Presentation on theme: "Prayer Lord Jesus Christ, You make the sun rise on the evil and on the good, and You send rain on the just and on the unjust. You love every person, even."— Presentation transcript:
Prayer Lord Jesus Christ, You make the sun rise on the evil and on the good, and You send rain on the just and on the unjust. You love every person, even if they do not want to receive Your love. Help me to be loving even to people that I do not feel close to. Help me to treat everyone in the same way that I would like them to treat me, with kindness and Love. Amen.
Announcements Books for Zambia (Theology) Can Food Drive (Advisory) Exams: Corrections DUE Tuesday HW: Reflection Paper DUE tomorrow!
Exam Corrections MUST have page number from book from where you found your answer OR MUST have notes: Chapter 12 Part I and date All corrections need to be in complete sentences Correct answers/missed points mark on exam!! No Page # or proper notes format = no points!!
Reflection Paper One page/doubled spaced/12 pt. TNR Name in Header Humanism is a moral philosophy that places humans as primary, in range of importance. In your opinion…Has humanism aided humanity or hindered it? What about our modern society? EXPLAIN!!
PART I The Fall of Constantinople and the Rise of the Italian Free States
The Council of Basel – Ferrara- Florence (1431 – 1445) Originally called to deal with heretics Pope Eugene IV wanted to end Great Schism War would unify both sides Used to call for a crusade against Turks
Four Main Disagreements at the Council Greeks objection to Filioque Greeks use of leavened bread for the Eucharist Greeks objection to existence of purgatory Greeks objection to the primacy of the Holy See
Filioque Third Council of Toledo Son Equal in Divinity to God the Father Why rejected?
Leavened vs. Un-Leavened Made of wheaten flour Mixed with pure natural water Baked in an oven, or between two heated iron moulds Must not be corrupted Why un-leavened? – Jewish custom Why rejected by East? – Evidence
Purgatory Catholic: The state of those who die in Gods friendship, assured of their eternal salvation, but who still have need of purification to enter into the heaven Eastern: We pray for the repose of the soul(s) of the servant(s) of God, departed this life; and that he/she may be pardoned all his/her sins…"
Purgatory Macc. 12:43-45 The prayers for the dead help free them from sin and help them to the reward of heaven. Those in heaven have no sin, and those in hell can no longer be freed from sin.
Purgatory Luke 23:43 …Then he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom." He replied to him, "Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise."
Purgatory Luke 23:43 When Jesus uses the word "paradise, from the Hebrew "sheol:This was the place of the dead who were destined for heaven, but who were captive until the Lord's resurrection. No punctuation in the original manuscript, Jesus statement : Jesus could have emphasized with exclamation his statement was today or now, and that some time in the future the good thief would go to heaven. Even if the thief went straight to heaven, this does not prove there is no purgatory : Those who are fully sanctified in this life – perhaps by a bloody and repentant death – could be ready for admission in to heaven.
Primacy of the Holy See Apostolic Succession Role of Peter Bishop of Rome viewed as a leader East rejects universal primacy/ infallibility
Agreement/Result of the Council Filioque accepted Existence of Purgatory accepted Primacy of the Holy See accepted
After the Council/Fall of Constantinople Council detracted from defense Reunion rejected by the people Decrees from council only on paper/not practiced Fall of Constantinople solidified split
PART II The Birth of Humanism and the Flourishing of Arts and Letters
Humanism Late fourteenth c. An intellectual and literary movement Began in the city-states of Italy Education had a moral purpose To make the individual a better, wiser, and more virtuous human being
Humanism Shift from scholasticism led to interest in classics Desire to bring European society out of war and disease Wanted to be like the Great Civilization of Rome
Humanism Scholasticism failed to answer: - Who am I? - What is my final purpose? - What ought I do? - What should I love? - What follows death? Humanism sought to answer these questions
Humanism Emphasized the human: form, beauty, place/usefulness in society NOTHING hinged on God: all controlled their own destiny No longer at the mercy of chance Focused on the here and now Did not seek fortune in the next world
Petrarch (1304-1374) Crowned Poet Laureate Father of Humanism Torn between love of the present/love of eternity Devout/devoted Christian Secretum : personal dialogue between himself and St. Augustine under the eye of Lady Truth
Secretum Augustine: …No one can become or be unhappy except through his own fault, what need of more words is there ? Petrarch: Just this need, that I think I have seen very many people, and I am one of them, to whom nothing is more distressful than the in- ability to break the yoke of their faults, though all their life long they make the greatest efforts so to do…one may yet admit that many people are very unhappy in spite of themselves…
Boccaccio (1313 – 1375) Good friend of Petrarch Decameron: collection of one hundred stories told by travelers who fled the Black plague Didnt reject Christianity Most writings based on the weaknesses of human nature More devout at the end of his life Expressed regret for some of the writings that he completed
Nicolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) Founder of modern political thought The Prince : reflected his ruthless, underhanded conduct Became disgusted with the state of political affairs Disliked the papacy (obstacle to Italian unity) Viewed the virtues as obstacles to political effectiveness Machiavellianism: The ends justify the means
The Prince It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both. Politics have no relation to morals. The first method for estimating the intelligence of a ruler is to look at the men he has around him. There is no surer sign of decay in a country than to see the rites of religion held in contempt.
Michelangelo / Michael Angelo Master at depicting the contours of the human body Sculpted David Supported financially by the popes Commissioned by a pope to paint the Sistine Chapel/design the dome of St. Peters Basilica
Raphael Painter Commissioned by the pope Best known for his Madonnas Hired by Pope Julius II to paint a series of rooms in the papal apartments Buried in the pantheon in Rome
St. Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Utopia: - Describes a religious society heavily influenced by Divine Revelation - Goods are held in common state regulated business Refused to take the Oath of Supremacy Beheaded by King Henry VIII
Erasmus of Rotterdam Viewed the Middle Ages and Scholasticism as unenlightened Held classical thinkers to the highest esteem Desired reform/progress through education and tolerance Critical of societies of the Church/State Handbook of a Christian Knight : Confronted the question, how does one remain a good Christian while taking part in world affairs?
Erasmus of Rotterdam Called for meditation/ study on the writings of the Church Adherence to the philosophy of Christ Praise of Folly : Main character concludes – All favor Folly over Reason Expressed need of reform within the Church
Modern/Secular Humanism Solidifies the belief that every individual is their own "guide" through life Majority of modern humanists today are atheists or agnostics* It is not necessary to turn to God to understand who we are or what our purpose in life is
Pope Benedict XVI Religious leaders of all faiths must play a role in ensuring that the spiritual and cultural aspects of life are not forgotten as mankind tackles the challenges of globalization Warns that modernization may come at the price of spirituality
Relativism Idea that some elements or aspects of experience or culture are relative to, i.e., dependent on, other elements or aspects. Common statements that might be considered relativistic include: "That's true for you but not for me" "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder" "You can't judge other cultures by the standards of your own"
Pope Benedict XVI Moral relativism is an educational emergency that MUST be dealt with immediately Young people find it difficult to develop "firm certainties and criteria upon which to build their lives." This failure of moral guidance, threatens "the very basis of coexistence and the future of society."
Pope Benedict XVI We are moving toward a dictatorship of relativism which does not recognize anything as definitive and has as its highest value one's own ego and one's own desires... The church needs to withstand the tides of trends and the latest novelties.... We must become mature in this adult faith, we must guide the flock of Christ to this faith.
Pope Benedict XVI Having a clear faith, based on the creed of the church, is often labeled today as a fundamentalism.... Whereas relativism, which is letting oneself be tossed and 'swept along by every wind of teaching,' looks like the only attitude acceptable to today's standards.
The Renaissance Popes Acted more like royal princes Sought to increase their temporal authority Neglected the spiritual life of the Church. Few popes from within this era did bring reform/ fresh air
Nicholas V (1447 – 1455) Had a lifelong hobby of collecting /caring for rare books Undertook three major tasks as pope: – To make Rome once again a city of grand monuments – To make Rome a center of art and literature – To strengthen, both spiritually and temporally, the capitol of Christendom
Nicholas V (1447 – 1455) Restored Churches, Roman infrastructure Cleaned the city/ repair ancient aqueducts St. Peters Basilica Founded the Vatican Library
Nicholas V (1447 – 1455) Finalized condemnation of the Conciliarist heresy Won the submission of the antipope Attempted to at gain greater political unity in Europe -to counter the growing Turkish threat
Callistus (1455 – 1458) Focused on controlling the Turkish threat (an obstacle to Church reform) Sent missionaries to raise money, recruit volunteers, and to preach for a crusade Secured some artistic treasures for the Vatican
Pope Pius II (1458 – 1464) Humanist movement Led a dissolute life Indulged himself in many worldly goods Supported the Conciliar movement Focused on the Turkish threat Tried to reform the Church Canonized St. Catherine of Siena Gave papal support for humanist writing
SIXTUS IV (1471 – 1484) Franciscan Monk Professor of Philosophy and Theology Interested in Scholastic Thinkers Strived to maintain Church strength and independence Nepotism/to gain Church unity Took steps to suppress the abuses of the Inquisitions / fought heresy
Alexander VI Attempted to unify Italy under his control Nepotism Gifted leader/ambassador Ended lawlessness in Rome Line of Demarcation Sent first missionaries to the new world Saint Maria Maggiore with Gold from Columbus travels
Julius II Rival to Alexander VI Military campaigns Artistic glorification of Rome Sponsored Michelangelo and Raphael Firmly established the temporal authority over the papal states Abolished simony in the papacy Established the first bishoprics in the new world Authorized Henry VIII to marry Catherine of Aragon
Queen Isabella Devout Christian Ruler Allowed Catholic Church to regain much of its authority Ruled Spain with determination and prudence Worked to restore the authority of the monarch Internal reforms
Queen Isabella Sponsored Christopher Columbus expedition Brought Medical care to the wounded and administered justice during the Reconquista Prohibited slavery of native Africans Sent missionaries to convert Africans Protected those accused of witchcraft Expelled Muslims and Jews
Cardinal Ximenes De Cisneros Devoted life to simplicity/prayer Franciscan Queen Isabellas personal confessor Made Bishop b/c of Isabellas insistence Introduced the first humanist school in Spain Protected African slaves and Native Americans Prepared the Church for reform