your clothes…”“…struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet…”
21WHAT IS FORM?The form of a poem involves the physical arrangement of the words on the page, sometimes involving rhyme and rhythm.LINE: a sentence or fragment of sentence.STANZA: a group of more than one line.HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF FORM…
22FORM: COUPLET-a pair of lines that rhyme. A couplet may be a poem in itself or part of a larger poem. What is an example of a COUPLET? The artist stirred some blue and green To paint an underwater scene.
23FORM: HAIKU-an unrhymed poem consisting of three lines and seventeen (17) syllables. These poems are normally about nature. The first line is five (5) syllables. The second line is seven (7) syllables. The third line is five (5) syllables. What is an example of a HAIKU? The autumn wind blows, (5 syllables) Calling the leaves on the ground (7 syllables) To join him in dance. (5 syllables)
24FORM: LIMERICK-a humorous five-line poem made up of thirteen (13) beats with an “AABBA” rhyme scheme. The poem is named after the city of Limerick in Ireland. What is an example of a LIMERICK? There was a young boy from Caboo, (3 beats) Who had trouble tying his shoe. (3 beats) He said to his ox, (2 beats) “I’ll just walk in my socks.” (2 beats) Now all of his friends do that, too! (3 beats)
25FORM: QUATRAIN-a four-line poem of any kind. They are often combined to form a larger poem. Its rhyme scheme may be “AABB,” “ABAB,” “ABCB,” or “ABBA.” What is an example of a QUATRAIN? A robin sitting in a tree (A) Turned her head and winked at me, (A) She sang a song as if to say, (B) “I’m glad to see you here today.” (B) There is nothing quite so peaceful (A) As the sound of gentle rain, (B) Pitter-pitter-patting (C) Against my window pane. (B)
26FORM: CINQUAIN-an unrhymed, five-line poem. The first line is one (1) word that names the subject. The second line is two (2) words that describe the subject. The third line is three (3) action verbs that describe the subject. The fourth line is four (4) words that describe a feeling about the subject. The fifth line is one (1) word that is a synonym or a summary of the subject. What is an example of a CINQUAIN? Butterflies Gentle creatures Fluttering, searching, landing Lovely flashes of light Miracles
27FORM: ENJAMBMENTThe running over of a line or thought into the next line without a strong break or pauseExample:I’m feeling rather sleepy, butI really don’t know why. I guess itis the way the day has spunout of control.
28FORM: FREE VERSEPoetry that does not contain regular patterns of rhyme and rhythm. The lines flow more naturally and have “everyday speech” rhythm. Poets who write in free verse often use the sound devices we have already discussed. Here’s an example from May Swenson’s “Southbound on the Freeway:They all hiss as they glide,like inches, down the markedtapes. Those soft shapes,shadowy insidethe hard bodies – are theytheir guts or their brainsLabel the assonance, consonance and alliteration.What is the effect of the enjambment?
29ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT TODAY’S LESSON: FIGURATIVE LANGUAGESOUND DEVICESFORM