Computer System & OS Structures Computer System Operation I/O Structure Storage Structure, Storage Hierarchy Hardware Protection Operating System Services, System calls, System Programs Structuring OS Virtual Machine Structure and Organization OS Design and Implementation Process Management, Memory Management, Secondary Storage Management, I/O System Management, File Management, Protection System, Networking, Command-Interpreter.
Computer System Architecture
Fetch Exec R0 … R31 F0 … F30 PC … Data1 Data0 Inst237 Inst236 … Inst5 Inst4 Inst3 Inst2 Inst1 Inst0 Addr 0 Addr What happens during execution? Execution sequence: Fetch Instruction at PC Decode Execute (possibly using registers) Write results to registers/mem PC = Next Instruction(PC) Repeat PC From Berkeley OS course
Computer System Organization I/O devices and the CPU execute concurrently. Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type Each device controller has a local buffer. I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from the local buffers Device controller interrupts CPU on completion of I/O
Interrupts Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine Interrupt Service Routine: Segments of code that determine action to be taken for each type of interrupt. Interrupt vector contains the address of service routines. OS preserves the state of the CPU stores registers and the program counter (address of interrupted instruction). Trap software generated interrupt caused either by an error or a user request.
Interrupt Handling Types of interrupt Polling Vectored interrupt system Incoming interrupts are disabled while another interrupt is being processed to prevent a lost interrupt.
I/O Structure Synchronous I/O wait instruction idles CPU until next interrupt no simultaneous I/O processing, at most one outstanding I/O request at a time. Asynchronous I/O After I/O is initiated, control returns to user program without waiting for I/O completion. System call Device Status table - holds type, address and state for each device OS indexes into I/O device table to determine device status and modify table entry to include interrupt.
Direct Memory Access (DMA) Used for high speed I/O devices able to transmit information at close to memory speeds. Device controller transfers blocks of data from buffer storage directly to main memory without CPU intervention. Only one interrupt is generated per block, rather than one per byte (or word). Memory CPU I/O devices I/O instructions
Storage Structure Main memory - only large storage media that the CPU can access directly. Secondary storage - extension of main memory that has large nonvolatile storage capacity. Magnetic disks - rigid metal or glass platters covered with magnetic recording material. Disk surface is logically divided into tracks, subdivided into sectors. Disk controller determines logical interaction between device and computer.
Storage Hierarchy Storage systems are organized in a hierarchy based on Speed Cost Volatility Caching - process of copying information into faster storage system; main memory can be viewed as fast cache for secondary storage.
Dual-mode operation Sharing system resources requires operating system to ensure that an incorrect program cannot cause other programs to execute incorrectly. Provide hardware support to differentiate between at least two modes of operation: 1. User mode -- execution done on behalf of a user. 2. Monitor mode (supervisor/kernel/system mode) -- execution done on behalf of operating system.
Dual-mode operation(cont.) Mode bit added to computer hardware to indicate the current mode: monitor(0) or user(1). When an interrupt or fault occurs, hardware switches to monitor mode. Privileged instructions only in monitor mode. User Monitor Set user mode Interrupt/ fault
I/O Protection All I/O instructions are privileged instructions. Must ensure that a user program could never gain control of the computer in monitor mode, for e.g. a user program that as part of its execution, stores a new address in the interrupt vector.
Memory Protection Must provide memory protection at least for the interrupt vector and the interrupt service routines. To provide memory protection, add two registers that determine the range of legal addresses a program may address. Base Register - holds smallest legal physical memory address. Limit register - contains the size of the range. Memory outside the defined range is protected. When executing in monitor mode, the OS has unrestricted access to both monitor and users memory Base register Limit register monitor Job1 Job 2 Job 4 Job 3 0
Hardware Address Protection The load instructions for the base and limit registers are privileged instructions.
Program Address Space More detail: A Programs Address Space Address space the set of accessible addresses + state associated with them: For a 32-bit processor there are 2 32 = 4 billion addresses What happens when you read or write to an address? Perhaps Nothing Perhaps acts like regular memory Perhaps ignores writes Perhaps causes I/O operation (Memory-mapped I/O) Perhaps causes exception (fault )
Providing the Illusion of Separate Address Spaces Prog 1 Virtual Address Space 1 Prog 2 Virtual Address Space 2 Code Data Heap Stack Code Data Heap Stack Data 2 Stack 1 Heap 1 OS heap & Stacks Code 1 Stack 2 Data 1 Heap 2 Code 2 OS code OS data Translation Map 1Translation Map 2 Physical Address Space Load new Translation Map on Switch
CPU Protection Timer - interrupts computer after specified period to ensure that OS maintains control. Timer is decremented every clock tick. When timer reaches a value of 0, an interrupt occurs. Timer is commonly used to implement time sharing. Timer is also used to compute the current time. Load timer is a privileged instruction.
General System Architecture Given the I/O instructions are privileged, how do users perform I/O? Via system calls - the method used by a process to request action by the operating system.
System Calls Interface between running program and the OS. Assembly language instructions (macros and subroutines) Some higher level languages allow system calls to be made directly (e.g. C) Passing parameters between a running program and OS via registers, memory tables or stack. Unix has about 32 system calls read(), write(), open(), close(), fork(), exec(), ioctl(),…..
Operating System Services Services that provide user-interfaces to OS Program execution - load program into memory and run it I/O Operations - since users cannot execute I/O operations directly File System Manipulation - read, write, create, delete files Communications - interprocess and intersystem Error Detection - in hardware, I/O devices, user programs Services for providing efficient system operation Resource Allocation - for simultaneously executing jobs Accounting - for account billing and usage statistics Protection - ensure access to system resources is controlled
System Programs Convenient environment for program development and execution. User view of OS is defined by system programs, not system calls. Command Interpreter (sh, csh, ksh) - parses/executes other system programs File manipulation - copy (cp), print (lpr), compare(cmp, diff) File modification - editing (ed, vi, emacs) Application programs - send mail (mail), read news (rn) Programming language support (cc) Status information, communication etc….
Command Interpreter System Commands that are given to the operating system via command statements that execute Process creation and deletion, I/O handling, Secondary Storage Management, Main Memory Management, File System Access, Protection, Networking. Obtains the next command and executes it. Programs that read and interpret control statements also called - Control card interpreter, command-line interpreter, shell (in UNIX)
System Design and Implementation Establish design goals User Goals System Goals Software Engineering - Separate mechanism from policy. Policies determine what needs to be done, mechanisms determine how they are done. Choose a high-level implementation language faster implementation, more compact, easier to debug
System Generation OS written for a class of machines, must be configured for each specific site. SYSGEN program obtains info about specific hardware configuration and creates version of OS for hardware Booting Bootstrap program - loader program loads kernel, kernel loads rest of OS. Bootstrap program stored in ROM
Operating Systems: How are they organized? Simple Only one or two levels of code Layered Lower levels independent of upper levels Microkernel OS built from many user-level processes Modular Core kernel with Dynamically loadable modules
OS Structure - Simple Approach MS-DOS - provides a lot of functionality in little space. Not divided into modules, Interfaces and levels of functionality are not well separated
UNIX System Structure UNIX - limited structuring, has 2 separable parts Systems programs Kernel everything below system call interface and above physical hardware. Filesystem, CPU scheduling, memory management
Layered OS Structure OS divided into number of layers - bottom layer is hardware, highest layer is the user interface. Each layer uses functions and services of only lower- level layers. THE Operating System Kernel has successive layers of abstraction.
Layered Operating System
Microkernel Structure Moves as much from the kernel into user space Small core OS running at kernel level OS Services built from many independent user-level processes Communication between modules with message passing Benefits: Easier to extend a microkernel Easier to port OS to new architectures More reliable (less code is running in kernel mode) Fault Isolation (parts of kernel protected from other parts) More secure Detriments: Performance overhead severe for naïve implementation
Modules-based Structure Most modern operating systems implement modules Uses object-oriented approach Each core component is separate Each talks to the others over known interfaces Each is loadable as needed within the kernel Overall, similar to layers but with more flexible
OS Task: Process Management Process - fundamental concept in OS Process is a program in execution. Process needs resources - CPU time, memory, files/data and I/O devices. OS is responsible for the following process management activities. Process creation and deletion Process suspension and resumption Process synchronization and interprocess communication Process interactions - deadlock detection, avoidance and correction
OS Task: Memory Management Main Memory is an array of addressable words or bytes that is quickly accessible. Main Memory is volatile. OS is responsible for: Allocate and deallocate memory to processes. Managing multiple processes within memory - keep track of which parts of memory are used by which processes. Manage the sharing of memory between processes. Determining which processes to load when memory becomes available.
OS Task: Secondary Storage and I/O Management Since primary storage is expensive and volatile, secondary storage is required for backup. Disk is the primary form of secondary storage. OS performs storage allocation, free-space management and disk scheduling. I/O system in the OS consists of Buffer caching and management Device driver interface that abstracts device details Drivers for specific hardware devices
OS Task: File System Management File is a collection of related information defined by creator - represents programs and data. OS is responsible for File creation and deletion Directory creation and deletion Supporting primitives for file/directory manipulation. Mapping files to disks (secondary storage). Backup files on archival media (tapes).
OS Task: Protection and Security Protection mechanisms control access of programs and processes to user and system resources. Protect user from himself, user from other users, system from users. Protection mechanisms must: Distinguish between authorized and unauthorized use. Specify access controls to be imposed on use. Provide mechanisms for enforcement of access control. Security mechanisms provide trust in system and privacy authentication, certification, encryption etc.
OS Task: Networking Connecting processors in a distributed system Distributed System is a collection of processors that do not share memory or a clock. Processors are connected via a communication network. Advantages: Allows users and system to exchange information provide computational speedup increased reliability and availability of information
Virtual Machines Logically treats hardware and OS kernel as hardware Provides interface identical to underlying bare hardware. Creates illusion of multiple processes - each with its own processor and virtual memory hardware Virtual machine kernel processes
Summary of OS Structures Operating System Concepts Operating System Services, System Programs and System calls Operating System Design and Implementation Structuring Operating Systems