Presentation on theme: "EMPTY/LOAD DEVICE TRAINING"— Presentation transcript:
1EMPTY/LOAD DEVICE TRAINING MODEL SERIES6200, 6600, & ENX
2Part I. How it StartedOne of the issues that freight car designers face today is to achieve the maximum braking effectiveness on a car whether it is empty or loaded. Today’s cars are being constructed much lighter than in years past, yet they carry heavier loads. If these cars were to utilize the same braking forces from years ago, it would result in brake related wheel defects like, shelling, flat spots and so on.The greater the weight of a moving object, the greater the force required to slow it down and bring it to a complete stop. An empty freight car requires less braking force to slow it down or stop it compared to a loaded car.To solve this issue, the Empty/Load device was created to limit braking forces while the car is empty and maximize the braking force in loaded condition.
3How it helps:Single capacity air brake equipment cannot recognize whether the car is empty or loaded. As a result, the brakes apply in proportion to the brake pipe pressure reduction, regardless of the weight of the car. With a heavy service brake application, a light car may be over-braked when it is in empty, which may result in the following:Flat spots on wheels due to slidingShelling of the wheelsPremature removal of brake shoesIncreased damage to railTo order to prevent these over-braking issues, the empty/load device was developed.
4How it works: Part A: Principles of Empty/Load Braking Most empty/load brake equipment is not designed for a variable car load, which means that it does not proportion the braking force to the load of the car. The device only detects if the car is empty or loaded, not partially loaded. Typically, if the car is loaded to 20% or more of its capacity, the car is considered to be loaded and is braked as if it were loaded. We must first understand that the retarding force on the car is directly dependent upon the pressure developed in the brake cylinder. So, we must reduce the brake cylinder pressure to reduce the braking force. Therefore, it is necessary to determine if the car is empty or loaded and then adjust the brake cylinder pressure accordingly.
5How the load is detected At this point there are 2 methods of detecting the load of a car. They are the Arm-type detecting devices and the Slope sheet canister detecting device.Principles of the Arm-Type Sensing Devices.When a car is empty, the truck springs have only the weight of the car on them and are in a relaxed state. As the car is loaded, the springs will compress. So, by measuring the amount of spring deflection we can determine whether the car is empty or loaded.A common method of measuring the spring deflection is by using a moveable sensor arm or piston that is part of a valve mounted on the car. As air is applied, the sensor arm or piston will rotate or extend to touch the side frame or a bracket located on the side frame. The empty/load device detects the change in distance between the initial setup position and the side frame and deflects the air pressure accordingly.
7Versions of the Arm-Type Empty/Load 6600 SeriesELRPSC-1ENXEL-#ELX-U
8The Arm Type SystemThis system is typically comprised of 3 parts depending on the application. These parts are:Sensing Valve (S1)ProportionalValve (P1)ReservoirLocated in specific places in the braking system, all have a unique job in the braking process.The Sensing Valve is located over the bolster side frame and senses whether the car is empty or loaded. Air is either blocked and returned to the brake cylinder or passed through to the proportional valve and reservoir.cont…
9Cont…The Proportional Valve located between the Control Valve and the Brake Cylinder, deflects the air away from the brake cylinder into the reservoir, therefore reducing the brake cylinder pressure and braking force.The Reservoir is an empty canister that is a holding tank for the deflected air.
106600 SERIES VARIATIONS6600-1: This valve is a standard 60% valve, which will reduce the car’s brake cylinder pressure to approximately 60% of the loaded car pressure when the car is in empty condition.Mounted to the car structure, the valve’s 3 piece construction is used on the standard freight cars or end trucks of 5-unit articulated cars.6600-2: This valve is a standard 60% valve like the with 3 piece construction for use in areas where the cannot fit.6600-1U: This valve is a standard 60% like the , but it is condensed into one piece or unitized piece. It is used on the intermediate trucks of the 125 ton articulated 5-unit double stack cars.NOTE: These valves have all have a 50% version where the valve will reduce the brake cylinder pressure by 50% for empty car condition.
11PROPORTIONAL VALVEThe Proportional Valve is mounted in the brake pipe between the Air Brake Valve and the Brake Cylinder, so the air pressure must go through the Proportional Valve before it gets to the Brake Cylinder.The Proportional Valve’s primary function is to provide a balance of brake cylinder pressure and equalizing reservoir for an empty brake application.When a empty car load is detected, a percentage of the air pressure is deflected away from the brake cylinder to the reservoir. Depending on the weight of the car, a 50% valve will send 50% of air pressure to the brake cylinder and a 60% will send 60% of the air pressure to the brake cylinder.The 50% is NOT interchangeable with the 60% proportional valve.Pipe BracketProportional ValveIndicator
123. Equalizing ReservoirThe Reservoir accepts the deflected air pressure from the proportional valve during an empty application.It is located between the Sensor Valve and the Proportional Valve.The primary function is to provide air pressure balance with the brake cylinder.
13Understanding the Air Flow Downstream Valves6600 Series
21Full Service – Car Empty Downstream (6600)Full Service – Car EmptyReservoirAuxEmergencyIn Empty condition, the arm fully extends,allowing proportional air to bediverted to the reservoir.ReservoirSensor ValveControl ValveRelative PressureHighProportioning ValveBrake CylinderBrake PipeLow
22Valve Detail – Car Empty Downstream (6600)Valve Detail – Car EmptyPressure equalizes.Relative PressureHighLowSensor motion not limitedTo ReservoirProportional spool divides pressureIndicator extends
23Emergency – Car Empty Downstream (6600) Reservoir Aux Emergency In Empty condition, the arm fully extends,allowing proportional air to bediverted to the reservoir. This occurs duringEmergency application as well, but the pressuresare a little higher.ReservoirSensor ValveControl ValveRelative PressureHighProportioning ValveBrake CylinderBrake PipeLow
29Full Service - Loaded Upstream (ENX) Reservoir Aux Emergency TMB CylinderReservoirControlValveRelative PressureValveSide FrameHighBrake PipeUpstream (ENX)Full Service - LoadedLow
30Full Service - Loaded Upstream (ENX) To Cylinder From Control Valve Port to Reservoir closedThe arm is limited by the side frame..Side FrameRelative PressureHighUpstream (ENX)Full Service - LoadedLow
34Full Service - Empty Upstream (ENX) Reservoir Aux Emergency TMB CylinderReservoirControlValveValveRelative PressureHighSide FrameBrake PipeUpstream (ENX)Full Service - EmptyLow
35Full Service - Empty Upstream (ENX) From Control Valve To Cylinder To ReservoirPort to Reservoir opensRelative PressureHighIndicator extends whenarm drops and pressurereaches 15psi.Upstream (ENX)Full Service - EmptySide FrameLow
37Emergency - Empty Upstream (ENX) From Control Valve To Cylinder To ReservoirArm drops when air is applied. Load is not detected,So port to reservoir opens and air is displaced.Relative PressureHighArm not limited by SideFrame in empty position.Upstream (ENX)Emergency - EmptyLowSide Frame
393. Versions of the Slope Sheet Mounted Empty/Load 6200 SeriesELS
406200 SERIES VARIATIONSThere are basically three (3) members of the 6200 Series valve family. Each is designed to conform to specific car construction or customer requirements. Each delivers a percentage of the loaded car pressure when the car is in empty condition, thus reducing the effective braking force. They are as follows:6200X-40BF: This is a standard 40% valve which delivers 40% of the loaded pressure to the Brake Cylinder during empty car condition. This lower braking force is necessary due to the trend toward building lighter aluminum cars while designing it for the current 286,000 lb Gross Rail Load.6200-5: This is a standard 60% valve which delivers 60% of the loaded pressure to the Brake Cylinder during empty car condition. This valve is designed for cars with heavier light weight conditions.
416200 SERIES VARIATIONSC) /50: This is a 50% valve with a standard change over point of 17psi. It is designed for intermediate light weight cars.Note: Although the , 6200X-40 and the /50 are all applied and tested the same, the valve operating portions (replacement portions) are not interchangeable. If a valve operating portion needs to be replaced, it can be identified by its model number, which is machined into the front surface of the valve body.
42GENERALThe following tests and inspections are to be performed in conjunction with the latest revision of the AAR Code of Air Brake System Tests for Freight Equipment, Standard S-486, latest revision, special tests section, auxiliary devices sub-section.INSPECTIONBefore proceeding with testing of empty load equipment, the following inspection should be performed:Inspect for any general damage to empty load valve, including dents or punctures. (Replace if obvious defect exists.)Check for secure attachment of empty load valve to slope or floor sheet of car. (Make any necessary repairs.)Inspect pipe or hose connections for secure attachment. Make sure hoses or pipes are free from cuts, cracks, or other damage or defects. (Replace if necessary.)Check hose or pipe connections for proper installation. Empty load valve will not function properly if piped incorrectly. (Make adjustments if necessary.) (See Figure 1.)
43TESTING LOADED CAR MODE Locate and remove uppermost machine screw and lock washer. (See Figure 2.)Insert test handle (see Figure 3) into vacant hole. This will place empty load valve into loaded mode.
44Make 20 psi reduction using single car test device Make 20 psi reduction using single car test device. With brakes applied, check to see that indicator stem is not extended, indicating that empty load valve is in loaded mode. (See Figure 4.)Release brakes by placing single car test device handle into Position No. 1. Brake cylinder piston should retract and air should exhaust from retaining valve only.
45Empty Car Testing Procedure Following test can only be conducted on an empty car.After completion of loaded car test, remove test handle and replace machine screw and lock washer.Do not over-tighten, as no seal is required at this point.Make 20 psi reduction using single car test device. With brakes applied, check to see that indicator stem has extended, indicating that empty load valve is in empty mode. (See Figure 5).
46Release brakes by placing single car test device handle into Position No. 1. Brake cylinder piston should retract and air should be heard exhausting through retaining valve and possibly through empty load valve vent protector as well. Indicator stem should no longer extend.Note: If empty / load valve does not pass above tests, or is damaged or defective, it must be replaced with reconditioned or new valve body.
47Charged Downstream (6200) Relative Pressure High Aux Emergency ReservoirLowControl ValveBrake CylinderBrake Pipe
48Minimum Application Downstream (6200) Relative Pressure High Aux EmergencyReservoirLowControl ValveBrake CylinderBrake Pipe
49Full Service – Car Loaded Downstream (6200)Full Service – Car LoadedRelative PressureHighAuxEmergencyReservoirLowControl ValveBrake CylinderBrake Pipe
50Emergency – Car Loaded Downstream (6200) Relative Pressure High Aux ReservoirLowControl ValveBrake CylinderBrake Pipe
51Full Service – Car Empty Downstream (6200)Full Service – Car EmptyRelative PressureHighAuxEmergencyReservoirLowControl ValveBrake CylinderBrake Pipe
52Emergency – Car Empty Downstream (6200) Relative Pressure High Aux ReservoirLowControl ValveBrake CylinderBrake Pipe
53Valve Detail – Car Loaded Downstream (6200)Valve Detail – Car LoadedProduct pushesagainst diaphragmDiaphragm pushes rod, forcingspool to cut off port to reservoir.IndicatorWith port sealed, air flows throughthe valve into the brake cylinder
54No product Valve Detail – Car Empty Downstream (6200) Car Body IndicatorPopsWith reservoir port open,proportional air fills thereservoir.
55Figure 5Conventional Brake SystemTruck Mounted Brake System