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Back up Of hw Topic No3 J.H.Patel August September 2012.

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1 Back up Of hw Topic No3 J.H.Patel August September 2012

2 Topic No3 Hazardous Waste Management(6 lectures 10 marks ) 3.1 Definitions: Types EPA,RCRA,CERCLA, INTERNATIONAL Act for hazardous waste, Environmental Impact Assessment 3.2 Cradle to grave approach, Priority in Hazardous Waste management, Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act 1986, Dose Response Relationship, Effect of Hazardous waste on Aquatic System and how do they enter the food chains routes of entry,fate of toxicants in body

3 Is the waste a hazardous waste? Statute: The term ''hazardous waste'' means a solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, which … may (A) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or (B) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored,transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

4 Statutory Definition of Solid Waste USA ….any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply plant or air pollution control facility, and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material...

5 Statutory Definition of Hazardous Waste A solid waste, or a combination of solid wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics may: 1) Cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness or 2) Pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, store transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

6 A Solid waste is hazardous if it: Exhibits any of the characteristics of a hazardous waste Has been named as a hazardous waste and listed as such in the regulations Is a mixture containing a listed hazardous waste and a non-hazardous solid waste Is a waste derived from the treatment, storage, or disposal of a listed waste

7 Definition of Hazardous Waste Under the RCRA of 1976, the term hazardous waste means a solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, that, because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics, may 1. cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness or 2. pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of or otherwise managed.

8 Hazardous wastes include chemical, biological, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances. They may be in a solid, liquid, sludge, or gaseous (contained) state and are further defined in various federal acts designed to protect the public health and welfare, including land, air, and water resources. A waste is regarded as hazardous if it is lethal, nondegradable, and persistent in the environment, can be magnified biologically (as in food chains), or otherwise causes or tends to cause detrimental cumulative effects.

9 RCRA Hazardous Waste definition: 1.Is it a solid waste? 2.Is the waste a hazardous waste? Characteristic wastes Ignitability Corrosivity Toxicity Reactivity Listed wastes nonspecific sources specific sources acutely hazardous non-acutely hazardous

10 Indian Legal Definition ( HW (M&H) Rules of 2003 (amnd)) hazardous waste means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances, and shall include- wastes listed in column (3) of Schedule-1; (3) of Schedule-1; wastes having constituents listed in Schedule-2 if their concentration is equal to or more than the limit indicated in the said Schedule; andSchedule-2 wastes listed in Lists A' and B' of Schedule-3 (Part-A) applicable only in case(s) of import or export of hazardous wastes in accordance with rules 12, 13 and 14 if they possess any of the hazardous characteristics listed in Part-B of Schedule 3.Schedule-3 (Part-A)Part-B of Schedule 3.

11 RCRA Hazardous Waste definition: Characteristic wastes: Ignitability: A liquid which has a flash point less than 140 degrees F is regulated as an ignitable hazardous waste. Examples include most organic solvents. Wastes that pose a fire hazard during routine management. Fires not only present immediate dangers of heat and smoke but also can spread harmful particles (and gases) over wide areas. Corrosivity: A waste aqueous solution having a pH of less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5 is considered to be a corrosive hazardous waste. Wastes requiring special containers because of their ability to corrode standard materials or requiring segregation from other wastes because of their ability to dissolve toxic contaminants.

12 Ignitable Waste Characteristics Flashpoint less than 140° F or 60° C Oxidizing materials Solids which are combustible through reaction or will ignite and burn vigorously & persistently Ignitable compressed gases Examples: Oil based paint, aerosol cans, cylinders, paint thinner, solvent or oil soaked rags, nitrates, acetone, toluene, epoxy, turpentine, etc.

13 Examples of hazardous waste types generated by businesses and industries are given in Hazardous wastes that are characterized as ignitable, Pollutant Pesticides: Generally chlorinated hydrocarbons Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): used in electrical capacitors and transformers, paints, plastics, insecticides, other industrial products Metals: antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc Asbestos Cyanide Halogenated aliphatics: used in fire extinguishers, refrigerants, propellants, pesticides, solvents for oils and greases and dry cleaning Characteristics Readily assimilated by aquatic animals, fat soluble, concentrated through food chain (biomagnified), persistent in soil and sediments Readily assimilated by aquatic animals, fat soluble, subject to biomagnification, persistent, chemically similar to chlorinated hydrocarbons Nonbiodegradable, persistent in sediments, toxic in solution, subject to biomagnification May cause cancer when inhaled, aquatic toxicity not well understood Variably persistent, inhibits oxygen metabolism Largest single class of priority toxics, can cause damage to central nervous system and liver, not very persistent

14 Ethers: Used mainly as solvents for polymer plastics Phthalate esters: Used chiefly in production of polyvinyl chloride and thermoplastics as plasticizers Monocyclic aromatics (excluding phenols, cresols, and phthalates): used in manufacture of other chemicals, explosives, dyes, and pigments and in solvents, fungicides, and herbicides Phenols: large-volume industrial compounds used chiefly as chemical intermediates in production of synthetic polymers, dyestuffs, pigments, pesticides, and herbicides Potent carcinogen, aquatic toxicity and fate not well understood Common aquatic pollutant, moderately toxic but teratogenic and mutagenic properties in low concentrations; aquatic invertebrates are particularly sensitive to toxic effects; persistent and can be biomagnified Central nervous system depressant; can damage liver and kidneys Toxicity increases with degree of chlorination of phenolic molecule; very low concentrations can taint fish flesh and impart objectionable odor and taste to drinking water; difficult to remove from water by conventional treatment; carcinogenic in mice Examples of hazardous waste types generated by businesses and industries are given in Hazardous wastes that are characterized as ignitable,

15 Corrosive Waste Characteristics pH less than 2 or greater than 12.5 –Examples: Acids – (pH less than 7) Muriatic acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, solder flux, etc. Bases – (pH greater than 7) Sodium hydroxide, ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, bicarbonates, sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

16 Reactivity Any chemical waste which reacts violently with air and/or water or liberates toxic gases is considered to be a reactive hazardous waste. wastes that, during routine management, tend to react spontaneously, react vigorously with air or water, are unstable to shock or heat, generate toxic gases, or explode.

17 RCRA Hazardous Waste definition: Characteristic wastes: Toxicity: Toxicity is determined by a laboratory test known as the "Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure", or TCLP. The TCLP test must be conducted on any waste which contains any of the specified TCLP contaminants. Wastes that, when improperly managed, may release toxicants in sufficient quantities to pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment. Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed. When toxic wastes are disposed of on land, contaminated liquid may drain (leach) from the waste and pollute groundwater.

18 Toxic Waste Characteristics Heavy Metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag) Examples: Solder, Mercury Thermometers, Lead Paints Solvents Examples: Paint Thinner, Acetone, Methanol, Toluene, Xylenes Pesticides and Herbicides Examples: Endrin, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Chlordane

19 Toxicity is identified through a laboratory procedure called the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure, which replaces the extraction procedure leach test. Organic chemicals, metals, and pesticides regulated under the toxicity rule are reported in Table in next slide.

20 New Constituents Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene Chloroform m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,1-Dichloroethylene 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Heptachlor (and its hydroxide) Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachloroethane Methyl ethyl ketone Nitrobenzene Pentachlorophenol Pyridine Tetrachloroethylene Trichloroethylene 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Vinyl chloride Regulatory Levels (mg/ l ) d e e f 5.0 e

21 Old EP Constituents Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2,4-Dichlorophenoxycetic acid 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy propionic acid Regulatory Levels (mg / l)

22 Generation of Hazardous Waste The major generators of hazardous waste among 15 industries studied by the EPA are as follows, more or less in order of the quantities produced:. primary metals,. organic chemicals,. electroplating,. inorganic chemicals,. textiles,. petroleum refining, and. rubber and plastics.

23 Examples of Hazardous Waste Generated by Business and Industries Waste Generators Chemical manufacturers Vehicle maintenance shops Printing industry Leather products manufacturing Paper industry Construction industry Cleaning agents and cosmetics manufacturing Furniture and wood manufacturing and refinishing Metal manufacturing Waste Type Strong acids and bases, spent solvents, reactive wastes Heavy-metal paint wastes, ignitable wastes,used lead acid batteries, spent solvents Heavy-metal solutions, waste inks, spent solvents, spent electroplating wastes, ink sludges containing heavy metals Waste toluene and benzene Paint wastes containing heavy metals, ignitable solvents, strong acids and bases Ignitable paint wastes, spent solvents, strong acids and bases Heavy-metal dusts, ignitable wastes, flammable solvents, strong acids and bases Ignitable wastes, spent solvents Paint wastes containing heavy metals, strong acids and bases, cyanide wastes, sludges containing heavy metals

24 What is EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

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26 I. What is the Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA)?

27 The RCRA of 1976, as amended, expands the purposes of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of It promotes resource recovery and conservation and mandates government (federal and state) control of hazardous waste from its point of generation to its point of ultimate disposal, including a manifest identification and permitting system. Legislation was prompted by the serious dangers associated with the improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste. The most common problems associated with the disposal of hazardous waste, in addition to public opposition, are groundwater pollution from lagoons, landfills, dumps, sludge disposal, other land disposal systems, spills, and unauthorized dumping.

28 Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1965 – Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) 1970 – National Materials Policy Act (amended SWDA) 1976 – Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (amended SWDA further) 1980 – SWDA Amendments 1984 – Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (integration and amendment of RCRA and SWDA) All are collectively referred to as RCRA

29 1984 RCRA Ammendments In 1984, the RCRA was amended to require double liners or the equivalent and leachate collection systems at hazardous waste surface impoundments and landfills. Variances from groundwater monitoring to characterize the water quality before, during, and after operation are not allowed. The Act as amended in 1984 applies to generators producing as little as 220 lb (100 kg) of hazardous waste in a calendar month, which must be sent to a state or federal approved facility. The RCRA as amended also prohibits land disposal of certain classes of untreated hazardous wastes beyond specified dates unless it can be demonstrated to the EPA that there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the land disposal unit for as long as the wastes remain hazardous. Land disposal includes landfill, surface impoundment (treatment and surface storage), waste pile, injection well, land treatment facility, salt dome or salt bed formation, and underground mine or cave.

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33 Bhopal Disaster Many as the worst industrial disaster in history claim the Bhopal Disaster of It was caused by the accidental release of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) from a Union Carbide India, Limited (UCIL, now known as Eveready Industries India, Limited) pesticide plant located in the heart of the city of Bhopal, in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. In the early hours of December 3, 1984, a holding tank with stored MIC overheated and released toxic heavier-than-air MIC gas, which rolled along the ground through the surrounding streets killing thousands outright. The transportation system in the city collapsed and many people were trampled trying to escape. The gases also injured anywhere from 150,000 to 600,000 people, at least 15,000 of whom later died.

34 The majority of deaths and serious injuries were related to pulmonary but the gas caused a wide variety of other ailments. Signs and symptoms of methyl isocyanate normally include cough, dyspnea, chest pain, lacrimation, eyelid edema, and unconsciousness. These effects might progress over the next 24 to 72 hours to include acute lung injury, cardiac arrest, and death. Because of the hypothesized reactions that took place within the storage tank and in the surrounding atmosphere, it is thought that apart from MIC, phosgene, and hydrogen cyanide along with other poisonous gases all played a significant role in this disaster. The company never provided information on the exact chemical mixture, but blood and viscera of some victims showed cherry-red color characteristic in acute cyanide poisoning. A series of studies made five years later showed that many of the survivors were still suffering from one or several of the following ailments: partial or complete blindness, gastrointestinal disorders, impaired immune systems, post traumatic stress disorders, and menstrual problems in women. A rise in spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and offspring with genetic defects was also noted. In addition, a BBC investigation conducted in November 2004 confirmed that contamination is still present.

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36 Itai- itai Disease The itai-itai disease was the first cadmium poisoning in the world in Toyama Prefecture, Japan in The cadmium poisoning caused softening o the bones and kidney failures. The name of the disease comes from the painful screams due to the severe pain in the joints and the spine. The cadmium was released in the rivers by mining companies in the mountains. The mining companies were successfully sued for the damage. Itai-itai disease is known as one of the Four Big Pollution Disease of Japan.

37 Cause Itai-itai disease was caused by cadmium poisoning due to mining in Toyama Prefecture. The earliest records of mining for gold in the area dated back to 710. Regular mining for silver started in 1589, and soon thereafter, mining for lead, copper, and zinc began. Increased demand for raw materials during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I, as well as new mining technologies from Europe, increased the output of the mines, putting the Kamioka Mines in Toyama among the worlds top mines. Production increased even more before World War II. Starting in 1910 and continuing through 1945, cadmium was released in significant quantities by mining operations, and the disease first appeared around Prior to World War II, the mining, controlled by the Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., increased to satisfy the wartime demand. This subsequently increased the pollution of the Jinzu River and its tributaries. The river was used mainly for irrigation of rice fields, but also for drinking water, washing, fishing, and other uses by downstream populations.

38 Effect Due to the cadmium poisoning, the fish in the river started to die, and the rice irrigated with river water did not grow well. The cadmium and other heavy metals accumulated at the bottom of the river and in the water of the river. This water was then used to irrigate the rice fields. The rice absorbed all heavy metals, but especially the cadmium. The cadmium accumulated in the people eating contaminated rice. The population complained to the Mitsui Mining and Smelting Company about the pollution, which subsequently built a basin to store the mining wastewater before leading it into the river. This, however, was too little too late, and many people already were very sick. The causes of the poisoning were not well understood, and up to 1946, it was thought to be simply a regional disease, or possibly a type of bacteria. Medical test started in the 1940s and 1950s, searching for the cause of the disease. Initially, it was expected to be lead poisoning due to the lead mining upstream. Only in 1955 did Dr. Ogino and his colleagues suspect cadmium as the cause of the disease. Dr. Ogino also coined the term itai-itai disease. The Toyama Prefecture also started an investigation in 1961, determining that the Kamioka Mining Station of the Mitsui Mining and Smelting Company caused the cadmium pollution, and that the worst affected areas were 30 km downstream of the mine. In 1968, the Ministry of Health and Welfare issued a statement about the symptoms of the itai-itai disease caused by the cadmium poisoning.

39 Minamata Disaster Over victims have been recognized as having Minamata Disease. It has taken some of these people over thirty years to receive compensation for this inconceivable event. In 1993, nearly forty years later, the Japanese courts were still resolving suitable compensation for the victims. Many people have lost their lives, suffered from physical deformities, or have had to live with the physical and emotional pain of Minamata Disease. This suffering is all a result of the very wrongful and negligent acts of the Chisso Corporation who dumped mercury into the seawater and poisoned the people of Japan. Minamata is a small factory town dominated by the Chisso Corporation. The town faces the Shiranui Sea, and Minamata Bay is part of this sea. In Japanese, Chisso means nitrogen. The Chisso Corporation was once a fertilizer and carbicle company, and gradually advanced to a petrochemical and plastic-maker company. From 1932 to 1968, Chisso Corporation, acompany located in Kumamoto Japan, dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay. Kumamoto is a small town about 570 miles southwest of Tokyo. The town consists of mostly farmers and fisherman. When Chisso Corporation dumped this massive amount of mercury into the bay, thousands of people whose normal diet included fish from the bay, unexpectedly developed symptoms of methyl mercury poisoning. The illness became known as the "Minamata Disease". The mercury poisoning resulted from years of environmental destruction and neglect from Chisso Corporation.

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41 Emissions of contaminants into the air from inadequate incineration processes, burning at landfills, and industrial processes Hazardous waste passes through one or several of the following phases: generation, transport, storage, treatment, and disposal. Hazardous waste can be discharged to the environment during any one of these phases. Any such discharge has the potential to cause an adverse environmental effect and ecosystems, including people and communities. There are three potential exposure routes: o Permitted discharges from generation/treatment/storage/disposal facilities o Accidental discharges during transport, or at any point in the hazardous waste life-path o Illegal discharge Pollution prevention is the best approach for dealing with hazardous waste for many handlers of hazardous waste for many handlers of hazardous material and generators of hazardous waste. Pollution prevention simply stated involves not creating hazardous waste in the first place. While the elimination or reduction of all wastes may not currently be feasible, making as little hazardous waste as possible in your best interest.

42 Chisso Corporation started developing plastics, drugs, and perfumes through the use of a chemical called acetaldehyde in Acetaldehyde is produced using mercury as a compound, and was key component in the production of their products. The company was considered an economic success in Japan, particularly because it was one industry that maintained development despite Japan's suffering throughout and right after W.W.II. As other companies economically ripened during Japan's post-war period, so did the Chisso Corporation. Sales augmented with Japan's economic success. In addition, Chisso Corporation's sale increased dramatically, considering Chisso was the only manufacturer of a primary chemical called D.O.P, a plasticizer (diotyl phthalate), having a monopoly on the chemical enabled Chisso to expand rapidly. Since Chisso Corporation was the main industry in the small Minamata town, the town's growth period from 1952 to 1960 paralleled Chisso's progress. Pouring its wastes into the air and the waters, the Chisso chemical complex dominates the city of Minamata Not until the mid-1950 did people begin to notice a "strange disease". Victims were diagnosed as having a degeneration of their nervous systems. Numbness occurred in their limbs and lips. Their speech became slurred, and their vision constricted. Some people had serious brain damage, while others lapsed into unconsciousness or suffered from involuntary movements. Furthermore, some victims were thought to be crazy when they began to uncontrollably shout.

43 People thought the cats were going insane when they witnessed "suicides" by the cats. Finally, birds were strangely dropping from the sky. Series of these unexplainable occurrences were bringing panic to Minamata. Dr. Hajime Hosokawa from the Chisso Corporation Hospital, reported on May 1, 1956 that, "an unclarified disease of the central nervous system has broken out". Dr. Hosokawa linked the fish diets to the disease, and soon investigators were promulgating that the sea was being polluted by poisons from the Chisso Corporation. The Chisso Corporation denied the accusations and maintained their production. However, by 1958, Chisso Corporation transferred their dumping from the Minamata Bay to the Minamata River hoping to diminish accusations toward the company. The Minamata River flows past the town Hachimon, and into the Shiranui Sea. The people of this area also began developing the "strange disease" after a few months. The Kumamoto Prefecture government responded by imposing a ban, which allowed fisherman to "catch fish, but not to "sell" fish from the bay. Since this was their main food source, the people continued to eat fish at home, but the ban released government officials from any responsibility for those who developed the illness. Finally, in July 1959, researchers from Kumamoto University concluded that organic mercury was the cause of the "Minamata Disease".

44 A number of committees, of which Chisso Corporation employees were members, formed to research the problem. The committees denied this information and refuted the direct link of mercury to the strange disease. Finally, Dr. Hosokawa performed concealed cat experiments in front of the Chisso Corporation management, and illustrated the affects of mercury poisoning by feeding the cats acetaldehyde. Dr. Hosokawa was the first person who made a valiant effort in proving to Chisso Corporation that they were the ones accountable for the mercury poisoning. After the meeting with Chisso officials, Dr. Hosokawa was restricted from conducting any further research or experiments, and his findings were concealed by the corporation.Chisso Corporation began to make deals with the victims of the "Minamata Disease". People who were desperate and legally ignorant signed contracts which stated that Chisso Corporation would pay them for their misfortunes, but would accept no responsibility. In fact, there was even a clause, which read, "if Chisso Corporation were later proven guilty, the company would not be liable for further compensation". The fishermen began protesting in They demanded compensation, but soon became intimidated by the threats of Chisso management.

45 Seveso Disaster The Seveso disaster was an industrial accident that occurred on July 10, 1976 around midnoon in a small chemical manufacturing plant approximately 25 km north of Milan in the Lombardy region in Italy. It resulted in the highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations [Eskenazi et al., 2004], which gave rise to numerous scientific studies and standardized industrial safety regulations. The EU industrial safety regulations are known as the Seveso II Directives. Many things about the exact circumstances of the accident are unknown and perhaps irrelevant. Fortunately, the Seveso disaster was a serious industrial accident that did not have grave consequences and there were no fatalities [Environmental Diseases, 2006]. Nevertheless, TCDD is a known carcinogen and one of the most toxic substances on earth. The accident exposed serious flaw in government response to industrial accidents. No human is known to have died from dioxin poisoning but its toxic effects have been documented in cases such as the Yusho disaster in Japan in 1968, the Yucheng disaster in Taiwan in as well as in Viet Nam War veterans who processed and sprayed Agent Orange.

46 Most recently, Viktor Yushchenko, the president of Ukraine, was poisoned with TCDD and subsequently suffered from chloracne. Dioxins are a group of persistent organic pollutants, they do not react easily with other chemicals, that is to say they are lipophilic, they bioaccumulate. Some of them are extremely toxic and fatal when it comes to animal studies but scientific evidence of harmfulness to humans is disputed. A subgroup of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is amongst the most toxic. In humans and other vertebrates, dioxins have been shown to be risk factors for cancer; immune deficiency; reproductive and developmental abnormalities; central nervous system and peripheral nervous system pathology; endocrine disruption, etc.

47 The accident occurred in the building where 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), an herbicide, was being produced from 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction with sodium hydroxide. It is thought that some 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene had formed a solid cake on the upper parts of the reaction vessel. As the temperature increased this melted and entered the sodium hydroxide containing mixture. The addition of more 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene increased the rate of heat production. It is likely that the dioxin formed by either an Ullmann condensation either synthesis (this requires a metal catalyst) or by a simple pair of nucleophilic attacks on the aromatic ring. The 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was intended for use as an intermediate in the production of hexachlorophene, a medical disinfectant. An unintended by product of the manufacture of TCP is TCDD in trace amounts, measured in ppm (parts per million). Due to human error, around 12:37 pm on July 10, 1976 an uncontrolled reaction (thermal runaway) occurred bursting the security disk of the chemical reactor and an aerosol cloud containing sodium hydroxide, ethylene glycol, sodium trichlorophenate, and somewhere between a few hundred grams and up to a few kg of TCDD was released over an 18- km2 area.

48 Burst in the security disk of the chemical reactor and an aerosol

49 Love Canal In August 1978 President Carter declared a federal emergency at the Love Canal due to contamination by toxic chemicals in the area.In August 1978 President Carter declared a federal emergency at the Love Canal due to contamination by toxic chemicals in the area. Love Canal focused attention on hazardous waste issues and led to the passage of the federal Superfund Act.Love Canal focused attention on hazardous waste issues and led to the passage of the federal Superfund Act.

50 Love Canal -- Background The Love Canal neighborhood is in the city of Niagara Falls, New York.The Love Canal neighborhood is in the city of Niagara Falls, New York. In 1978 the neighborhood included about 800 homes, 240 low-income apartments, and the 99 th Street Elementary School.In 1978 the neighborhood included about 800 homes, 240 low-income apartments, and the 99 th Street Elementary School. The neighborhood was located over and around a landfill that had been active in earlier decades.The neighborhood was located over and around a landfill that had been active in earlier decades.

51 Love Canal – some history The canal was to be built in the 1890s for ship navigation, but it was never completed.The canal was to be built in the 1890s for ship navigation, but it was never completed. Early 1900s: the unfinished canal was used for swimming and boating.Early 1900s: the unfinished canal was used for swimming and boating. The land was sold in 1920 and became a municipal and industrial dump site.The land was sold in 1920 and became a municipal and industrial dump site. From 1942 to 1953, Hooker Chemical dumped about 21,000 tons of toxic chemicals at the site.From 1942 to 1953, Hooker Chemical dumped about 21,000 tons of toxic chemicals at the site.

52 The Love Canal area in The arrow points to the canal.

53 Love Canal – some history In 1953 the landfill was covered with layers of dirt.In 1953 the landfill was covered with layers of dirt. The Niagara Falls Board of Education bought the site from Hooker Chemical.The Niagara Falls Board of Education bought the site from Hooker Chemical. As the city started to grow into the area, the 99 th Street Elementary School was built over the landfill, and homes were built around the site.As the city started to grow into the area, the 99 th Street Elementary School was built over the landfill, and homes were built around the site.

54 Love Canal – some history From the late 1950s into the 1970s, residents reported foul odors and complained that substances were seeping into their basements, yards, and the school playground.From the late 1950s into the 1970s, residents reported foul odors and complained that substances were seeping into their basements, yards, and the school playground. The city assisted by covering up the seeping substances.The city assisted by covering up the seeping substances. Tests found high levels of PCBs in storm sewers and toxic chemicals in wells.Tests found high levels of PCBs in storm sewers and toxic chemicals in wells.

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57 LoveCanal in 1980

58 Love Canal: Environmental Damages Reports suggested that there was an unusually high rate of birth defects and miscarriages among Love Canal families.Reports suggested that there was an unusually high rate of birth defects and miscarriages among Love Canal families. In 1980 the EPA announced that chromosome damage had been found in 11 out of 36 residents tested in the area.In 1980 the EPA announced that chromosome damage had been found in 11 out of 36 residents tested in the area. There has not been conclusive proof of a link between Love Canal and any illness.There has not been conclusive proof of a link between Love Canal and any illness. The health of residents of the Love Canal area is being monitored in a number of ongoing studies.The health of residents of the Love Canal area is being monitored in a number of ongoing studies.

59 Love Canal today The canal itself has been fenced, and groundwater flow from it has been blocked.The canal itself has been fenced, and groundwater flow from it has been blocked. The surrounding area, now called Black Creek Village, is home to hundreds of families.The surrounding area, now called Black Creek Village, is home to hundreds of families. About 260 homes abandoned in the late 1970s have been renovated and resold.About 260 homes abandoned in the late 1970s have been renovated and resold. Chemical wastes were left in a 70-acre site, but it was capped and fenced.Chemical wastes were left in a 70-acre site, but it was capped and fenced.

60 Love Canal – Regulatory Impact The Love Canal disaster spurred the passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) – The Superfund Act – by Congress in 1980.The Love Canal disaster spurred the passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) – The Superfund Act – by Congress in Remediation efforts at Love canal took more than twenty years, with a large share of the costs being paid by the chemical company that bought Hooker Chemical.Remediation efforts at Love canal took more than twenty years, with a large share of the costs being paid by the chemical company that bought Hooker Chemical. Love Canal was removed from the federal governments Superfund list in 2004.Love Canal was removed from the federal governments Superfund list in 2004.

61 Syllabus topics Cradle to grave approach, Priority in Hazardous Waste management, Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act 1986, Dose Response Relationship, Effect of Hazardous waste on Aquatic System and how do they enter the food chains routes of entry,fate of toxicants in body

62 Changing times - Hazardous Waste, international evolution Directive 78/319/EEC on Toxic and Dangerous Waste OECD Decisions on hazardous waste Directive 84/631/EEC on Transfrontier Shipment of Waste Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous and other Wastes and their Disposal Directive 91/689/EEC on Hazardous Waste OECD Decision C92 (39) Final on the Control of Wastes Destined for Recovery Operations Regulation 259/93/EEC on the Transboundary Movements of Waste (WSR) OECD Decision revised C2001(109) Final WSR Revised

63 Changing regulations - impact on complexity 1980 Control of Pollution (Special Waste) Regulations 1972 Deposit of Poisonous Waste Act 1974 Control of Pollution Act 1990 Environmental Protection Act 1989 Basel Convention 1996 Special Waste Regulations 2001 Landfill Directive 2005 Hazardous Waste Regulations 2004 co-disposal ban Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive Restriction on Hazardous Substances Directive 1994 UK Transfrontier Shipment of Waste Regulations 1975 Waste Framework Directive 2003 End of Life Vehicles Regulations 1 Due Dates for Directive requirements to come into force in the UK. European Regu.

64 What is? CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act CERCLA - also known as "Superfund" - provides a national system for identifying and cleaning up contaminated sites. The Superfund program is administered by EPA. Several states also have associated state-level Superfund programs.

65 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 CERCLA (Superfund) regulates leachate and other releases of hazardous substances from inactive and abandoned hazardous waste sites or from sites operating prior to November Businesses that produce between 220 and 2000 lb of hazardous wastes in a calendar month are also regulated. Most of the existing hazardous waste sites were created by the petroleum and chemical industries. Some municipal landfills received mixed solid waste, including toxic and hazardous commercial and industrial waste, in addition to small quantities of household cleaners, solvents, and pesticides. The result was pollution of the soil, groundwater, and surface water due to the infiltration and percolation of rain and snow melt, dissolution, and migration in the waste. In addition, toxic gases could be released from evaporating liquids, sublimating solids, and chemical reactions. CERCLA comes into play when hazardous waste sites are identified and classified.

66 Other Laws of USA Other laws controlling hazardous substances are: Clean Air Act (EPA)regulates the emission of hazardous air pollutants. Clean Water Act (EPA)regulates the discharge of hazardous pollutants into the nations waters. Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (EPA)regulates waste disposal at sea. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)regulates hazards in the workplace, including worker exposure to hazardous substances. Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (Department of Transportation) regulates the transportation of hazardous materials. Atomic Energy Act (Nuclear Regulatory Commission)regulates nuclear energy production and nuclear waste disposal.

67 HMTA Hazardous Materials Transportation Act The HMTA provides for the safe transportation of hazardous materials. Regulations developed from the HMTA cover shipment preparation and labeling, handling, routing, emergency and security planning, incident notifications, and liability insurance.

68 HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 amended RCRA by establishing additional waste management requirements under RCRA, and adding Subtitle I, which imposes management requirements for underground storage tanks (USTs) that contain petroleum or hazardous substances.

69 Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Enacted in 1976 by EPA as an amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) Main objectives: –Protect human health & the environment –conserve valuable material & energy resources Established "Cradle-to-grave" management and tracking of hazardous waste EPA inspectors have same authority as FBI/ATF

70 RCRAs Three Interrelated Programs Subtitle D Subtitle C Subtitle I Solid Waste Management Hazardous Waste Management Hazardous Waste Management Underground Storage Tank Program

71 Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes Solid waste –Discarded –Not excluded Hazardous waste –Solid waste –Listed waste or exhibit characteristics of hazardous waste –Not excluded

72 Defining a Solid waste RCRA

73 Defining Hazardous waste

74 Listed Waste Categories Non-specific Sources (F list): e.g. solvent wastes, electroplating wastes, metal heat treating wastes Specific Sources (K list): e.g. wood preservation, inorganic pigment manufacturing, organic chemical manufacturing Commercial Chemical Products (U and P lists): listed unused products on these lists become hazardous wastes at the point when they are to be disposed of

75

76 Lists Can be Very Specific F007 – Spent cyanide plating bath solutions from electroplating operations F008 – Plating bath residues from the bottom of plating baths from electroplating operations where cyanide is used in the process K008 – Oven residue from production of chrome oxide green pigments K027 – Centrifuge and distillation residues from toluene diisocyanate production

77

78 Special Categories of Hazardous Wastes Hazardous waste mixtures Wastes derived from the management of hazardous wastes Hazardous waste contained in a nonwaste Low-level radioactive mixed wastes Special rules for recycling

79 Criteria for Determining Hazardous Waste Listed (EPA activity) Characteristics (generator activity)

80 Three Lists of Hazardous Wastes Non-specific Source Wastes Specific Source Wastes Commercial Chemical Products

81 UNIVERSAL WASTE Universal wastes are widely generated and widely recycled hazardous wastes. Management standards for these wastes are reduced to facilitate their recycling.

82 Types of UNIVERSAL WASTE Batteries Mercury containing thermostats Hazardous waste lamps state specific UWs

83 Hazardous Waste Management ENV 00183

84 INTERNATIONAL Act for hazardous waste, United Nations Classification System for hazardous materials Class 1 Explosives With a mass explosion hazard With a projection hazard With predominantly a fire hazard With no significant blast hazard Very insensitive explosives Extremely insensitive explosives

85 Class 2 Gases Compressed, liquefied, dissolved and toxic gases symbols

86 Flammable Gas: acetylene, butane, hydrogen, aerosols Non-Flammable Gas: oxygen, nitrogen Poisonous Gas: fluorine, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, aerosols of low toxicity Sprays

87 Class 3 Flammable liquids Possible additional dangers: Toxic, corrosive or explosive Examples Paints, solvents, petrol, used oil, substances from pickling, hardener based on Isocyanate, acetone, ethanol Symbols

88 Class 4.1 Flammable solids Examples Sulphur, fat, wax, other solid waste containing flammable liquids, hydrocarbons, calcium carbide Symbols

89 Class 4.2 Spontaneously combustible materials Examples Phosphorus, chemicals from laboratories Symbols

90 Class 4.3 Dangerous when wet materials/ Water-reactive substances Examples Calcium carbide, sodium, aluminium phosphide, lithium Symbols

91 Class 5.1 Oxidizing substances Examples Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, pool chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and other peroxides, potassium permanganate, chemicals from laboratories, salts of sulphates, chromic acid Symbols Class 5.2 Organic peroxides

92 Class 6.1 Toxic substances Examples Cyanide, arsenic, mercury and mercury containing waste, pesticides solid and liquids, halogenated solvents, methylene chloride (used as a paint stripper and a degreaser) Symbols

93 Class 7 Radioactive Materials

94 Class 8 Corrosive substances Examples Battery acids, all acids and bases, mercury, potassium hydroxide, caustic soda, cleaning agents Symbols

95 Class 9 Miscellaneous hazardous materials/Products, Substances or Organisms Examples Asbestos, electronic waste, batteries

96 Sources of hazardous waste Most hazardous waste is generated by industries; including car repair shops; the construction, ceramics and printing industries; manufacturers of chemicals, paper, leather, cleaning agents, cosmetics, and metals. Mixtures of hazardous and non-hazardous waste are also labelled hazardous. To help you identify some of the waste streams common to your business, see the following table to find a list of typical hazardous wastes generated by small- and medium size businesses.

97 Type of Business Dry-cleaning & Laundry Plants Furniture/Wood Manufacturing and Refinishing Construction Vehicle Maintenance Printing and Allied Industries Equipment Repair Pesticide End- Users/Application Services Educational and Vocational Shops Photo Processing Leather Manufacturing How Generated Commercial dry-cleaning processes Wood cleaning and wax removal, refinishing/stripping, staining, painting, finishing, brush cleaning and spray brush cleaning Paint preparation and painting, carpentry and floor work, other specialty contracting activities, heavy construction, wrecking and demolition, vehicle and equipment maintenance for construction activities Degreasing, rust removal, paint preparation, spray booth, spray guns, brush cleaning, paint removal, tank cleanout, installing lead- acid, batteries, oil and fluid replacement Plate preparation, stencil preparation for screen printing, photo processing, printing,cleanup Degreasing, equipment cleaning, rust removal, paint preparation, painting, paint removal, spray booth, spray guns, and brush cleaning. Pesticide application and cleanup Automobile engine and body repair, metalworking, graphic arts-plate preparation, woodworking Processing and developing negatives / prints, stabilization system cleaning Hair removal, bating, soaking, tanning, buffing, and dyeing

98 INTERNATIONAL Act for hazardous waste, Other international schemes on hazardous waste Rio declaration on Environment and Development: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, June 1992 The Rio Declaration constitutes itself as a set of principles that enunciate environmental protection with principles such as sustainable development, which is the central thrust of the Declaration. Among its most important principle, we can highlight Principle 16 (referring to the outmost importance or irreversible damage), Principle 16 (referring t the internalization of environmental costs and use of economic instruments), and Principle 19 (prevention of transboundary environmental effects through closer coordination between states). The Rio Declaration has been referred to especially with regard to the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principle.

99 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutant, 2001 The Stockholm convention echoes some of the principles of the Rio Declaration and aims towards global cooperation and sustainable development. The most relevant provision is Article 6- Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from stockpiles and wastes. This Article also states that the parties included in this convention must keep the Basel convention in mind and cooperate as closely with one another. This article also deals with the abolition of transboundary movement of wastes and stresses on the need to develop ways of reducing them. Although this convention has not been specifically referred to in any text of judgment, the fact that it is in relation to the Basel convention and the Rio Declaration grants it some validity in India.

100 The International Maritime Organization's International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution of Ships (MARPOL), 1973 Adopted on 2 November 1973, MARPOL takes into consideration pollution by oil, chemicals, harmful substances in packaged form, sewage and garbage. The aim of this convention was to preserve the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances. A new and important feature of the 1973 Convention was the concept of "special areas which are considered to be so vulnerable to pollution by oil that oil discharges within them have been completely prohibited, with minor and well defined exceptions.

101 The 1973 Convention identified the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the Baltic Sea, the Red Sea and the Gulfs area as special areas. Nevertheless, it must be noted that this legislation applies only to activities in port areas. All other regions of the sea are ignored. Also, the Act is too basic and does not enter into necessary specifications. However, if legislation could be enacted based on MARPOL as well as the above Act, a suitable legislation can be enacted. India is also a party to this treaty, and even though there is no specific legislation made after this treaty, the Indian Ports Act, 1908 is applicable to some extent.

102 International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 13 February 2004 Its objective is to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments. Parties are given the right to take more stringent measures with respect to the prevention, reduction or elimination of the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments, consistent with international law. Parties should ensure that ballast water management practices do not cause greater harm than they prevent to their environment, human health, property or resources, or those of other States [International Maritim Organization, 2002]. This treaty has not yet been ratified by India; thought the National Institute of Oceanography has recognized the health and environmental hazards of ballast water in port areas [ However, the Indian Ports Act 1908 could be applied for the same purpose as it clearly includes ballast within its ambit.

103

104 Short term hazards Short term hazard are sorts of physical hazards and health hazards, especially: Corrosive High inflammably or risk of explosion Water reactive Oxidizing Toxicity by ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption Skin or eye contact hazards, irritant

105 Figure Pathways of toxic entering human

106 Examples of common products are paint cleaners, gasoline, drain cleaners and chlorine bleach. Products may be quite safe when used according to instructions, but still be capable of easy misuse. Carefully examine product labels for written warnings as well as warning symbols.

107 Toxicity Toxicity is the quality, relative degree, or specific degree of being toxic or poisonous, which is capable of causing injury or death through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption. Some toxic substances are known to cause cancer (carcinogens), genetic damage (mutagens), and fetalharm (teratogens).

108 Acute effects Effects that are felt soon afterwards exposure, usually within 24 hours and in some cases almost immediately characterized by severe symptoms with a sudden onset. Skin burns and disfigurement from splashing battery acid, fire caused by an exploding aerosol can stored too close to a stove, or an overnight fish kill resulting from dumping toxicants down the storm sewer are examples of acute dangers caused by hazardous products.

109 Chronic effects Effects that are gradual and occur through repeated exposure over an extended period of time. Headache and trouble thinking caused by carbon monoxide leaking from an appliance, allergic reactions that occur each time you open the cupboard where aromatic cleaning products are stored, or the slow pollution of ground waster resulting from the disposal of small amounts of herbicide down a sinkhole every growing season are examples of chronic dangers caused by hazardous substances. Some of the most common chronic health effects are liver or kidney damage, central nervous system damage, cancer and birth defects.

110 Long term hazards : Risks to the environment, plants, animals and humans through long run or repeated exposure and through accumulation of toxic substances: Carcinogen, reproductive toxin Accumulation of toxic substances in water bodies, groundwater and soil posing a long- run risk to agro- and aquaculture Toxic compounds enter the environment in many ways and in many forms. Some are poured into sewers or onto the ground, some are carried in exhaust fumes from cars and factories, others may be taken as solids to landfills and dumps.

111 Once in the environment, chemicals may undergo series of reactions forming new products, some of which may be toxic, and some of which may take on a new phase (solid, liquid, or gas). Compounds can also move from one environmental medium to another. Acid rain is an example of airborne toxics moving from one environmental medium- the air- to another –water. Toxics can thus reach humans and animals through variety of pathways. Toxics enter our bodies through ingestion (the mouth), inhalation (breathing), and dermal absorption (movement through the skin, including the eye tissues).

112 Contamination pathways

113 The net accumulation by an organism of a chemical from its combined exposure to water, food, and sediment makes bioaccumulation occurrence. Species higher in the food net can be exposed to all the chemicals that lower-order species accumulate. Being at the top of the food chain, humans are susceptible to high levels of bio accumulated toxins in their diets. Lifelong exposure to even low-level concentrations of contaminants from species lower in the food can cause serious health problems, including cancer, birth defects, birth complications,and nervous and mental disorders. Pesticides and heavy metals are common sources of contamination by bioaccumulation.

114 The time span in which long-term effects become noticeable pose a great risk to society that have not taken the necessary measures to handle or prevent this problem. Hence, it is important to acknowledge the long and short- term effects of hazardous waste appropriately.

115 Why hazardous waste is to manage? The levels of dangerous wastes grow. Industries and individuals continue to be largely unaware of this major environmental problem. As a result, many people and industries are failing to prevent the creation of hazardous waste or to limit the negative effects it produces. Individual often throw out goods without realizing that they are headed for a landfill and could be dangerous for the environment. No matter where people put these hazardous waste materials,there is always a chance that they could find their way into the ground, and eventually into our bodies.

116 Hazardous waste is produced both on a huge scale by major industries and on a relatively tiny scale by individuals. No matter where it comes from, waste can be dangerous. One of the main causes of the abundance of hazardous waste is that people do not realize how large a problem it is. Because it can be simply removed and sent to a landfill, it is often assumed that the problem ends there. Industries have often displayed an unwillingness to find ways to deal with hazardous waste because of the expenses associated with it.

117 Many industries and governments create crude landfills to store waste, and often just dump waste chemicals into nearby bodies of water. Chemicals used for industrial processes often create dangerous forms of waste. The amount of these chemicals has risen heavily in the past, as more areas of the world industrialize and new products are produced. Over different chemicals are used in industries worldwide. Often, it is difficult and expensive to get rid of these chemicals and to store them in a way that does not endanger human life or the environment. Obviously, not all of these chemicals are dangerous, but many are and they do create serious problems.

118 Environmental pollution and public health risks due to improper handling, storage and illegal disposal of hazardous waste can be reduced substantially once adequate facilities and procedures for hazardous waste management will be in place. Especially children, women and poor parts of the population are negatively affected by mproper disposal and handling of hazardous waste, in particular by small- and medium size companies. Most of the urban poor live in the vicinity of polluted drainage canals, contaminated sites and pollution creating companies.

119 In many cases, the long-term health effects of hazardous waste exposure may not be fully realized, thus meriting precautionary activities. Improperly managed hazardous wastes also threaten ecosystems and limit future availability of our soil, air, groundwater, and surface water resources for meeting agricultural, industrial, commercial, and dwelling needs. In general, the potential effects of hazardous waste on the environment include followings

120 Contamination of ground water by infiltration (e.g. from landfill leachate) Contamination of surface waters (streams, rivers, lakes, etc.) by direct disposal or run-off Short-or long-term contamination of solids and sediments Key to Cradle to Grave Management

121 Exposure The amount of toxic chemical our body comes in contact with In the air we breathe, the food we eat and our skin is exposed to The higher the concentration of the exposure the larger the dose The longer the exposure the larger the dose Protective clothing, equipment and containment can break the exposure chain

122 Routes of Exposure Dermal absorption Oral (Ingestion) Inhalation Injection Inhalation and injection are the most rapid

123 Dermal May cause itching, redness, burns, and solvents may dissolve skin oils leaving skin more susceptible to the absorption of chemicals The eyes are especially susceptible to harm

124 Ingestion Not common in the workplace, but issues of facial cleanliness, and eating are concerns Is a serious problem at home with children i.e. lead paint chips

125 Injection Greatest risk in medical facilities, or from microbial exposure from nail puncture Biological sources of toxins as well; insects, scorpions, spiders and snakes! We Will Come Back to Inhalation later

126 Acute toxicity Result of short term exposure Causes effects that are felt at the time of exposure or soon thereafter Most toxic effects dont cause permanent, irreversible damage (acute & chronic) Back to toxicity:

127 Chronic toxicity Due to long-term exposure Effects appear after months or years of exposure Cancer, emphysema, or nervous system damage caused by heavy metals, drugs and alcohol are examples of some chronic health effects

128 Relative toxicity As the dose of a toxic substance increases the harmful effects are generally expected to increase Dose-Response Relationship LOAEL: Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level - or the lowest dose that causes a lethal effect NOAEL - No Observable Adverse Effect Level

129 Threshold level The lowest concentration that could produce a harmful effect (doesnt necessarily mean lethal) Varies among people exposed depending upon their sensitivity A safety factor is used to reduce the allowable concentration to assure no ill effects

130 Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) Dose at which 50% of the test population dies Used with dermal and oral toxicity LC50 - Lethal Concentration used for toxicity from inhalation

131 Effects other than death! The dose or concentration to produce toxic effects in 50% of the population Toxic Dosage 50 - TD50 Toxic Concentration - TC50

132 Toxic Effects Local Effects – damage caused at the site of first contact with toxicant (eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin) Systemic Effects – Damage done by toxicants carried by the bloodstream to vital organs (liver, kidneys, heart, nervous and reproductive system

133 Additional factors associated w/ Toxic Effects Local effects provide warning that exposure has occurred Systemic effects may occur without being felt or sensed

134 Accumulation Chronic, or long term exposure is particularly dangerous because some chemicals build up in the body The body does not get a chance to repair itself

135 Latency Period The delay between the exposure and the resultant harmful effects Some effects take a long time to manifest themselves For some chemicals, effects may not appear for 30 or 40 years –Example is asbestos

136 Interaction Chemicals can combine with toxicants and alter their behavior

137 Reaction Chemicals can combine and form new harmful substances i.e. bleach plus drain cleaner = chlorine gas and hydrochloric acid

138 Additive Effect Most health and safety regulations assume that the effects of two chemicals together is equal to the sum of each alone

139 Antagonism A subtractive effect One substance reduces the effects of another

140 Synergism Two chemicals can interact within the body to produce an effect different from the effect of either chemical alone, and greater than their sum A pack of cigarettes a day or exposure to asbestos increases the chance of lung cancer by six times The two exposures together increases ones risk by 90 times!

141 Sensitivity Individuals vary in how they react Age, sex, inherited traits, diet, state of health, use of medication, drugs, alcohol and pregnancy Includes Allergies –Some people are affected by a very low dose of a substance (i.e. bee stings) –Substances that initiate allergic responses are called sensitizers

142 Respiratory System Exchange of gases, oxygen in, carbon dioxide out The air we breathe contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% trace gases Evaporation of liquids such as gasoline or formaldehyde allows them to enter the body

143 Inhalation (Back to Routes of Exposure) Most critical route of entry for most workers handling toxic chemicals Quick entry and absorption into the bloodstream Ability of some toxic agents to accumulate in the respiratory system itself

144 The nose and mouth warm and humidify the air we breathe The bronchial tubes lead to alveoli, 300 million tiny air sacs where air is exchanged Oxygen is transferred to hemoglobin within the red blood cells of the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is released

145 Fibrosis Some particles cause a build up of fibrous connective tissue –Emphysema is an example of this type of effect Hampers the transfer of oxygen to the bloodstream Silica from mining, quarrying and pottery glazing, coal dust and asbestos

146 Inhaling dusts or mists Harmful particles may be deposited in the bronchi or the alveoli Larger particles may be coughed up but smaller ones remain to cause lung damage Particles less than 10 microns penetrate deeper into the lungs causing bronchitis Low level long term exposure to smoke, vehicle exhaust can trigger chronic bronchitis and emphysema

147 Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with water vapor in the alveoli forming acids Ammonia and chlorine gas can dissolve in the mucus of the lungs creating caustic solutions Injured lung tissue allows liquids to move from the capillaries into the alveoli causing pulmonary edema A person can literally drown in their own fluids

148 Smell Our sense of smell does not always warn of exposure Carbon monoxide is odorless We can become desensitized to some smells after exposure olfactory fatique –Example is H 2 S (page 81)

149 Cardiovascular system The heart and blood vessels transport oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body The heart and brain are especially sensitive to a lack of oxygen Waste products are picked up and carried to the lungs and kidneys

150 Hemoglobin An iron containing protein in red blood cells which carry oxygen to the rest of the body Some chemicals (i.e.CO) interfere with this process causing chemical asphyxiation Hemoglobin has a much greater affinity for CO than oxygen (300 times greater)

151 Digestive and Filtration Systems Food and water supply the body with materials for maintenance and repair and a source of energy The digestive system breaks down large molecules like proteins, complex carbohydrates and fats

152 Liver Processes chemicals found in the blood traveling from the intestine Converts foods into other chemicals, destroys toxins, manufactures protein and stores glucose

153 Liver Disease Severe liver disease prevents the organ from rendering toxic chemicals harmless, some which may be normal body chemicals When they reach the brain they may cause tremors, confusion or coma

154 Some chemicals are stored in the liver The liver can destroy toxic substances like alcohol and nicotine If exposure is chronic and long term, cells may be damaged and replaced by fibrous tissue, a condition called cirrhosis

155 Bloodstream and Kidneys Our body fluids must maintain a balanced amount of potassium, sodium, chloride and calcium ions and blood acids The kidneys maintain this balance and filter out waste materials

156 The body must remain hydrated for the kidneys to perform their function If the body loses more that 10% of its weight in water cells will no longer function and the result is coma & death Kidney malfunction causes toxic chemicals to build up in the bloodstream which can result in coma and death

157 Kidney cancers are known to be associated with exposure to some industrial chemicals Mercury in waterways is converted to methyl mercury, which is ingested by fish If the fish are eaten the chemical inhibits the kidneys ability to balance the bodys chemicals which blocks nerve transmissions, Minimata Disease

158 Nervous System and Sensory Organs Brain, spinal cord are considered the central nervous system and process signals from the peripheral nervous system The two types of nerves are motor and sensory The autonomic nervous system takes care of all the bodily functions which are in the background

159 Pesticides and metals, such as lead and mercury, can interfere with the chemical transfer of information This may cause tremors, paralysis, loss of reflexes and/or feeling Mercury caused Mad Hatters Disease

160 Brain Must receive a continuous supply of oxygen See chart on page 86 for symptoms of oxygen deficiency

161 Eyes Inflammation and infection of the mucus- membrane lining of the eyelids and eyeballs can be caused by irritation from chemical pollutants Acids and bases are corrosive and can penetrate to the interior of the eye very quickly i.e. lime in wall plaster Methyl or wood alcohol can cause total blindness from damage to the optic nerve

162 Skin Made up of three layers, the epidermis, the dermis and subcutaneous tissue The dermis, or live skin, contains blood vessels, nerves, nerve receptors, hair follicles and sweat and oil glands The skin protects against the invasion of bacteria, the suns rays and the loss of moisture

163 It senses pressure, pain and temperature and regulates the bodys temperature through blood flow and sweat glands Corrosive chemicals can dissolve naturally protective coatings and/or react with the skin Some chemicals, like solvents that` dissolve fats, are absorbed directly into the bloodstream

164 Carcinogenicity The tendency for cancer to occur Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells It is first indicated by malignant tumors which tend to invade the surrounding tissue and then spread to distant sites within the body

165 During the 1970s the public became aware of the potential for chemicals to cause cancer Studies of chemicals indicate that only a small number in commercial use cause cancer

166 One in three people will develop cancer during their lifetime Yet only 10 – 15% of these are from occupational exposure to chemicals There are 30 chemicals considered to be human carcinogens and 200 that are suspect based on animal studies

167 Mutagenicity The ability of a substance to cause damage to genetic material A substance that is a carciogen is usually a mutagen But not all mutagens cause cancer

168 Teratogenicity A substances tendency to interfere with the development of an unborn child A teratogen causes birth defects

169 Determining Carcinogenicity Epidemiological studies are retrospective and look at past exposures to a sample group and compare this with their health history Lifestyle risk contributors like smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are considered

170 A prospective study maintains environmental data as well as exposure and medical records on workers as they are exposed These studies are difficult in companies where there is a large turnover of employees because the latency period of many cancers is over 20 years

171 Animal testing Usually performed on rodents using procedures endorsed by regulatory agencies like the EPA Animals are given doses likely to yield maximum incidence of tumor formation then statistical analysis is used to estimate the cancer risk of low doses in humans

172 3.2 Cradle to grave approach

173 Hazardous Waste Management Options Produce Less Waste –Avoid creating wastes in the first place –Recycle and Reuse Convert to Less Hazardous Substances –Physical Treatment (Isolation) –Incineration –Chemical Processing (Transformation) –Bioremediation (Microorganisms)

174 Hazardous Waste Management Options Store Permanently –Retrievable Storage Can be inspected and periodically retrieved. –Secure Landfills Modern, complex landfills with multiple liners and other impervious layers and monitoring systems.

175 Secure Landfills

176 Producing Less Waste and Pollution Waste management (high waste approach) Burying, burning, shipping Waste prevention (low waste approach) Reduce, reuse, recycle Chemical or biological treatment Burial

177 Dealing with Materials Use and Wastes 1st Priority 2nd Priority Last Priority Primary Pollution and Waste Prevention Change industrial process to eliminate use of harmful chemicals Purchase different products Use less of a harmful product Reduce packaging and materials in products Make products that last longer and are recyclable, reusable or easy to repair Secondary Pollution and Waste Prevention Reduce products Repair products Recycle Compost Buy reusable and recyclable products Waste Management Treat waste to reduce toxicity Incinerate waste Bury waste in landfill Release waste into environment for dispersal or dilution Fig. 21.4, p. 521

178 Dealing with Hazardous Wastes Produce Less Waste Convert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous Substances Put in Perpetual Storage Manipulate processes to eliminate or reduce production Recycle and reuse Land treatment Incineration Thermal treatment Chemical physical, and biological treatment Ocean and atmospheric assimilation Landfill Underground injection Waste piles Surface impoundments Salt formations Arid region unsaturated zone

179 Reuse Extends resource supplies Maintains high-quality matter Reduces energy use Refillable beverage containers Reusable shipping containers and grocery bags

180 Characteristics of Recyclable Materials Easily isolated from other waste Available in large quantities Valuable Pay-as-you-throw garbage collection

181 Benefits of Recycling Reduces global warming Reduces acid deposition Reduces urban air pollution Make fuel supplies last longer Reduces air pollution Saves energy Reduces energy demand Reduces water pollution Recycling Reduces solid waste disposal Reduces mineral demand Protects species Reduces habitat destruction Fig. 21.7, p. 530

182 Sanitary Landfill Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Sand Synthetic liner Sand Clay Subsoil When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Methane storage and compressor building Electricity generator building Leachate treatment system Methane gas recovery Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as fuel to generate electricity Compacted solid waste Leachate storage tanks Leachate monitoring well Leachate monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill

183 Deep-well Disposal Advantages Safe method if sites are chosen carefully Wastes can be retrieved if problems develop Low cost Disadvantages Leaks or spills at surface Leaks from corrosion of well casing Existing fractures or earth quakes can allow wastes to escape into groundwater Encourages waste production Fig , p. 538

184 Hazardous Waste Landfill Bulk waste Imperviousclay Earth Water table Groundwater Clay cap Gas vent Topsoil Earth Sand Plastic cover Impervious clay cap Leakdetectionsystem Reactionwastes in dreams Double leachate collection system Plastic double liner Groundwatermonitoringwell

185 Above Ground Hazardous Waste Disposal Waste transporter Hazardous waste Support column Inspector Elevator shaft Fig , p. 540

186 Exporting Wastes Shipping to developing countries Potentially huge profits for exporters Basel Convention on Hazardous Waste Many developing countries refusing wastes

187 RCRA – Cradle to Grave Waste Management

188 Next Topics Effect of Hazardous waste on Aquatic System and how do they enter the food chains routes of entry,fate of toxicants in body

189 Fertilizer Compost Hazardous waste management Landfill Hazardous waste Remaining mixed waste To manufacturers for reuse or for recycling Processing and manufacturing PlasticGlassPaper Food/yard waste Solid and hazardous wastes generated during the manufacturing process Waste generated by households and businesses Products Raw materials Metal Incinerator

190 Case Studies: Lead Lead poisoning (neurotoxin) major problem in children; leads to death and survivors can suffer form palsy, partial paralysis, blindness, and mental retardation Primary Sources of Lead Leaded gasoline Lead paint ( Lead in plastics Lead in plumbing

191 Sources of Lead

192 Case Studies: Mercury Vaporized elemental Mercury Fish contaminated with methyl mercury Natural inputs

193 Mercury Cycling

194 Case Studies: Chlorine Environmentally damaging and potential health threat Sources of Chlorine Plastics Solvents Paper and pulp bleaching Water disinfection

195 Case Studies: Dioxins Potentially highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons Waste incineration Fireplaces Coal-fired power plants Paper production Sources of Dioxins Sewage sludge

196 NOTIFICATION NEW DELHI, THE 20 th May, 2003 S.O. 593(E). - Whereas the draft of certain rules called the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2002 was published under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Environment and Forests number S.O. 553(E), dated 21 st May, 2002 in the Gazette of India, Part-II, Section 3, Sub-section (ii) of the same date inviting objections and suggestions from all persons likely to be affected thereby, before the expiry of the period of sixty days from the date on which copies of the Gazette containing the said notification were made available to the public;

197 And whereas copies of the said Gazette were made available to the public on the 5 th day of June, 2002; And whereas the objections and suggestions received within the said period from the public in respect of the said draft rules have been duly considered by the Central Government; Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by sections 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986), the Central Government hereby makes the following rules further to amend the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989, namely:

198 These rules may be called the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette. In the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 (herein after referred to as the said rules), in rule 2, after clause (c), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely: - bio-medical wastes covered under the Bio-Medical Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 made under the Act; wastes covered under the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 made under the Act; and (f) the lead acid batteries covered under the Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 made under the Act." For rule 3 of the said rules, the following rule shall be substituted, namely:-

199 hazardous waste means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances, and shall include-

200 wastes listed in column (3) of Schedule-1; wastes having constituents listed in Schedule-2 if their concentration is equal to or more than the limit indicated in the said Schedule; and wastes listed in Lists A' and B' of Schedule-3 (Part-A) applicable only in case(s) of import or export of hazardous wastes in accordance with rules 12, 13 and 14 if they possess any of the hazardous characteristics listed in Part-B of Schedule 3. Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, - all wastes mentioned in column (3) of Schedule-1 are hazardous wastes irrespective of concentration limits given in Schedule-2 except as otherwise indicated and Schedule-2 shall be applicable only for wastes or waste constituents not covered under column (3) of Schedule-1;

201 15.In the said rules, for Schedules 1 to 4, the following Schedules shall be substituted, namely:- "SCHEDULE 1 [See rule 3(14)(a)] List of Hazardous Wastes

202 S.No. ProcessesHazardous Wastes Petrochemical processes and pyrolytic operations 1.1 Furnace/reactor residue and debris* 1.2Tarry residues 1.3Oily sludge emulsion 1.4Organic residues 1.5Residues from alkali wash of fuels Still bottoms from distillation process Spent catalyst and molecular sieves Slop oil from wastewater ETP sludge containing hazardous constituents 2. Drilling operation for oil and gas production 2.1Drill cuttings containing oil 2.2Sludge containing oil 2.3Drilling mud and other drilling wastes* Cleaning, emptying and maintenance of petroleum oil storage tanks including ships Petroleum refining/re-refining of used oil/recycling of waste oil Industrial operations using mineral/synthetic oil as lubricant in hydraulic systems or other applications Oil-containing cargo residue, washing water and sludge Chemical-containing cargo residue and sludge Sludge and filters contaminated with oil Ballast water containing oil from ships. Oily sludge/emulsion Spent catalyst Slop oil Organic residues from process Chemical sludge from waste water treatment Spent clay containing oil 5.1 Used/spent oil 5.2 Wastes/residues containing oil

203 S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes Secondary production and/or use of zinc Primary production of zinc/lead/copper and other non-ferrous metals except aluminium Secondary production of copper 6.1 Sludge and filter press cake arising out of zinc sulphate production 6.2 Zinc fines/dust/ash/skimmings (dispersible form) 6.3 Other residues from processing of zinc ash/skimmings 6.4 Flue gas dust and other particulates* Flue gas dust from roasting* Process residues Arsenic-bearing sludge Metal bearing sludge and residue including jarosite Sludge from ETP and scrubbers 8.1 Spent electrolytic solutions 8.2 Sludges and filter cakes 8.3 Flue gas dust and other particulates* 9.Secondary production of lead9.1 Lead slag/Lead bearing residues 9.2 Lead ash/particulate from flue gas Production and/or use of cadmium and arsenic and their compounds Production of primary and secondary aluminium Metal surface treatment, such as etching, staining, polishing, galvanising, cleaning, degreasing, plating, etc Residues containing cadmium and arsenic Sludges from gas treatment Cathode residues including pot lining wastes Tar containing wastes Flue gas dust and other particulates* Wastes from treatment of salt slags and black drosses* 12.1Acid residues 12.2 Alkali residues 12.3 Spent bath/sludge containing sulphide, cyanide and toxic metals 12.4 Sludge from bath containing organic solvents 12.5 Phosphate sludge 12.6 Sludge from staining bath 12.7 Copper etching residues 12.8 Plating metal sludge 12.9 Chemical sludge from waste water treatment

204 S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes Production of iron and steel including other ferrous alloys (electric furnaces; steel rolling and finishing mills; Coke oven and by product plant) Hardening of steel Production of asbestos or asbestos-containing materials Production of caustic soda and chlorine Production of acids Production of nitrogenous and complex fertilizers Production of phenol Production and/or industrial use of solvents 13.1 Process dust * 13.2 Sludge from acid recovery unit 13.3 Benzol acid sludge 13.4 Decanter tank tar sludge 13.5 Tar storage tank residue 14.1Cyanide-, nitrate-, or nitrite-containing sludge 14.2Spent hardening salt 15.1 Asbestos-containing residues 15.2 Discarded asbestos Dust/particulates from exhaust gas treatment. Mercury bearing sludge Residue/sludges and filter cakes* Brine sludge containing mercury Residues, dusts or filter cakes* Spent catalyst* 18.1 Spent catalyst* Spent carbon* Sludge/residue containing arsenic Chromium sludge from water cooling tower Chemical sludge from waste waster treatment 19.1 Residue/sludge containing phenol 20.1 Contaminated aromatic, aliphatic or napthenic solvents not fit for originally intended use Spent solvents Distillation residues

205 S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes Production and/or industrial use of paints, pigments, lacquers, varnishes, plastics and inks Production of plastic raw materials 21.1 Wastes and residues 21.2 Fillers residues 22.1 Residues of additives used in plastics manufacture like dyestuffs, stabilizers, flame retardants, etc. Residues of platicisers Residues from vinylchloride monomer production Residues from acrylonitrile production Non-polymerised residues

206 S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes Production and/or industrial use of glues, cements, adhesive and resins Production of canvas and textiles Industrial production and formulation of wood preservatives Production or industrial use of synthetic dyes, dye- intermediates and pigments Production or industrial use of materials made with organo-silicone compounds Production/formulation of drugs/ pharmaceuticals Production, use and formulation of pesticides including stock-piles Leather tanneries Electronic Industry Pulp & Paper Industry Disposal of barrels / containers used for handling of hazardous wastes / chemicals Purification processes for air and water Purification process for organic compounds/solvents Waste treatment processes, e.g. incineration, distillation, separation and concentration techniques

207

208 Schedule - 2 List of Wastes Constituents with Concentration Limits* Class A Concentration limit: 50 mg/kg A1Antimony and antimony compounds A2Arsenic and arsenic compounds A3 Beryllium and beryllium compounds A4 Cadmium and cadmium compounds A5 Chromium (VI) compounds A6 Mercury and mercury compounds A7 Selenium and selenium compounds A8 Tellurium and tellurium compounds A9 Thallium and thallium compounds A10 Inorganic cyanide compounds A11 Metal carbonyls A12 Napthalene A13 Anthracene A14 Phenanthrene A15 Chrysene, benzo (a) anthracene, fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, benzo (K) fluoranthene, indeno (1, 2, 3-cd) pyrene and benzo (ghi) perylene A16 halogenated compounds of aromatic rings, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, polychloroterphenyls and their derivatives A17 Halogenated aromatic compounds A18 Benzene A19 Organo-chlorine pesticides A20 Organo-tin Compounds

209 Class B Concentration limit: 5, 000 mg/kg B1 Chromium (III) compounds B2 Cobalt compounds B3 Copper compounds B4 Lead and lead compounds B5 Molybdenum compounds B6 Nickel compounds B7 Inorganic Tin compounds B8 Vanadium compounds B9 Tungsten compounds B10 Silver compounds B11 Halogenated aliphatic compounds B12 Organo phosphorus compounds B13 Organic peroxides B14 Organic nitro-and nitroso-compounds B15 Organic azo-and azooxy compounds B16 Nitriles B17 Amines B18 (Iso-and thio-) cyanates B19 Phenol and phenolic compounds B20 Mercaptans B21 Asbestos B22 Halogen-silanes B23 Hydrazine (s) B24 Flourine B25 Chlorine B26 Bromine B27 White and red phosphorus B28 Ferro-silicate and alloys B29 Manganese-silicate B30 Halogen-containing compounds which produce acidic vapours on contact with humid air or water, e.g. silicon tetrachloride, aluminium chloride, titanium tetrachloride

210 Class C Concentration limit; 20, 000 mg/kg C1 Ammonia and ammonium compounds C2 Inorganic peroxides C3 Barium compounds except barium sulphate C4 Fluorine compounds C5 Phosphate compounds except phosphates of aluminium, calcium and iron C6 Bromates, (hypo-bromites) C7 Chlorates, (hypo-chlorites) C8 Aromatic compounds other than those listed under A12 to A18 C9 Organic silicone compounds C10 Organic sulphur compounds C11 Iodates C12 Nitrates, nitrites C13 Sulphides C14 Zinc compounds C15 Salts of per-acids C16 Acid amides C17 Acid anhydrides

211 Class D Concentration limit: 50, 000 mg/kg D1 Total Sulphur D2 Inorganic acids D3 Metal hydrogen sulphates D4 Oxides and hydroxides except those of hydrogen, carbon, silicon, iron, aluminum, titanium, manganese, magnesium, calcium D5 Total hydrocarbons other than those listed under A12 to A18 D6Organic oxygen compounds D7 Organic nitrogen compounds expressed as nitrogen D8 Nitrides D9 Hydrides

212 Class E Regardless of concentration limit; Classified as hazardous wastes at all concentrations E1 Flammable substances E2 Substances which generate hazardous quantities of flammable gases on contact with water or damp air

213 Schedule 3 [See rules 3 (14) (c) & 12(a)] Part A: Lists of Wastes Applicable for Import and Export List Basel No. Description of WastesAnnex- I** Annex -III#OECD No.Customs Code AIMetal and Metal bearing wastes A1010Metal waste and waste consisting of alloys of the following metals, but excluding such wastes specified on list B(corresponding mirror entry under List B in brackets) - AntimonyY276.1, 11, 12AA070ex CadmiumY266.1, 11, 12AA070ex Tellurium - Lead Y28 Y31 6.1, 11, 12 AA070ex

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215 Part B: List of Hazardous Characteristics CodeCharacteristic 1Explosive An explosive substance or waste is a solid or liquid substance or waste (or mixture of substances or wastes) which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such speed as to cause damage to the surroundings (UN Class 1; HI) 3Flammable Liquids The word "flammable" has the same meaning as "inflammable". Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids, or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (for example, paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc. but not including substances or wastes otherwise classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at temperatures of not more than 60.5ºC, closed-cup test, or not more than 65.5ºC, open-cup test. (Since the results of open-cup tests and of closed-cup tests are not strictly comparable and even individual results by the same test are often variable, regulations varying from the above figures to make allowance for such differences would be within the spirit of this definition). 4.1Flammable Solids Solids, or waste solids, other than those classed as explosives, which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.

216 4.1Flammable Solids Solids, or waste solids, other than those classed as explosives, which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction. 4.2 Substances or wastes liable to spontaneous combustion Substances or wastes which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up on contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire. 4.3Substances or wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gases Substances or wastes which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities..

217 5.1Oxidizing Substances or wastes which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other materials. 5.2Organic Peroxides Organic substances or wastes which contain the bivalent-O-O- structure are thermally unstable substances which may undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition.

218 6.1Poisons (Acute) Substances or wastes liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact. 6.2Infectious substances Substances or wastes containing viable micro organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animals or humans. 8Corrosives Substances or wastes which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue, or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means of transport; they may also cause other hazards. 10Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or water Substances or wastes which, by interaction with air or water, are liable to give off toxic gases in dangerous quantities. 11Toxic (Delayed or chronic) Substances or wastes which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve delayed or chronic effects, including carcinogenicity). 12Ecotoxic Substances or wastes which if released present or may present immediate or delayed adverse impacts to the environment by means of bioaccumulation and/or toxic effects upon biotic systems. 13Capable by any means, after disposal, of yielding another material, e.g., leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.

219 Schedule 4 List of Non-Ferrous Metal Wastes Applicable for Registration of Recyclers Waste CategoryWaste Type 1Brass Scrap 2Brass Dross 3Copper Scrap 4Copper Dross 5Copper Oxide mill scale 6Copper reverts, cake and residue 7Waste Copper and copper alloys 8Slags from copper processing for further processing or refining 9Insulated Copper Wire Scrap/copper with PVC sheathing including ISRI-code material namely "Druid" 10Jelly filled copper cables 11Spent cleared metal catalyst containing copper 12Nickel Scrap 13Spent catalyst containing nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper and arsenic 14Zinc Scrap 15Zinc Dross-Hot dip Galvanizers SLAB 16Zinc Dross-Bottom Dross 17Zinc ash/skimmings arising from galvanizing and die casting operations 18Zinc ash/skimming/other zinc bearing wastes arising from smelting and refining 19Zinc ash and residues including zinc alloy residues in dispersible form 20Spent cleared metal catalyst containing zinc 21Mixed non-ferrous metal scrap 22Lead acid battery plates and other lead scrap/ashes/residues not covered under Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001.

220 Schedule - 5* Specifications for Used oil Suitable for Re-refining Sr.No. ParameterMaximum Permissible Limit Colour8 hazen units 2.Water15% 3.Density0.85 to Kinemetic Viscosity cSt at 100˚C1.0 to 32 5.Dilutents15% vol. 6.Neutralisation No.3.5 mg KOH/g 7.Saponification value18 mg KOH/g 8.Total halogens4000 ppm 9.Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Below detection limit 10.Lead100 ppm 11.Arsenic5 ppm 12.Cadmium+Chromium+Nickle500ppm 13.Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)6%

221 Schedule – 6 Specifications for Waste Oil Suitable for Recycling Sr. No. ParameterLimit Sediment5% (maximum) 2.Heavy Metals (cadmium+chromium+nick el+lead+arsenic) 605 ppm maximum 3.Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 6% maximum 4.Total halogens4000 ppm maximum 5.Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Below Detection Limit

222 Schedule - 7 [ See rule 4(B) and 12 (4) ] List of Authorities and Corresponding Duties. No.AuthorityCorresponding Duties Ministry of Environment and Forests under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (i)Identification of hazardous wastes [Rule 3(14)] (ii) Permission to exporters [rule 14] (iii) Permission to importers [rule 13] (iv) Permission for transit of hazardous wastes through India [rule 12(2)] 2.Central Pollution Control Board constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (i)Co-ordination of activities of State Pollution Control Boards/Committees (ii)Conduct training courses for authorities dealing with management of hazardous wastes (iii) Recommend standards and specifications for treatment and disposal of wastes and leachates Recommend procedures for characterization of hazardous wastes. (iv) Sector specific documentation to identify waste streams(s) for inclusion in Hazardous Wastes Rules (v) Prepare guidelines to prevent/reduce/minimize the generation and handling of hazardous wastes (vi) Registration and renewal of registration of Recyclers/Re-refiners of non- ferrous metal wastes and used oil/waste oil [Rule 19] (vii)Any other function under Rules delegated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests

223 3.State Government/Union Territory Government/ Administration Identification of site(s) for common treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) [Rule 8(2)] Assess EIA reports and convey the decision of approval of site or otherwise [rule 8(6)] Acquire the site or inform operator of facility or occupier or association of occupiers to acquire the site [Rule 8(7)] Notification of sites [Rule 8(7)] Publish periodically an inventory of all disposal sites in the State/Union territory [Rule 8(7)]

224 S. No. AuthorityCorresponding Duties 4.State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (i) Inventorisation of hazardous wastes [Rule 9(3)] (ii) Grant and renewal of authorisation [Rule 5] (iii) Monitoring of compliance of various provisions and conditions of authorisation including exports and imports (iv) Issue of public notice and conduct public hearing [Rule 8(4)] (v)Examining the applications for imports submitted by the importers and forwarding the same to Ministry of Environment and Forests [Rule 13 (1) & (2)] (vi) Implementation of programmes to prevent/reduce/minimise the generation of hazardous wastes (vii) Action against violations of Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, Directorate General of Foreign Trade constituted under the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, Grant of licence for import of hazardous wastes [Rule 13 (5)] (ii) Refusal of licence for hazardous wastes prohibited for imports or export [Rule 12(7)] 6.Port Authority under Indian Ports Act, 1908 (15 of 1908) and Customs Authority under the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962). (i)Verify the documents [Rule 13 (6)] (ii)Inform the Ministry of Environment and Forests of any illegal traffic [Rule 15] (iii)Analyse wastes permitted for imports and exports (iv)Train officials on the provisions of the Hazardous Wastes Rules and in the analysis of hazardous wastes (v) Take action against export/import violations under the Indian Ports Act, 1908/Customs Act, 1962


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