Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 – Russia and the Caucasus Section Notes Physical Geography History and Culture of Russia Russia Today The Caucasus Video Impact of Pollution."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 – Russia and the Caucasus Section Notes Physical Geography History and Culture of Russia Russia Today The Caucasus Video Impact of Pollution Images Geography Culture Russias Climate and Plant Life Baku Quick Facts Chapter 16 Visual Summary Maps Russia and the Caucasus: Political Russia and the Caucasus: Physical History of Russian Expansion Russia: Population Russia: Culture Regions The Caucasus: Political Russia and the Caucasus The Caucasus: Climate Close-up St. Basils Cathedral World Almanac Russias Population Decline
Physical Geography The Big Idea Russia is big and cold with vast plains and forests; whereas the Caucasus countries are small, mountainous, and warmer. Main Ideas The physical features of Russia and the Caucasus include plains, mountains, and rivers. Climate and plant life change from north to south in Russia and vary in the Caucasus. Russia and the Caucasus have a wealth of resources, but many are hard to access.
Main Idea 1: The physical features of Russia and the Caucasus include plains, mountains, and rivers. Continents of Europe and Asia meet at the Ural Mountains. –Europe to the west –Asia to the east –Together, they form the landmass of Eurasia. Russia is the worlds largest country. –Twice the size of the United States South of Russia is a region known as the Caucasus. –It lies in the Caucasus, the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. –Region named for the Caucasus Mountains. –Includes three smaller countriesGeorgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Landforms Russias capital, Moscow, is located in the Northern European Plain, which stretches across western, or European, Russia. To the east are the low-lying Ural Mountains, which are worn down and rounded from erosion. Siberia, the vast area between the Urals and the Pacific Ocean, includes the marshy West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and mountain ranges.
Landforms Russian Far East, in Eastern Siberia, is part of the Ring of Fire. South of the Caucasus Mountains is a plateau. Caucasus countries consist mainly of rugged uplands and mountains, including Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe. Lowlands lie along the Black and Caspian Seas.
Bodies of Water Rivers Volga River, in western Russia –Longest river in Europe –Core of Russias river network Ob, Yenisey, and Lena rivers in Asian part of Russia –Flow northward to Arctic Ocean
Bodies of Water Lakes Russia has some 200,000 lakes. Lake Baikal, in south-central Siberia, is worlds deepest lake. –Deep enough to hold all the water in all five of the Great Lakes –Called the Jewel of Siberia
Bodies of Water Seas Black and Caspian seas border Russia and the Caucasus. – Black Sea connects to the Mediterranean Sea and is important for trade. – Caspian Sea holds saltwater and is the worlds largest inland sea.
Main Idea 2: Climate and plant life change from north to south in Russia and vary in the Caucasus. Russia has short summers and long, snowy winters due in part to its location along Arctic Circle. Russias northern coast is tundra. –Much of the ground is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. –Only small plants such as mosses grow there.
Main Idea 2: Climate and plant life change from north to south in Russia and vary in the Caucasus. Taiga, a vast forest of evergreen trees, covers about half of Russia. South of the taiga is a flat grassland called the steppe. –Rich, black soil and a warmer climate make this an important farming area. Caucasus countries are warmer than Russia. –Warm and wet along Black Sea –Hot and Dry in much of Azerbaijan
Main Idea 3: Russia and the Caucasus have a wealth of resources, but many are hard to access. Main energy resources include coal, hydroelectricity, natural gas, and oil. Russia and Azerbaijan have large oil and gas fields. Natural Resources Fertile soil for farming in Northern European plain and steppe Wood from taiga for building and paper products Metals and precious gems Energy Resources Poorly managed for a long time Many remaining resources are only in remote Siberia. Resource Management
History and Culture of Russia The Big Idea Strict rule, unrest, and ethnic diversity have shaped Russias history and culture. Main Ideas The Russian Empire grew under powerful leaders, but unrest and war led to its end. The Soviet Union emerged as a Communist superpower with rigid government control. Russias history and diversity have influenced its culture.
Main Idea 1: The Russian Empire grew under powerful leaders, but unrest and war led to its end. The Slavs settled in Eastern Europe, including what is now Ukraine and western Russia. –Developed towns and began trading with other areas AD 800sViking, or Rus, traders from Scandinavia invaded the Slavs. –Shaped the first Russian state, Kievan Rus, centered around the city of Kiev
Main Idea 1: The Russian Empire grew under powerful leaders, but unrest and war led to its end. Missionaries introduced the Orthodox Christian faith and Cyrillic, a form of the Greek alphabet. In the 1200s Mongol invaders called Tatars came from Central Asia and conquered Kiev. –Allowed Russian princes to rule over local states –Muscovy became the strongest state
Empire After about 200 years Muscovys prince, Ivan III seized control from the Mongols. In the 1540s Ivan IV crowned himself czar, or emperor, and became known as Ivan the Terrible for his cruel leadership. Strong czars built Russia into a huge empire and world power. In the early 1900s Russians began demanding improvements and unrest grew. Over time Muscovy developed into the country of Russia. Russia remained largely a country of poor farmers, while the czars and nobles had most of the wealth.
World War I Russian Revolution Russia entered World War I in – Suffered huge losses and severe food shortages When the czar seemed to ignore the peoples hardship, they rose against him. The czar was forced to give up his throne in Later that year the Bolsheviks, a radical Russian Communist group, seized power in the Russian Revolution. In 1922 the Bolsheviks formed a new country, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or the Soviet Union. – Soon included 15 republics, the strongest of which was Russia – First leader was Vladimir Lenin War and Revolution
Main Idea 2: The Soviet Union emerged as a Communist superpower with rigid government control. Soviet Union under Stalin Soviet Union led by Lenin became a Communist country. Joseph Stalin took power after Lenins death in Command economy, in which the government owns all businesses and farms and makes all decisions, was established. Stalin was a brutal and paranoid dictator and punished anyone who spoke out against the government. –Millions sent to gulags, harsh Soviet labor camps.
Main Idea 2: The Soviet Union emerged as a Communist superpower with rigid government control. Cold War and Collapse During World War II the Soviet Union fought with the Allies. Stalin set up Communist governments in Eastern Europe. Opposition between the Soviet Union and the United States led to the Cold War. In the 1980s Mikhail Gorbachev began introducing some democracy to help save the Soviet economy. In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and broke into 15 independent countries, including Russia.
Main Idea 3: Russias history and diversity have influenced its culture. People and Religion Population: more than 140 million About 80 percent are ethnic Russians. Revival of religious worship after fall of Soviet government Main faith is Russian Orthadox Christian. Other religions include Islam, Buddhism, and other forms of Christianity. Customs Russian history has shaped its customs. Religious holidays are popular. New Years Eve is the main family holiday. June 12 is Russian Independence Day, the day marking the end of the Soviet Union. Arts and Sciences Russias ballet companies are world famous. Peter Tchaikovsky is Russias most famous composer. Fabergé eggs, made of precious metals and covered with gems, are priceless works of art. Major contributions to space research, including the first artificial satellite in space, launched in 1957
Russia Today The Big Idea Russia is a federal republic with a growing market economy but faces tough challenges. Main Ideas The Russian Federation is working to develop democracy and a market economy. Russias physical geography, cities, and economy define its many culture regions. Russia faces a number of serious challenges.
Main Idea 1: The Russian Federation is working to develop democracy and a market economy. Government Russian leaders have struggled to change from communism to democracy. The Russian Federation is a federal republic, a system in which power is divided between national and local governments. Increased democracy has led to more freedom for Russians. Problems such as government corruption, or dishonesty, have slowed the development of a free society in Russia. Economy Russia is moving toward a market economy, based on free trade and competition. The Russian government has greatly reduced its control of the economy. Russia produces and exports oil, natural gas, timber, metals, chemicals, and crops. Service industries now make up the largest part of economy.
City Life Rural Life About 75 percent of all Russians live in cities. Most live in small apartments in high-rise buildings. More restaurants and shopping centers are available with a wider range of consumer goods. Cities often have large parks and wooded areas in and around them. About 25 percent of all Russians live in rural areas. Many live in houses. Many richer Russians own dachas, or Russian country houses. City and Rural Life
Main Idea 2: Russias physical geography, cities, and economy define its many culture regions. Russia has six main culture regions –Differ in features such as population, natural resources, and economic activity Four western culture regions make up Russias heartland. –Home to the vast majority of Russias people, the countrys capital, and largest cities –Most productive farming area
Western Culture Regions Moscow Region Moscow is Russias capital and largest city. Center of government is housed at the Kremlin, in the heart of the city. Most important economic area Transportation center St. Petersburg Region St. Petersburg was once the capital city and home to czars. Theaters and museums enrich the citys cultural life. Its location on the Gulf of Finland has made it a major port and trade center. Volga Region Volga River is a major shipping route. Dams along its route form lakes and provide hydroelectric power. Factories produce oil and gas. Caspian Sea provides sturgeon and black caviar, a costly delicacy. Urals Region Important mining region Produce nearly every major mineral Smelters, factories that process metal ores, process copper and iron. Also known for gems and semiprecious stones
Siberia and the Russian Far East Siberia Siberia means Sleeping Land in Tatar language. Winters long and severe Remote region with many valuable, but difficult to access, resources. Main industries are lumber, mining, and oil production. Jobs there pay high wages, but few people chose to live there. Cities tend to follow the Trans- Siberian Railroad, the worlds longest single rail line that runs from Moscow to Vladivostok. Russian Far East Long coastline region along the Pacific Ocean Land is heavily forested In the few cities, factories process forest and mineral resources. Farming in the Amur River valley City of Vladivostok is a naval base and the areas main seaport. Islands off the coast provide oil, minerals, and commercial fishing.
Main Idea 3: Russia faces a number of serious challenges. Russia has made great progress since 1991, but challenges remain. Shift to a market economy has brought problems. –Prices and unemployment have risen. –Gap between rich and poor has widened. Population is fallingmore Russians are dying than are being born. Soviet government did little to prevent pollution. –Environment has been severely harmed. –Government must repair damage. Ethnic conflicts have resulted in fighting and terrorism. –One of the worst conflicts is in Chechnya in the Caucasus Mountains.
The Caucasus The Big Idea In an area long ruled by outside groups, the Caucasus republics are struggling to strengthen their economies and to deal with ethnic unrest. Main Ideas Many groups have ruled and influenced the Caucasus during its long history. Today the Caucasus republics are working to improve their economies but struggle with ethnic unrest and conflict.
Main Idea 1: Many groups have ruled and influenced the Caucasus during its long history. Located where Europe blends into Asia, the Caucasus reflects a range of cultural influences. –Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols have all ruled or invaded the area. Russians took control of much of the region in the early 1800s. After World War I Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia gained independencebut not for long. By the early 1920s they were part of the vast Soviet Union. Finally in 1991 the Caucasus republics achieved true independence when the Soviet Union fell.
Main Idea 2: Today the Caucasus republics are working to improve their economies but struggle with ethnic unrest and conflict. Young countries –Have had to create new governments and economies since the fall of the Soviet Union –Ethnic unrest and conflicts have slowed progress. Caucasus republics have similar governments. –An elected president governs each nation. –An appointed prime minister runs each government. –An elected parliament, or legislature, makes the laws. Caucasus region has a long history, but its countries do not.
Caucasus Today Georgia Lies in the Caucasus Mountains east of the Black Sea Capital: Tbilisi About 70 percent are ethnic Georgians and most belong to Georgian Orthodox Church. Struggles with unrest and civil war and ethnic conflict Economy based on services, farming, and mining Armenia Small, landlocked country south of Georgia Capital: Yerevan Almost all the people are ethnic Armenian and most people belong to the Armenian Orthodox Church. Fought bitter territorial war with Azerbaijan in the 1990s, and the issue remained unsettled as of the early 2000s Diamond processing is a growing industry. Azerbaijan East of Armenia Capital: Baku About 90 percent are Azeri and most are Muslim. Many refugees as a result of its conflict with Armenia Economy based on oil, found along and under the Caspian Sea Corruption is high and many people are poor.