Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 – Russia and the Caucasus"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 16 – Russia and the Caucasus Section NotesVideoPhysical GeographyHistory and Culture of RussiaRussia TodayThe CaucasusImpact of PollutionMapsRussia and the Caucasus: PoliticalRussia and the Caucasus: PhysicalHistory of Russian ExpansionRussia: PopulationRussia: Culture RegionsThe Caucasus: PoliticalRussia and the CaucasusThe Caucasus: ClimateClose-upSt. Basil’s CathedralWorld AlmanacRussia’s Population DeclineImagesQuick FactsGeographyCultureRussia’s Climate and Plant LifeBakuChapter 16 Visual Summary
2Physical Geography The Big Idea Russia is big and cold with vast plains and forests; whereas the Caucasus countries are small, mountainous, and warmer.Main IdeasThe physical features of Russia and the Caucasus include plains, mountains, and rivers.Climate and plant life change from north to south in Russia and vary in the Caucasus.Russia and the Caucasus have a wealth of resources, but many are hard to access.
4Main Idea 1: The physical features of Russia and the Caucasus include plains, mountains, and rivers. Continents of Europe and Asia meet at the Ural Mountains.Europe to the westAsia to the eastTogether, they form the landmass of Eurasia.Russia is the world’s largest country.Twice the size of the United StatesSouth of Russia is a region known as the Caucasus.It lies in the Caucasus, the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.Region named for the Caucasus Mountains.Includes three smaller countries—Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
6LandformsRussia’s capital, Moscow, is located in the Northern European Plain, which stretches across western, or European, Russia.To the east are the low-lying Ural Mountains, which are worn down and rounded from erosion.Siberia, the vast area between the Urals and the Pacific Ocean, includes the marshy West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and mountain ranges.
7LandformsRussian Far East, in Eastern Siberia, is part of the Ring of Fire.Caucasus countries consist mainly of rugged uplands and mountains, including Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe.South of the Caucasus Mountains is a plateau.Lowlands lie along the Black and Caspian Seas.
9Bodies of Water Rivers Volga River, in western Russia Longest river in EuropeCore of Russia’s river networkOb, Yenisey, and Lena rivers in Asian part of RussiaFlow northward to Arctic Ocean
10Bodies of Water Lakes Russia has some 200,000 lakes. Lake Baikal, in south-central Siberia, is world’s deepest lake.Deep enough to hold all the water in all five of the Great LakesCalled the Jewel of Siberia
11Bodies of WaterSeasBlack and Caspian seas border Russia and the Caucasus.Black Sea connects to the Mediterranean Sea and is important for trade.Caspian Sea holds saltwater and is the world’s largest inland sea.
12Main Idea 2: Climate and plant life change from north to south in Russia and vary in the Caucasus. Russia has short summers and long, snowy winters due in part to its location along Arctic Circle.Russia’s northern coast is tundra.Much of the ground is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil.Only small plants such as mosses grow there.
13Main Idea 2: Climate and plant life change from north to south in Russia and vary in the Caucasus. Taiga, a vast forest of evergreen trees, covers about half of Russia.South of the taiga is a flat grassland called the steppe.Rich, black soil and a warmer climate make this an important farming area.Caucasus countries are warmer than Russia.Warm and wet along Black SeaHot and Dry in much of Azerbaijan
14Main Idea 3: Russia and the Caucasus have a wealth of resources, but many are hard to access. Fertile soil for farming in Northern European plain and steppeWood from taiga for building and paper productsMetals and precious gemsNatural ResourcesMain energy resources include coal, hydroelectricity, natural gas, and oil.Russia and Azerbaijan have large oil and gas fields.Energy ResourcesPoorly managed for a long timeMany remaining resources are only in remote Siberia.Resource Management
15History and Culture of Russia The Big IdeaStrict rule, unrest, and ethnic diversity have shaped Russia’s history and culture.Main IdeasThe Russian Empire grew under powerful leaders, but unrest and war led to its end.The Soviet Union emerged as a Communist superpower with rigid government control.Russia’s history and diversity have influenced its culture.
16Main Idea 1: The Russian Empire grew under powerful leaders, but unrest and war led to its end. The Slavs settled in Eastern Europe, including what is now Ukraine and western Russia.Developed towns and began trading with other areasAD 800s—Viking, or Rus, traders from Scandinavia invaded the Slavs.Shaped the first Russian state, Kievan Rus, centered around the city of Kiev
17Main Idea 1: The Russian Empire grew under powerful leaders, but unrest and war led to its end. Missionaries introduced the Orthodox Christian faith and Cyrillic, a form of the Greek alphabet.In the 1200s Mongol invaders called Tatars came from Central Asia and conquered Kiev.Allowed Russian princes to rule over local statesMuscovy became the strongest state
18EmpireAfter about 200 years Muscovy’s prince, Ivan III seized control from the Mongols.In the 1540s Ivan IV crowned himself czar, or emperor, and became known as Ivan the Terrible for his cruel leadership.Over time Muscovy developed into the country of Russia.Strong czars built Russia into a huge empire and world power.Russia remained largely a country of poor farmers, while the czars and nobles had most of the wealth.In the early 1900s Russians began demanding improvements and unrest grew.
19War and Revolution World War I Russian Revolution Russia entered World War I in 1914.Suffered huge losses and severe food shortagesWhen the czar seemed to ignore the people’s hardship, they rose against him.The czar was forced to give up his throne in 1917.Russian RevolutionLater that year the Bolsheviks, a radical Russian Communist group, seized power in the Russian Revolution.In 1922 the Bolsheviks formed a new country, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or the Soviet Union.Soon included 15 republics, the strongest of which was RussiaFirst leader was Vladimir Lenin
20Soviet Union under Stalin Main Idea 2: The Soviet Union emerged as a Communist superpower with rigid government control.Soviet Union under StalinSoviet Union led by Lenin became a Communist country.Joseph Stalin took power after Lenin’s death in 1924.Command economy, in which the government owns all businesses and farms and makes all decisions, was established.Stalin was a brutal and paranoid dictator and punished anyone who spoke out against the government.Millions sent to gulags, harsh Soviet labor camps.
21Main Idea 2: The Soviet Union emerged as a Communist superpower with rigid government control. Cold War and CollapseDuring World War II the Soviet Union fought with the Allies.Stalin set up Communist governments in Eastern Europe.Opposition between the Soviet Union and the United States led to the Cold War.In the 1980s Mikhail Gorbachev began introducing some democracy to help save the Soviet economy.In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and broke into 15 independent countries, including Russia.
22Main Idea 3: Russia’s history and diversity have influenced its culture. People and ReligionPopulation: more than 140 millionAbout 80 percent are ethnic Russians.Revival of religious worship after fall of Soviet governmentMain faith is Russian Orthadox Christian.Other religions include Islam, Buddhism, and other forms of Christianity.CustomsRussian history has shaped its customs.Religious holidays are popular.New Year’s Eve is the main family holiday.June 12 is Russian Independence Day, the day marking the end of the Soviet Union.Arts and SciencesRussia’s ballet companies are world famous.Peter Tchaikovsky is Russia’s most famous composer.Fabergé eggs, made of precious metals and covered with gems, are priceless works of art.Major contributions to space research, including the first artificial satellite in space, launched in 1957
23Russia Today The Big Idea Russia is a federal republic with a growing market economy but faces tough challenges.Main IdeasThe Russian Federation is working to develop democracy and a market economy.Russia’s physical geography, cities, and economy define its many culture regions.Russia faces a number of serious challenges.
24Main Idea 1: The Russian Federation is working to develop democracy and a market economy. GovernmentRussian leaders have struggled to change from communism to democracy.The Russian Federation is a federal republic, a system in which power is divided between national and local governments.Increased democracy has led to more freedom for Russians.Problems such as government corruption, or dishonesty, have slowed the development of a free society in Russia.EconomyRussia is moving toward a market economy, based on free trade and competition.The Russian government has greatly reduced its control of the economy.Russia produces and exports oil, natural gas, timber, metals, chemicals, and crops.Service industries now make up the largest part of economy.
25City and Rural Life City Life Rural Life About 75 percent of all Russians live in cities.Most live in small apartments in high-rise buildings.More restaurants and shopping centers are available with a wider range of consumer goods.Cities often have large parks and wooded areas in and around them.Rural LifeAbout 25 percent of all Russians live in rural areas.Many live in houses.Many richer Russians own dachas, or Russian country houses.
26Main Idea 2: Russia’s physical geography, cities, and economy define its many culture regions. Russia has six main culture regionsDiffer in features such as population, natural resources, and economic activityFour western culture regions make up Russia’s heartland.Home to the vast majority of Russia’s people, the country’s capital, and largest citiesMost productive farming area
28Western Culture Regions Moscow RegionMoscow is Russia’s capital and largest city.Center of government is housed at the Kremlin, in the heart of the city.Most important economic areaTransportation centerSt. Petersburg RegionSt. Petersburg was once the capital city and home to czars.Theaters and museums enrich the city’s cultural life.Its location on the Gulf of Finland has made it a major port and trade center.Volga RegionVolga River is a major shipping route.Dams along its route form lakes and provide hydroelectric power.Factories produce oil and gas.Caspian Sea provides sturgeon and black caviar, a costly delicacy.Urals RegionImportant mining regionProduce nearly every major mineralSmelters, factories that process metal ores, process copper and iron.Also known for gems and semiprecious stones
29Siberia and the Russian Far East Siberia means “Sleeping Land” in Tatar language.Winters long and severeRemote region with many valuable, but difficult to access, resources.Main industries are lumber, mining, and oil production.Jobs there pay high wages, but few people chose to live there.Cities tend to follow the Trans-Siberian Railroad, the world’s longest single rail line that runs from Moscow to Vladivostok.Russian Far EastLong coastline region along the Pacific OceanLand is heavily forestedIn the few cities, factories process forest and mineral resources.Farming in the Amur River valleyCity of Vladivostok is a naval base and the area’s main seaport.Islands off the coast provide oil, minerals, and commercial fishing.
30Main Idea 3: Russia faces a number of serious challenges. Russia has made great progress since 1991, but challenges remain.Shift to a market economy has brought problems.Prices and unemployment have risen.Gap between rich and poor has widened.Population is falling—more Russians are dying than are being born.Soviet government did little to prevent pollution.Environment has been severely harmed.Government must repair damage.Ethnic conflicts have resulted in fighting and terrorism.One of the worst conflicts is in Chechnya in the Caucasus Mountains.
31The Caucasus The Big Idea In an area long ruled by outside groups, the Caucasus republics are struggling to strengthen their economies and to deal with ethnic unrest.Main IdeasMany groups have ruled and influenced the Caucasus during its long history.Today the Caucasus republics are working to improve their economies but struggle with ethnic unrest and conflict.
32Main Idea 1: Many groups have ruled and influenced the Caucasus during its long history. Located where Europe blends into Asia, the Caucasus reflects a range of cultural influences.Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols have all ruled or invaded the area.Russians took control of much of the region in the early 1800s.After World War I Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia gained independence—but not for long.By the early 1920s they were part of the vast Soviet Union.Finally in 1991 the Caucasus republics achieved true independence when the Soviet Union fell.
33Main Idea 2: Today the Caucasus republics are working to improve their economies but struggle with ethnic unrest and conflict.Caucasus region has a long history, but its countries do not.Young countriesHave had to create new governments and economies since the fall of the Soviet UnionEthnic unrest and conflicts have slowed progress.Caucasus republics have similar governments.An elected president governs each nation.An appointed prime minister runs each government.An elected parliament, or legislature, makes the laws.
34Caucasus Today Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Lies in the Caucasus Mountains east of the Black SeaCapital: TbilisiAbout 70 percent are ethnic Georgians and most belong to Georgian Orthodox Church.Struggles with unrest and civil war and ethnic conflictEconomy based on services, farming, and miningArmeniaSmall, landlocked country south of GeorgiaCapital: YerevanAlmost all the people are ethnic Armenian and most people belong to the Armenian Orthodox Church.Fought bitter territorial war with Azerbaijan in the 1990s, and the issue remained unsettled as of the early 2000sDiamond processing is a growing industry.AzerbaijanEast of ArmeniaCapital: BakuAbout 90 percent are Azeri and most are Muslim.Many refugees as a result of its conflict with ArmeniaEconomy based on oil, found along and under the Caspian SeaCorruption is high and many people are poor.