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Standards for Rehabilitation

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Presentation on theme: "Standards for Rehabilitation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Standards for Rehabilitation
Guidelines for rehabilitating historic structures

2 Rehabilitation Standards
1. A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use that requires minimal change to its distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial relationships. 2. The historic character of a property will be retained and preserved. The removal of distinctive materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships that characterize a property will be avoided. 3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place, and use. Changes that create a false sense of historical development, such as adding conjectural features or elements from other historic properties, will not be undertaken. 4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic significance in their own right will be retained and preserved. 5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of craftsmanship that characterize a property will be preserved. 6. Deteriorated historic features will be repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new feature will match the old in design, color, texture, and, where possible, materials. Replacement of missing features will be substantiated by documentary and physical evidence. 7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related new construction will not destroy historic materials, features, and spatial relationships that characterize the property. The new work shall be differentiated from the old and will be compatible with the historic materials, features, size, scale and proportion, and massing to protect the integrity of the property and its environment. 10. New additions and adjacent or related new construction will be undertaken in a such a manner that, if removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the historic property and its environment would be unimpaired.

3 Choosing Rehabilitation as a Treatment
In Rehabilitation, historic building materials and character-defining features are protected and maintained as they are in the treatment Preservation however, an assumption is made prior to work that existing historic fabric has become damaged or deteriorated over time and, as a result, more repair and replacement will be required. More latitude is given in the Standards for Rehabilitation to replace extensively deteriorated, damaged, or missing features using either traditional or substitute materials. Of the four treatments, only Rehabilitation includes an opportunity to make possible an efficient contemporary use through alterations and additions.

4 Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Materials and Features
Rehabilitation begins with recommendations to identify the form and detailing of those architectural materials and features that are important in defining the building's historic character and which must be retained in order to preserve that character. Guidance on identifying, retaining, and preserving character-defining features is always given first. The character of a historic building may be defined by the form and detailing of exterior materials These include masonry, wood, and metal; exterior features, such as roofs, porches, and windows; interior materials, such as plaster and paint; and interior features, such as moldings and stairways, room configuration and spatial relationships, as well as structural and mechanical systems.

5 The variety and arrangement of the materials is important in defining the historic character, starting with the large pieces of broken stone which form the projecting base for the building walls, then changing to a wall of roughly rectangular stones which vary in size, color, and texture, all with projecting beaded mortar joints. Changing the raised mortar joints, for example, would drastically alter the character. Photo: NPS files. Not Recommended Removing or radically changing masonry features which are important in defining the overall historic character of the building so that, as a result, the character is diminished. Replacing or rebuilding a major portion of exterior masonry walls that could be repaired so that, as a result, the building is no longer historic and is essentially new construction. Applying paint or other coatings such as stucco to masonry that has been historically unpainted or uncoated to create a new appearance. Removing paint from historically painted masonry. Radically changing the type of paint or coating or its color.

6 The wooden trim on the eaves and around the porch gives this building its special historic character. Loss of the wood trim would destroy much of the character that is so dependent upon craftsmanship for the moldings, carvings, and the see-through jigsaw work. Photo: NPS files The distinctive wood features on this historic building have been inappropriately stripped of their traditional painted finish. Photo: NPS files.

7 Protect and Maintain Historic Materials and Features
Protection generally involves the least degree of intervention and is preparatory to other work. For example, protection includes the maintenance of historic material through treatments such as rust removal, caulking, limited paint removal, and re-application of protective coatings; the cyclical cleaning of roof gutter systems; or installation of fencing, alarm systems and other temporary protective measures. Although a historic building will usually require more extensive work, an overall evaluation of its physical condition should always begin at this level.

8 The iron stain on this granite post may be removed by applying a commercial rust-removal product in a poultice. Photo: NPS files. Abrasive cleaning methods include all techniques that physically abrade the building surface to remove soils, discolorations or coatings. Sandblasting has permanently damaged this brick wall. Photo: NPS files

9 The nozzle on the electric heat gun permits hot air to be aimed into cavities on solid decorative surfaces, such as this carriage house door. After the paint has been sufficiently softened, it can be carefully removed with a scraper. Photo: NPS files.

10 Repair Historic Materials and Features
Rehabilitation of the repair of historic materials such as masonry, wood, and architectural metals again begins with the least degree of intervention possible such as patching, piecing-in, splicing, consolidating, or otherwise reinforcing or upgrading them according to recognized preservation methods. Repairing also includes the limited replacement in kind--or with compatible substitute material--of extensively deteriorated or missing parts of features when there are surviving prototypes (for example, brackets, dentils, steps, plaster, or portions of slate or tile roofing). Although using the same kind of material is always the preferred option, substitute material is acceptable if the form and design as well as the substitute material itself convey the visual appearance of the remaining parts of the feature and finish.

11 Mortars for repointing should be softer or more permeable than the masonry units and no harder or more impermeable than the historic mortar to prevent damage to the masonry units. This early 19th century building is being repointed with lime mortar. Photo: John P. Speweik. Some aspects of a building's visual character are fragile and are easily lost. This is true of brickwork, for example, which can be irreversibly damaged with inappropriate cleaning techniques or by insensitive repointing practices. The historic character of this front wall is being dramatically changed from a wall where the bricks predominate, to a wall that is visually dominated by the mortar joints. Photo: NPS files.

12 A broken clapboard is easily repaired
A broken clapboard is easily repaired. This board was replaced with one that matches the size and type of the neighboring clapboards. With a coat of primer and two topcoats of paint, this repair will last as long as the original clapboards next to it. Photo: © John Leeke.

13 Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features
Replacing involves the entire character-defining feature with new material because the level of deterioration or damage of materials precludes repair (for example, an exterior cornice; an interior staircase; or a complete porch or storefront). If the essential form and detailing are still evident so that the physical evidence can be used to re-establish the feature as an integral part of the rehabilitation, then its replacement is appropriate. The preferred option is always replacement of the entire feature in kind, that is, with the same material. Because this approach may not always be technically or economically feasible, provisions are made to consider the use of a compatible substitute material. While the National Park Service guidelines recommend the replacement of an entire character-defining feature that is extensively deteriorated, they never recommend removal and replacement with new material of a feature that--although damaged or deteriorated--could reasonably be repaired and thus preserved.

14 This two-story brick commercial building--with its corner storefront--was originally constructed ca. 1876, then remodeled in 1916 in the Craftsman style and given a new, distinctive roofline. It served a number of uses, including a hotel, boarding house, saloon, restaurant, liquor store, warehouse, and office furniture showroom. The red brick walls had been painted several times over the years. Rehabilitation work included removal of multiple paint layers using a chemical stripper and thorough water rinse; spot repointing with matching mortar; and appropriate interior alterations. The building is now being used as a retail shop. Photos: NPS files.

15 This rotted wood column base is being replaced with new wood
This rotted wood column base is being replaced with new wood. Photo: NPS files.

16 Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features
When an entire interior or exterior feature is missing (for example, an entrance, or cast iron facade; or a principal staircase), it no longer plays a role in physically defining the historic character of the building unless it can be accurately recovered in form and detailing through the process of carefully documenting the historical appearance. Accepting the loss is one possibility. Where an important architectural feature is missing, its replacement is always recommended in the Rehabilitation guidelines as the preferred course of action. If adequate historical, pictorial, and physical documentation exists so that the feature may be accurately reproduced, and if it is desirable to re-establish the feature as part of the building's historical appearance, then designing and constructing a new feature based on such information is appropriate. A second acceptable option for the replacement feature is a new design that is compatible with the remaining character-defining features of the historic building. The new design should always take into account the size, scale, and material of the historic building itself and, most importantly, should be clearly differentiated so that a false historical appearance is not created.

17 Recommended Designing and installing a new wood feature such as a cornice or doorway when the historic feature is completely missing. It may be an accurate restoration using historical, pictorial, and physical documentation; or be a new design that is compatible with the size, scale, material, and color of the historic building. Not Recommended Creating a false historical appearance because the replaced wood feature is based on insufficient historical, pictorial, and physical documentation. Introducing a new wood feature that is incompatible in size, scale, material and color. Asphalt shingles are an incompatible replacement substitute for the original Spanish clay tiles. Photo: NPS files.

18 Replacing missing features
Recommended Designing and installing a new masonry feature such as steps or a door pediment when the historic feature is completely missing. It may be an accurate restoration using historical, pictorial, and physical documentation; or be a new design that is compatible with the size, scale, material, and color of the historic building. Not Recommended Creating a false historical appearance because the replaced masonry feature is based on insufficient historical, pictorial, and physical documentation. Introducing a new masonry feature that is incompatible in size, scale, material and color.

19 Alterations/Additions for the New Use
Some exterior and interior alterations to a historic building are generally needed to assure its continued use, but such alterations should not radically change, obscure, or destroy character-defining spaces, materials, features, or finishes. Alterations may include providing additional parking space on an existing historic building site; cutting new entrances or windows on secondary elevations; inserting an additional floor; installing an entirely new mechanical system; or creating an atrium or light well. Alteration may also include the selective removal of buildings or other features of the environment or building site that are intrusive and therefore detract from the overall historic character. The construction of an exterior addition to a historic building may seem to be essential for the new use but considered only after it is determined that those needs cannot be met by altering secondary, i.e., non character-defining interior spaces. If an exterior addition is still judged to be the only viable alterative, it should be designed and constructed to be clearly differentiated from the historic building and so that the character-defining features are not radically changed, obscured, damaged, or destroyed.

20 In the rehabilitation of a church for offices and apartments, the large open interior space was inappropriately subdivided by inserting a full second floor. Removing the stained glass windows further changed the historic appearance, compromising their size and proportion on the interior. Photo: NPS files. St Mary’s Catholic Church 710 Princess Anne Street Fredericksburg, VA

21 Energy Efficiency/Accessibility Considerations: Health and Safety Code Considerations
Work may be necessary to meet accessibility requirements, health, and safety code requirements; or retrofitting measures to improve energy efficiency. These actions are usually not a part of the overall process of protecting or repairing character-defining features; rather, such work is assessed for its potential negative impact on the building's historic character. Particular care must be taken not to radically change, obscure, damage, or destroy character-defining materials or features in the process of meeting code and energy requirements.

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