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1 | Program Name or Ancillary Texteere.energy.gov Water Power Peer Review 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Dr. Andrea Copping Pacific Northwest National.

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Presentation on theme: "1 | Program Name or Ancillary Texteere.energy.gov Water Power Peer Review 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Dr. Andrea Copping Pacific Northwest National."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 | Program Name or Ancillary Texteere.energy.gov Water Power Peer Review 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Dr. Andrea Copping Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (206) November, Market Accelleration Assessing the Effects of MHK Device Operation on Aquatic Organisms Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Acoustics/Noise Physical Interactions

2 2 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Purpose, Objectives, & Integration There is limited information on the potential effects of EMF, acoustics/noise, or physical interaction on important marine, estuarine, and fresh water species. This knowledge gap creates significant regulatory uncertainty that could affect the permitting and operation of MHK devices. By assessing the potential effects of EMF, acoustic noise, and physical interaction of animals with MHK devices the regulatory costs, time, and potential environmental impacts of MHK development can be streamlined. This task will accelerate the development of the MHK industry and support DOEs Water Power Program goals to: 1) identify the most significant areas of environmental concern, and initiate research to address potential impacts; and 2) determine how environmental monitoring and mitigation, siting and permitting contribute to the cost of energy, and seek to reduce these costs. Results from this project will be entered into the Tethys database and incorporated into ERES risk assessments to provide a more complete picture of potential MHK effects.

3 3 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Technical Approach The technical focus is on sublethal effects of EMF and acoustics (e.g., organism development, behavior, and physiological stress), and on the likelihood of adverse interactions with MHK devices, on aquatic species that are ecologically, commercially, or recreationally important. Standardized methods and endpoints have been adopted or where necessary adapted, whenever possible for testing of EMF, acoustics or physical interaction. Upper bounding limits of EMF and acoustics have evaluated (e.g. exposures much higher than expected to occur during MHK device operation) to ensure protection of the environment. Assessment of exposure/response relationships were examined in a risk context to determine the potential for population-level effects. PNNL uses innovative exposure systems for EMF and sound (Helmholtz coil for EMF, tidal turbine sound exposure system for acoustics) at PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory. ORNL explored a variety of behavioral responses appropriate to different aquatic organisms. PNNL and ORNL are collaborating on acoustic measurement equipment and techniques. PNNL examined potential effects of physical interaction between marine animals and MHK devices through a detailed literature review and case study approach. ORNL carried out flume studies to examine interactions between freshwater fish and turbine blades.

4 4 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Plan, Schedule, & Budget PNNL EMF Testing Schedule Work was initiated on 1 October 2010; planned completion date is 30 September Milestones for FY10 and FY11: –FY10, Q2: EMF testing protocol development completed –FY10, Q3: Helmholtz coil delivered, installed, and calibrated –FY10, Q4: Initial round of testing completed for salmon and halibut –FY11, Q2: Second round of testing completed for salmon, halibut, and trout –FY11, Q3: Dungeness crab food detection experiments completed –FY11, Q4: Dungeness crab avoidance/attraction experiments completed Emphasis in FY12 will be to carry out lobster avoidance/attraction testing and conduct EMF testing on elasmobranchs. Test organism availability will drive the precise choice of organisms, schedules and go, no-go decisions. Budget No budget variances occurred in FY10 and FY11 and none expected in FY12. FY10 and FY11 combined budgets 95% expended; no expected carryover into FY12. Budget History FY2009FY2010FY2011 DOECost-shareDOECost-shareDOECost-share $230K$0$60K$0$190K$0

5 5 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Plan, Schedule, & Budget: ORNL EMF Testing Schedule Work was initiated on 1 October 2010; planned completion date is 30 September 2012 Milestones for FY10 and FY11: –FY10, Q2: Questionnaire related to EMF measurements distributed to industry –FY10, Q3: Protocol development completed –FY10, Q4: Initial testing of DC fields completed for minnows, clams, and snails –FY11, Q2: Experiments for response to AC fields commenced –FY11, Q3: Tests of AC fields on paddlefish and lake sturgeon completed –FY11, Q4: Tests of DC fields on channel catfish and striped bass completed Emphasis in FY12 will be to carry out additional tests of AC and DC fields using more freshwater species, measure EMF at an HK project, and develop experimental techniques for testing biological responses to multiple cables/generating units Budget No budget variances occurred in FY10 and FY11 and none expected in FY12. FY10 and FY11 combined budgets 95% expended; no expected carryover into FY12. Budget History FY2009FY2010FY2011 DOECost-shareDOECost-shareDOECost-share 150k30k120k

6 6 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Plan, Schedule, & Budget: PNNL Acoustics Testing Schedule Work was initiated on 1 October 2011; planned completion date is 30 September 2012 Milestones for FY10 and FY11 (limited activities in FY10) –FY10, Q4: Transfer of acoustics testing equipment to PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory –FY11, Q2: Acoustic test system installation and staff training –FY11, Q3: Acoustics fish testing complete for juvenile salmon –FY11, Q4: Data analysis and reporting complete Emphasis in FY12 will be to conduct acoustics testing on a second marine fish species, possibly an elasmobranch (shark, skate, or ray species). Test organism availability will drive schedule and go, no-go decisions. Budget Initial funding for acoustics delayed until FY11 due to equipment availability & logistical issues No budget variances occurred in FY11 and none expected in FY12 FY11 budget 95% expended; minimal carryover into FY12 Budget History FY2009FY2010FY2011 DOECost-shareDOECost-shareDOECost-share $12k0$40k0$80k0

7 7 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Plan, Schedule, & Budget: PNNL Physical Effects Review Schedule Work was initiated on 1 October 2010; completed on 30 September Milestones for FY10 and FY11: –FY10, Q3: Literature search complete (habitat change, noise, chemicals) –FY10, Q4: Literature review and final report complete –FY11, Q3: Literature search complete (marine mammals, birds, fish) –FY11, Q4: Literature review and final report complete Emphasis in FY12 will be to support Tethys literature integration; no additional literature searches or reviews are planned. Budget No budget variances occurred in FY10 and FY11; no budget for FY12. FY10 and FY11 combined budgets 99% expended; no carryover. Budget History FY2009FY2010FY2011 DOECost-shareDOECost-shareDOECost-share $25k0$0k0$25k0

8 8 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Plan, Schedule, & Budget: ORNL Physical Effects Studies Schedule Work was initiated on 1 October 2009; completed on 30 September Milestones for FY10 and FY11: –FY10, Q4: Literature reviews completed on MHK blade strike and potential for attraction/avoidance of project structures –FY11, Q2: Strike study test protocols and equipment developed –FY11, Q3: Laboratory tests of strike carried out with 3 blade shapes and 4 freshwater fish species –FY11, Q4: Report on effects of blade strike on juvenile fish prepared Emphasis in FY12 will be to publish result of lab strike tests and carry out additional blade strike tests at ORNL or other lab. Budget No budget variances occurred in FY10 and FY11; no budget for FY12. FY10 and FY11 combined budgets 99% expended; no carryover. Budget History FY2009FY2010FY2011 DOECost-shareDOECost-shareDOECost-share $150k0$30k0$120k0

9 9 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Accomplishments and Results: PNNL EMF Experiments Species TestedTesting EndpointResult Juvenile Coho salmon Decreased swimming as alarm- response behavior 3mT Juvenile Coho salmon Melatonin/cortisol production as indication of stress Decreased melatonin levels at 3 and 0.13mT but NSS Rainbow trout eggsSurvival and development SS delayed 3mT for one exposure group; other exposure group NSS Atlantic halibut embryos Growth and development Decreased growth and 3mT but NSS California halibut embryos Growth and development No difference between test and control exposures Adult Dungeness crab EMF detection as change in antennular flicking rate No difference between test and control exposures Adult Dungeness crab Interference in food detection ability Decreased flicking 3mT but NSS Adult Dungeness crabAvoidance or attraction to EMF No difference between test and control exposures NSS: Not statistically significant at p = SS: Statistically significant at p = 0.05

10 10 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Accomplishments and Results: PNNL EMF Experiments OUTCOMES Endpoints for certain species indicated a response to EMF exposure, notably: –Delayed development in rainbow trout eggs –Eye migration in Atlantic halibut –Behavior change in Dungeness crab seeking food –Increased stress hormones in juvenile coho salmon However none of these results were statistically significant, indicating that no adverse outcomes due to EMF exposure should affect permitting or operation of MHK devices at pilot- or full-scale operational scenarios. Experimental results of Atlantic halibut development after exposure to EMF Video capture of Dungeness crab feeding response to EMF exposure

11 11 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Accomplishments and Results ORNL EMF Experiments Species TestedTesting EndpointResult Fathead minnows Activity levels and attraction/avoidance of DC fields No attraction or avoidance of fields, but increased activity caused by EMF Freshwater snailsAttraction/avoidance of DC fields No attraction or avoidance of fields Asiatic clamAttraction/avoidance of DC fields No attraction or avoidance of fields Channel catfish Activity levels and attraction/avoidance of DC fields No significant change in activity or location Striped bass Activity levels and attraction/avoidance of DC fields No significant change in activity or location Paddlefish Swimming behavior response to AC fields No significant responses Lake sturgeon Swimming behavior response to AC fields Variety of behavioral reactions to even low EMF strengths

12 12 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Accomplishments and Results PNNL Acoustic Experiments Species TestedTesting EndpointResult Juvenile Chinook salmonTissue damage SS low levels of tissue damage dB. Low physiological cost to fish. Juvenile Chinook salmonHearing loss NSS difference between test and control dB NSS: Not statistically significant at p = SS: Statistically significant at p = 0.05

13 13 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Accomplishments and Results PNNL Acoustic Experiments OUTCOME Effects of acoustic exposure of test organism in close proximity to turbine noise indicates that no hearing shift and only minor tissue will result, indicating that no adverse outcomes due to acoustic exposure should affect permitting or operation of MHK devices at pilot- or full-scale operational scenarios. Respiration reservoir AEP tank Hydrophone holder Fish holder BioAmps Respiration tube Electrode wires Recorded sound spectra for 6m OpenHydro tidal turbine Experimental setup for Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP)

14 14 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Accomplishments and Results PNNL Physical Interactions FY10 Accomplishments Completed literature review focusing on information (post EISA) Habitat change related to device deployment Device noise Chemical leaching from coatings Information to be incorporated into Tethys FY11 Accomplishments Completed literature review of recent information ( ) Effects on marine mammals, fish, birds Case study to assess effects of wave park presence on marine mammals suggests minimal effects to gray whale migration or feeding behavior Information to be incorporated into Tethys

15 15 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Accomplishments and Results ORNL Physical Effects Studies FY10 Accomplishments Completed literature reviews Potential for attraction and avoidance of instream structures Modeling of strike potential from single and multiple units Information to be incorporated into Tethys FY11 Accomplishments Developed blade strike experimental protocol and laboratory equipment Carried out blade strike tests with freshwater fish early life stages 3 blade shapes 3 water velocities (0.5, 0.85, and 1.15 m/s) 4 fish species (minnows, striped bass, crappie, walleye) Information to be incorporated into Tethys

16 16 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Challenges to Date PNNL EMF and Acoustics Area of Study ChallengeResponse EMF Ability to produce uniform EMF fields at varying strengths in an exposure system that can be configured to support testing of variety of fish and invertebrate species Purchase and installation of a custom Helmholtz coil system capable of 0.1 to 3mT in an 8 cf space Creation of versatile exposure systems complete with video capture to document behavioral responses during tests Acoustics Ability to generate sound signatures similar to tidal turbine in a test system appropriate for salmonid effects testing In collaboration with UW-NNMREC, creation of relevant sound source term for tidal turbine scenario. Development of a custom test system to produce, measure, and record sound during effects testing

17 17 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Challenges to Date ORNL EMF and Acoustics Area of Study ChallengeResponse EMF Better characterization of EMF fields from multiple MHK generators (AC) and cables (AC and DC) and the consequent behavioral responses of variety of fish and invertebrate species Utilize information from EMF modeling and field measurements at prototype installations to better quantify the fields to which aquatic organisms will be exposed Investigate different behavioral responses among a wider range of freshwater organisms Physical Interactions Recreate realistic test conditions for MHK blade strike (water velocities, light levels, temperature) to study strike potential for a variety of fish species, fish life stages, and real world conditions In ORNL flume, expand testing to include wider series of fish early life stages, higher water velocities, and video analyses of fish/blade interactions Collaborate with another lab that has ability to test larger fish at higher velocities (e.g., Alden Research Lab)

18 18 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Next Steps (FY12) PNNL EMF and Acoustics EMF focus on American lobster and elasmobranch species (sharks, skates, rays). –Lobster testing in Q1-Q2 –Elasmobranch testing in Q3 and Q4 Acoustics exposure will include an additional species that has demonstrated sensitivity to sound and environmental relevance (e.g. elasmobranch, rockfish). –Testing schedule TBD on organism availability. Inclusion of additional species will further reduce uncertainty related to environmental effects and address agency concerns on both coasts. Development of a multi-stressor experiment (EMF + sound) would provide additional information to support long-term monitoring, but is currently unfunded.

19 19 | Wind and Water Power Programeere.energy.gov Next Steps (FY12) ORNL EMF Develop a detailed experimental plan that describes the next round of lab experiments with different types and strengths of magnetic fields, additional species, and new exposure designs ORNL will design a study to characterize the static and varying fields at an operating MHK field site and the response of fish to EMF at that site EMF field measurement procedures will be tested, and used to develop a draft EMF field monitoring protocol that will be useful to the MHK industry and regulators Analyze EMF experiments (field site and/or laboratory) and submit final draft report to DOE


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