Presentation on theme: "Back up Of hw Topic No3 J.H.Patel August September 2012."— Presentation transcript:
1Back up Of hwTopic No3J.H.PatelAugust September 2012
2Topic No3 Hazardous Waste Management(6 lectures 10 marks ) 3.1 Definitions: Types EPA,RCRA,CERCLA , INTERNATIONAL Act for hazardous waste,Environmental Impact Assessment3.2 Cradle to grave approach, Priority in Hazardous Waste management, Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act 1986, Dose Response Relationship, Effect of Hazardous waste on Aquatic System and how do they enter the food chains routes of entry ,fate of toxicants in body
3Is the waste a “hazardous waste”? Statute: The term ''hazardous waste'' means a solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, which … may(A) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or(B) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored,transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
4Statutory Definition of Solid Waste USA ….any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply plant or air pollution control facility, and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material...
5Statutory Definition of Hazardous Waste A “solid waste, or a combination of solid wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics may:1) Cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness or2) Pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, store transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.”
6A Solid waste is hazardous if it: Exhibits any of the characteristics of a hazardous wasteHas been named as a hazardous waste and listed as such in the regulationsIs a mixture containing a listed hazardous waste and a non-hazardous solid wasteIs a waste derived from the treatment, storage, or disposal of a listed waste
7Definition of Hazardous Waste Under the RCRA of 1976, the term hazardous waste means a solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, that, because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics, may1. cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness or2. pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of or otherwise managed.
8Hazardous wastes include chemical, biological, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances. They may be in a solid, liquid, sludge, or gaseous(contained) state and are further defined in various federal acts designed toprotect the public health and welfare, including land, air, and water resources.A waste is regarded as hazardous if it is lethal, nondegradable, and persistentin the environment, can be magnified biologically (as in food chains),or otherwise causes or tends to cause detrimental cumulative effects.
9RCRA Hazardous Waste definition: Is it a “solid waste”?Is the waste a “hazardous waste”?Characteristic wastesIgnitabilityCorrosivityToxicityReactivityListed wastesnonspecific sourcesspecific sourcesacutely hazardousnon-acutely hazardous
10Indian Legal Definition (HW (M&H) Rules of 2003 (amnd)) hazardous waste” means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances, and shall include- wastes listed in column (3) of Schedule-1;wastes having constituents listed in Schedule-2 if their concentration is equal to or more than the limit indicated in the said Schedule; andwastes listed in Lists ‘A' and ‘B' of Schedule-3 (Part-A) applicable only in case(s) of import or export of hazardous wastes in accordance with rules 12, 13 and 14 if they possess any of the hazardous characteristics listed in Part-B of Schedule 3”.
11RCRA Hazardous Waste definition: Characteristic wastes:Ignitability: A liquid which has a flash point less than 140 degrees F is regulated as an ignitable hazardous waste. Examples include most organic solvents.Wastes that pose a fire hazard during routine management.Fires not only present immediate dangers of heat and smoke but also can spread harmful particles (and gases) over wide areas.Corrosivity: A waste aqueous solution having a pH of less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5 is considered to be a corrosive hazardous waste.Wastes requiring special containers because of their ability to corrode standard materials or requiring segregation from other wastes because of their ability to dissolve toxic contaminants.
12Ignitable Waste Characteristics Flashpoint less than 140° F or 60° COxidizing materialsSolids which are combustible through reaction or will ignite and burn vigorously & persistentlyIgnitable compressed gasesExamples: Oil based paint, aerosol cans, cylinders, paint thinner, solvent or oil soaked rags, nitrates, acetone, toluene, epoxy, turpentine, etc.Determining if the waste meets the specifications of a characteristic waste.The EPA regulates chemicals as one or more of four categories of hazard. The EPA hazards are ignitable, corrosive, reactive, and toxic.Ignitable wastes are defined as a material having a flashpoint less than 140 degrees or 60 degrees Celsius. Ethanol, Isopropanol and other alcohols would be a hazardous waste based upon this definition. Solutions of alcohol and water with a minimum of 10% alcohol would be ignitable based upon this flashpoint.Oxidizers such as nitrates, perchlorates and persulfates would be regulated as would organic peroxides such as benzoyl peroxide.Solid materials, whether they be oil or solvent soaked rags, adhesives, and metal powders would also be regulated as ignitableIgnitable gases would also be regulated. Ignitable compressed gases also include items such as aerosol cans.If a material is regulated as an ignitable waste it must be collected and managed as per the University’s hazardous waste guidelines.
13Characteristics Pollutant Examples of hazardous waste types generated by businesses and industries are given in Hazardous wastes that are characterized as ignitable,CharacteristicsReadily assimilated by aquaticanimals, fat soluble, concentratedthrough food chain(biomagnified), persistent in soiland sedimentsanimals, fat soluble, subject tobiomagnification, persistent,chemically similar to chlorinatedhydrocarbonsNonbiodegradable, persistent insediments, toxic in solution,subject to biomagnificationMay cause cancer when inhaled,aquatic toxicity not wellunderstoodVariably persistent, inhibits oxygenmetabolismLargest single class of ‘‘prioritytoxics,’’ can cause damage tocentral nervous system and liver,not very persistentPollutantPesticides: Generallychlorinated hydrocarbonsPolychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs): used in electricalcapacitors and transformers,paints, plastics, insecticides,other industrial productsMetals: antimony, arsenic,beryllium, cadmium,copper, lead, mercury,nickel, selenium, silver,thallium, zincAsbestosCyanideHalogenated aliphatics: usedin fire extinguishers,refrigerants, propellants,pesticides, solvents for oilsand greases and drycleaning
14Examples of hazardous waste types generated by businesses and industries are given in Hazardous wastes that are characterized as ignitable,Ethers: Used mainly assolvents for polymerplasticsPhthalate esters: Used chieflyin production of polyvinylchloride and thermoplasticsas plasticizersMonocyclic aromatics(excluding phenols, cresols,and phthalates): used inmanufacture of otherchemicals, explosives, dyes,and pigments and insolvents, fungicides, andherbicidesPhenols: large-volumeindustrial compounds usedchiefly as chemicalintermediates in productionof synthetic polymers,dyestuffs, pigments,pesticides, and herbicidesPotent carcinogen, aquatic toxicityand fate not well understoodCommon aquatic pollutant,moderately toxic but teratogenicand mutagenic properties in lowconcentrations; aquaticinvertebrates are particularlysensitive to toxic effects;persistent and can bebiomagnifiedCentral nervous system depressant;can damage liver and kidneysToxicity increases with degree ofchlorination of phenolicmolecule; very lowconcentrations can taint fish fleshand impart objectionable odorand taste to drinking water;difficult to remove from water byconventional treatment;carcinogenic in mice
15Corrosive Waste Characteristics pH less than 2 or greater than 12.5Examples:Acids – (pH less than 7) Muriatic acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, solder flux, etc.Bases – (pH greater than 7) Sodium hydroxide, ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, bicarbonates, sodium hypochlorite (bleach)Corrosive materials are regulated if they pH at the extremes of the scale.Acids are regulated once they pH below 2 and bases are regulated once the pH above 12.5.Acids and bases which are regulated must be properly managed and collected by EHO. They can also be neutralized.If acids and bases are neutralized they must be neutralized until they pH between 5.5 and 10.5 and then they can be drain disposed.Dilution is not an acceptable form of neutralization.Acids and bases must be neutralized prior to drain disposal.It’s unlike you will be dealing with reactive waste, but they encompasses many items such as water reactives like sodium and material which may liberate toxic gas on exposure to water such as pentoxides. It also includes reactive cyanides and sulfides, temperature and shock sensitive materials and potentially explosive material.All reactive materials should be handled with extreme care.Peroxide forming compounds which are past their expiration date should not be moved as well as other reactive materials in poor condition. EHO will contract with a company specializing in the stabilization of high hazard materials to deal with these compounds.
16ReactivityAny chemical waste which reacts violently with air and/or water or liberates toxic gases is considered to be a reactive hazardous waste.wastes that, during routine management, tend to react spontaneously, react vigorously with air or water, are unstable to shock or heat, generate toxic gases, or explode.
17RCRA Hazardous Waste definition: Characteristic wastes:Toxicity: Toxicity is determined by a laboratory test known as the "Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure", or TCLP. The TCLP test must be conducted on any waste which contains any of the specified TCLP contaminants.Wastes that, when improperly managed, may release toxicantsin sufficient quantities to pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment. Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed. When toxic wastes are disposed of on land, contaminated liquid may drain (leach) from the waste and pollute groundwater.
18Toxic Waste Characteristics Heavy Metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag)Examples: Solder, Mercury Thermometers, Lead PaintsSolventsExamples: Paint Thinner, Acetone, Methanol, Toluene, XylenesPesticides and HerbicidesExamples: Endrin, Lindane, Methoxychlor, ChlordanePage 60 of the Hazardous Waste Management Manual illustrates the list of characteristic toxic wastes. The list consists of heavy metals, pesticides and solvents.The heavy metals which are currently regulated are Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Selenium and Silver.The EPA is concerned with the amount of toxic waste which will leach out of the waste stream. The EPA requires that a Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure or TCLP be performed on materials with these materials. The TCLP will analyze the material to determine what leaches and at what level the constituent leaches out at.If the level is above the regulatory limit illustrated on page 60, the material will be a hazardous waste and must be collected and managed as one.If the level is below the regulatory limit the waste may be disposed of using the drain or solid waste.Please contact EHO for help determining if waste with these constituents present is a hazardous waste.
19Toxicityis identified through a laboratory procedure called the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure, which replaces the extraction procedure leach test. Organic chemicals, metals, and pesticides regulated under the toxicity rule are reported in Table in next slide.
21Regulatory Levels (mg / l) Old EP ConstituentsArsenicBariumCadmiumChromiumLeadMercurySeleniumSilverEndrinLindaneMethoxychlorToxaphene2,4-Dichlorophenoxycetic acid2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxypropionic acidRegulatory Levels (mg / l)5.0100.01.00.20.020.410.00.5
22Generation of Hazardous Waste The major generators of hazardous waste among 15 industries studied by theEPA are as follows, more or less in order of the quantities produced:. primary metals,. organic chemicals,. electroplating,. inorganic chemicals,. textiles,. petroleum refining, and. rubber and plastics.
23Waste Type Waste Generators Examples of Hazardous Waste Generated by Business and IndustriesWaste TypeStrong acids and bases, spent solvents, reactive wastesHeavy-metal paint wastes, ignitable wastes,used lead acid batteries, spent solventsHeavy-metal solutions, waste inks, spent solvents, spent electroplating wastes, ink sludges containing heavy metalsWaste toluene and benzenePaint wastes containing heavy metals, ignitablesolvents, strong acids and basesIgnitable paint wastes, spent solvents, strongacids and basesHeavy-metal dusts, ignitable wastes, flammableIgnitable wastes, spent solventsPaint wastes containing heavy metals, strongacids and bases, cyanide wastes, sludgescontaining heavy metalsWaste GeneratorsChemical manufacturersVehicle maintenance shopsPrinting industryLeather productsmanufacturingPaper industryConstruction industryCleaning agents and cosmeticsFurniture and woodmanufacturing andrefinishingMetal manufacturing
24U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) What is EPAU.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA)
26I. What is the Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA)?
27The RCRA of 1976, as amended, expands the purposes of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of It promotes resource recovery and conservation andmandates government (federal and state) control of hazardous waste from its point of generation to its point of ultimate disposal, including a manifestidentification and permitting system. Legislation was prompted by the serious dangers associated with the improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste. The most common problems associated with the disposal of hazardous waste, in addition to public opposition, are groundwater pollution from lagoons, landfills, dumps, sludge disposal, other land disposal systems, spills, and unauthorized dumping.
28Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1965 – Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA)1970 – National Materials Policy Act (amended SWDA)1976 – Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (amended SWDA further)1980 – SWDA Amendments1984 – Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (integration and amendment of RCRA and SWDA)All are collectively referred to as RCRA
291984 RCRA AmmendmentsIn 1984, the RCRA was amended to require double liners or the equivalent and leachate collection systems at hazardouswaste surface impoundments and landfills. Variances from groundwater monitoring to characterize the water quality before, during, and after operation are not allowed. The Act as amended in 1984 applies to generators producing as little as 220 lb (100 kg) of hazardous waste in a calendar month, which must be sent to a state or federal approved facility.The RCRA as amended also prohibits land disposal of certain classes of untreated hazardous wastes beyond specified dates unless it can be demonstrated to the EPA that there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the land disposal unit for as long as the wastes remain hazardous. Land disposal includes landfill, surface impoundment (treatment and surface storage),waste pile, injection well, land treatment facility, salt dome or salt bed formation, and underground mine or cave.
33Bhopal DisasterMany as the worst industrial disaster in history claim the Bhopal Disaster of It was caused by the accidental release of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) from a Union Carbide India, Limited (UCIL, now known as Eveready Industries India, Limited) pesticide plant located in the heart of the city of Bhopal, in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.In the early hours of December 3, 1984, a holding tank with stored MIC overheated and released toxic heavier-than-air MIC gas, which rolled along the ground through the surroundingstreets killing thousands outright.The transportation system in the city collapsed and many people were trampled trying to escape. The gases also injured anywhere from 150,000 to600,000 people, at least 15,000 of whom later died.
34The majority of deaths and serious injuries were related to pulmonary but the gas caused a wide variety of other ailments. Signs and symptoms of methyl isocyanate normally include cough, dyspnea, chest pain, lacrimation, eyelid edema, and unconsciousness. These effectsmight progress over the next 24 to 72 hours to include acute lung injury, cardiac arrest, and death. Because of the hypothesized reactions that took place within the storage tank and in the surrounding atmosphere, it is thought that apart from MIC, phosgene, and hydrogen cyanidealong with other poisonous gases all played a significant role in this disaster.The company never provided information on the exact chemical mixture, but blood and viscera of some victims showed cherry-red color characteristic in acute cyanide poisoning. A series of studies made five years later showed that many of the survivors were still sufferingfrom one or several of the following ailments: partial or complete blindness, gastrointestinal disorders, impaired immune systems, post traumatic stress disorders, and menstrual problems in women. A rise in spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and offspring with genetic defectswas also noted. In addition, a BBC investigation conducted in November 2004 confirmed that contamination is still present.
36Itai- itai DiseaseThe itai-itai disease was the first cadmium poisoning in the world in Toyama Prefecture, Japan in The cadmium poisoning caused softening o the bones and kidney failures. The name of the disease comes from the painful screams due to the severe pain in the joints and the spine. The cadmium was released in the rivers by mining companies in the mountains.The mining companies were successfully sued for the damage. Itai-itai disease is known as one of the Four Big Pollution Disease of Japan.
37CauseItai-itai disease was caused by cadmium poisoning due to mining in Toyama Prefecture. The earliest records of mining for gold in the area dated back to 710. Regular mining for silver started in 1589, and soon thereafter, mining for lead, copper, and zinc began. Increased demandfor raw materials during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I, as well as new mining technologies from Europe, increased the output of the mines, putting the Kamioka Mines in Toyama among the world’s top mines. Production increased even more before World War II. Starting in 1910 and continuing through 1945, cadmium was released in significantquantities by mining operations, and the disease first appeared around Prior to World War II, the mining, controlled by the Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., increased to satisfy the wartime demand. This subsequently increased the pollution of the Jinzu River andits tributaries. The river was used mainly for irrigation of rice fields, but also for drinking water, washing, fishing, and other uses by downstream populations.
38EffectDue to the cadmium poisoning, the fish in the river started to die, and the rice irrigated with river water did not grow well. The cadmium and other heavy metals accumulated at the bottom of the river and in the water of the river. This water was then used to irrigate the rice fields. The rice absorbed all heavy metals, but especially the cadmium. The cadmium accumulated in the people eating contaminated rice. The population complained to the Mitsui Mining and Smelting Company about the pollution, which subsequently built a basin to store themining wastewater before leading it into the river. This, however, was too little too late, and many people already were very sick. The causes of the poisoning were not well understood, and up to 1946, it was thought to be simply a regional disease, or possibly a type of bacteria.Medical test started in the 1940s and 1950s, searching for the cause of the disease. Initially, it was expected to be lead poisoning due to the lead mining upstream. Only in 1955 did Dr. Ogino and his colleagues suspect cadmium as the cause of the disease. Dr. Ogino also coined the term itai-itai disease. The Toyama Prefecture also started an investigation in 1961, determining that the Kamioka Mining Station of the Mitsui Mining and Smelting Company caused the cadmium pollution, and that the worst affected areas were 30 km downstreamof the mine. In 1968, the Ministry of Health and Welfare issued a statement about the symptoms of the itai-itai disease caused by the cadmium poisoning.
39Minamata DisasterOver victims have been recognized as having “Minamata Disease”. It has taken some of these people over thirty years to receive compensation for this inconceivable event. In 1993, nearly forty years later, the Japanese courts were still resolving suitable compensation for the victims. Many people have lost their lives, suffered from physical deformities, or have had to live with the physical and emotional pain of “Minamata Disease”. This suffering is all a result of the very wrongful and negligent acts of the Chisso Corporation who dumped mercuryinto the seawater and poisoned the people of Japan.Minamata is a small factory town dominated by the Chisso Corporation. The town faces the Shiranui Sea, and Minamata Bay is part of this sea. In Japanese, “Chisso” means nitrogen.The Chisso Corporation was once a fertilizer and carbicle company, and gradually advanced to a petrochemical and plastic-maker company. From 1932 to 1968, Chisso Corporation, acompany located in Kumamoto Japan, dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay. Kumamoto is a small town about 570 miles southwest of Tokyo. The town consists of mostly farmers and fisherman. When Chisso Corporation dumped this massiveamount of mercury into the bay, thousands of people whose normal diet included fish from the bay, unexpectedly developed symptoms of methyl mercury poisoning. The illness became known as the "Minamata Disease". The mercury poisoning resulted from years of environmental destruction and neglect from Chisso Corporation.
41Emissions of contaminants into the air from inadequate incineration processes, burning at landfills, and industrial processes Hazardous waste passes through one or several of the following phases: generation, transport, storage, treatment, and disposal. Hazardous waste can be discharged to the environment during any one of these phases. Any such discharge has the potential to cause an adverse environmental effect and ecosystems, including people and communities. There are three potential exposure routes:o Permitted discharges from generation/treatment/storage/disposal facilitieso Accidental discharges during transport, or at any point in the hazardous waste life-patho Illegal dischargePollution prevention is the best approach for dealing with hazardous waste for many handlers of hazardous waste for many handlers of hazardous material and generators of hazardous waste. Pollution prevention simply stated involves not creating hazardous waste in the first place. While the elimination or reduction of all wastes may not currently be feasible, making as little hazardous waste as possible in your best interest.
42Chisso Corporation started developing plastics, drugs, and perfumes through the use of a chemical called acetaldehyde in Acetaldehyde is produced using mercury as a compound, and was key component in the production of their products. The company was considered an economic success in Japan, particularly because it was one industry that maintained development despite Japan's suffering throughout and right after W.W.II. As other companies economically ripened during Japan's post-war period, so did the Chisso Corporation. Sales augmented with Japan's economic success. In addition, Chisso Corporation's sale increased dramatically, considering Chisso was the only manufacturer of a primary chemical called D.O.P, a plasticizer (diotyl phthalate), having a monopoly on the chemical enabled Chisso to expand rapidly. Since Chisso Corporation was the main industry in the small Minamata town, the town's growth period from 1952 to 1960 paralleled Chisso's progress.Pouring its wastes into the air and the waters, the Chisso chemical complex dominates the city of Minamata Not until the mid-1950 did people begin to notice a "strange disease". Victims were diagnosed as having a degeneration of their nervous systems. Numbness occurred in their limbsand lips. Their speech became slurred, and their vision constricted. Some people had serious brain damage, while others lapsed into unconsciousness or suffered from involuntary movements. Furthermore, some victims were thought to be crazy when they began to uncontrollably shout.
43People thought the cats were going insane when they witnessed "suicides" by the cats. Finally, birds were strangely dropping from the sky. Series of these unexplainable occurrences were bringing panic to Minamata. Dr. Hajime Hosokawa from the Chisso Corporation Hospital, reported on May 1, 1956 that, "an unclarified disease of the central nervous system has broken out". Dr. Hosokawa linked the fish diets to the disease, and soon investigators were promulgating that the sea was being polluted by poisons from the Chisso Corporation.The Chisso Corporation denied the accusations and maintained their production.However, by 1958, Chisso Corporation transferred their dumping from the Minamata Bay to the Minamata River hoping to diminish accusations toward the company.The Minamata River flows past the town Hachimon, and into the Shiranui Sea. The people of this area also began developing the "strange disease" after a few months. The Kumamoto Prefecture government responded by imposing a ban, which allowed fisherman to "catch“ fish, but not to "sell" fish from the bay. Since this was their main food source, the people continued to eat fish at home, but the ban released government officials from any responsibility for those who developed the illness. Finally, in July 1959, researchers from Kumamoto University concluded that organic mercury was the cause of the "Minamata Disease".
44A number of committees, of which Chisso Corporation employees were members, formed to research the problem. The committees denied this information and refuted the direct link of mercury to the strange disease. Finally, Dr. Hosokawa performed concealed cat experiments in front of the Chisso Corporation management, and illustrated the affects of mercury poisoning by feeding the cats acetaldehyde. Dr. Hosokawa was the first person who made a valiant effortin proving to Chisso Corporation that they were the ones accountable for the mercury poisoning. After the meeting with Chisso officials, Dr. Hosokawa was restricted from conducting any further research or experiments, and his findings were concealed by the corporation.Chisso Corporation began to make deals with the victims of the "Minamata Disease". People who were desperate and legally ignorant signed contracts which stated that Chisso Corporation would pay them for their misfortunes, but would accept no responsibility. In fact, there was even a clause, which read, "if Chisso Corporation were later proven guilty, the company would not be liable for further compensation". The fishermen began protesting in They demanded compensation, but soon became intimidated by the threats of Chisso management.
45Seveso DisasterThe Seveso disaster was an industrial accident that occurred on July 10, 1976 around midnoon in a small chemical manufacturing plant approximately 25 km north of Milan in the Lombardy region in Italy. It resulted in the highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations [Eskenazi et al., 2004], which gave rise to numerous scientific studies and standardized industrial safety regulations. The EU industrial safety regulations are known as the Seveso II Directives.Many things about the exact circumstances of the accident are unknown and perhaps irrelevant.Fortunately, the Seveso disaster was a serious industrial accident that did not have grave consequences and there were no fatalities [Environmental Diseases, 2006]. Nevertheless, TCDD is a known carcinogen and one of the most toxic substances on earth. The accident exposed serious flaw in government response to industrial accidents. No human is known to have died from dioxin poisoning but its toxic effects have been documented in cases such as the Yusho disaster in Japan in 1968, the Yucheng disaster in Taiwan in as well as in Viet Nam War veterans who processed and sprayed Agent Orange.
46Most recently, Viktor Yushchenko, the president of Ukraine, was poisoned with TCDD and subsequently suffered from chloracne.Dioxins are a group of persistent organic pollutants, they do not react easily with other chemicals, that is to say they are lipophilic, they bioaccumulate. Some of them are extremelytoxic and fatal when it comes to animal studies but scientific evidence of harmfulness to humans is disputed. A subgroup of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is amongst themost toxic. In humans and other vertebrates, dioxins have been shown to be risk factors for cancer; immune deficiency; reproductive and developmental abnormalities; central nervous system and peripheral nervous system pathology; endocrine disruption, etc.
47The accident occurred in the building where 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), an herbicide, was being produced from 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction with sodium hydroxide. It is thought that some 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene hadformed a solid cake on the upper parts of the reaction vessel. As the temperature increased this melted and entered the sodium hydroxide containing mixture. The addition of more 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene increased the rate of heat production. It is likely that the dioxin formed by either an Ullmann condensation either synthesis (this requires a metal catalyst) or by a simple pair of nucleophilic attacks on the aromatic ring. The 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was intended for use as an intermediate in the production of hexachlorophene, a medical disinfectant.An unintended by product of the manufacture of TCP is TCDD in trace amounts, measured in ppm (parts per million). Due to human error, around 12:37 pm on July 10, 1976 an uncontrolled reaction (thermal runaway) occurred bursting the security disk of the chemicalreactor and an aerosol cloud containing sodium hydroxide, ethylene glycol, sodium trichlorophenate, and somewhere between a few hundred grams and up to a few kg of TCDD was released over an 18-km2 area.
48Burst in the security disk of the chemical reactor and an aerosol
49Love CanalIn August 1978 President Carter declared a federal emergency at the Love Canal due to contamination by toxic chemicals in the area.Love Canal focused attention on hazardous waste issues and led to the passage of the federal Superfund Act.49
50Love Canal -- Background The Love Canal neighborhood is in the city of Niagara Falls, New York.In 1978 the neighborhood included about 800 homes, 240 low-income apartments, and the 99th Street Elementary School.The neighborhood was located over and around a landfill that had been active in earlier decades.50
51Love Canal – some history The canal was to be built in the 1890s for ship navigation, but it was never completed.Early 1900s: the unfinished canal was used for swimming and boating.The land was sold in 1920 and became a municipal and industrial dump site.From 1942 to 1953, Hooker Chemical dumped about 21,000 tons of ‘toxic chemicals” at the site.51
52The Love Canal area in 1927. The arrow points to the canal. 52
53Love Canal – some history In 1953 the landfill was covered with layers of dirt.The Niagara Falls Board of Education bought the site from Hooker Chemical.As the city started to grow into the area, the 99th Street Elementary School was built over the landfill, and homes were built around the site.53
54Love Canal – some history From the late 1950s into the 1970s, residents reported foul odors and complained that “substances” were seeping into their basements, yards, and the school playground.The city assisted by covering up the seeping “substances.”Tests found high levels of PCB’s in storm sewers and toxic chemicals in wells.54
58Love Canal: Environmental Damages Reports suggested that there was an unusually high rate of birth defects and miscarriages among Love Canal families.In 1980 the EPA announced that chromosome damage had been found in 11 out of 36 residents tested in the area.There has not been conclusive proof of a link between Love Canal and any illness.The health of residents of the Love Canal area is being monitored in a number of ongoing studies.58
59Love Canal todayThe canal itself has been fenced, and groundwater flow from it has been blocked.The surrounding area, now called Black Creek Village, is home to hundreds of families.About 260 homes abandoned in the late 1970s have been renovated and resold.Chemical wastes were left in a 70-acre site, but it was capped and fenced.59
60Love Canal – Regulatory Impact The Love Canal disaster spurred the passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) – The Superfund Act – by Congress in 1980.Remediation efforts at Love canal took more than twenty years, with a large share of the costs being paid by the chemical company that bought Hooker Chemical.Love Canal was removed from the federal government’s Superfund list in 2004.60
61Syllabus topics Cradle to grave approach, Priority in Hazardous Waste management, Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act 1986, Dose Response Relationship, Effect of Hazardous waste on Aquatic System and how do they enter the food chains routes of entry ,fate of toxicants in body
62Changing times - Hazardous Waste, international evolution Directive 78/319/EEC on Toxic and Dangerous WasteOECD Decisions on hazardous wasteDirective 84/631/EEC on Transfrontier Shipment of WasteBasel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous and other Wastes and their DisposalDirective 91/689/EEC on Hazardous WasteOECD Decision C92 (39) Final on the Control of Wastes Destined for Recovery OperationsRegulation 259/93/EEC on the Transboundary Movements of Waste (WSR)OECD Decision revised C2001(109) FinalWSR Revised
63Changing regulations - impact on complexity 1980Control ofPollution(Special Waste)Regulations1972Deposit of PoisonousWaste Act1974Act1990EnvironmentalProtection Act1989BaselConvention1996Special Waste2001LandfillDirective2005HazardousWaste2004co-disposal banWaste Electrical andElectronic EquipmentRestriction onSubstances Directive1994UK TransfrontierShipment of Waste1975Waste Framework2003End of LifeVehicles Regulations1Due Dates for Directive requirementsto come into force in the UK.European Regu.
64What is? CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act CERCLA - also known as "Superfund" - provides a national system for identifying and cleaning up contaminated sites. The Superfund program is administered by EPA. Several states also have associated state-level Superfund programs.
65Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 CERCLA (Superfund) regulates leachate and other releases of hazardoussubstances from inactive and abandoned hazardous waste sites or from sites operating prior to November Businesses that produce between 220 and 2000 lb of hazardous wastes in a calendar month are also regulated.Most of the existing hazardous waste sites were created by the petroleum and chemical industries. Some municipal landfills received mixed solid waste, including toxic and hazardous commercial and industrial waste, in additionto small quantities of household cleaners, solvents, and pesticides. The result was pollution of the soil, groundwater, and surface water due to the infiltration and percolation of rain and snow melt, dissolution, and migration in the waste.In addition, toxic gases could be released from evaporating liquids, sublimating solids, and chemical reactions. CERCLA comes into play when hazardous waste sites are identified and classified.
66Other Laws of USAOther laws controlling hazardous substances are:Clean Air Act (EPA)—regulates the emission of hazardous air pollutants.Clean Water Act (EPA)—regulates the discharge of hazardous pollutants into the nation’s waters.Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (EPA)—regulates waste disposal at sea.Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)—regulates hazards in the workplace, including worker exposure to hazardous substances.Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (Department of Transportation) —regulates the transportation of hazardous materials.Atomic Energy Act (Nuclear Regulatory Commission)—regulates nuclear energy production and nuclear waste disposal.
67HMTA Hazardous Materials Transportation Act The HMTA provides for the safe transportation of hazardous materials. Regulations developed from the HMTA cover shipment preparation and labeling, handling, routing, emergency and security planning, incident notifications, and liability insurance.
68HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 amended RCRA by establishing additional waste management requirements under RCRA, and adding Subtitle I, which imposes management requirements for underground storage tanks (USTs) that contain petroleum or hazardous substances.
69Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Enacted in by EPA as an amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA)Main objectives:Protect human health & the environmentconserve valuable material & energy resourcesEstablished "Cradle-to-grave" management and tracking of hazardous wasteEPA inspectors have same authority as FBI/ATF5
70RCRA’s Three Interrelated Programs Subtitle DSubtitle CSubtitle IUndergroundStorage TankProgramSolid WasteManagementHazardousWasteManagement
71Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes Solid wasteDiscardedNot excludedHazardous wasteListed waste or exhibit characteristics of hazardous waste
74Listed Waste Categories Non-specific Sources (F list): e.g. solvent wastes, electroplating wastes, metal heat treating wastesSpecific Sources (K list): e.g. wood preservation, inorganic pigment manufacturing, organic chemical manufacturingCommercial Chemical Products (U and P lists): listed unused products on these lists become hazardous wastes at the point when they are to be disposed of
76Lists Can be Very Specific F007 – Spent cyanide plating bath solutions from electroplating operationsF008 – Plating bath residues from the bottom of plating baths from electroplating operations where cyanide is used in the processK008 – Oven residue from production of chrome oxide green pigmentsK027 – Centrifuge and distillation residues from toluene diisocyanate production
78Special Categories of Hazardous Wastes Hazardous waste mixturesWastes derived from the management of hazardous wastesHazardous waste contained in a nonwasteLow-level radioactive mixed wastesSpecial rules for recycling
79Criteria for Determining Hazardous Waste Listed (EPA activity)Characteristics (generator activity)IgnitableToxicCorrosiveReactive6
80Three Lists of Hazardous Wastes Non-specific Source WastesSpecific Source WastesCommercial Chemical Products
81UNIVERSAL WASTEUniversal wastes are widely generated and widely recycled hazardous wastes. Management standards for these wastes are reduced to facilitate their recycling.
82Types of UNIVERSAL WASTE BatteriesMercury containing thermostatsHazardous waste lampsstate specific UWs
83BASICALLY TO PREVENT THIS Love Canal. Rachel Carson 1962.Hazardous Waste Management ENV 0018383
84United Nations Classification System for hazardous materials INTERNATIONAL Act for hazardous waste,United Nations Classification System for hazardous materialsClass 1 ExplosivesWith a mass explosion hazardWith a projection hazardWith predominantly a fire hazardWith no significant blast hazardVery insensitive explosivesExtremely insensitive explosives
85Compressed, liquefied, dissolved and toxic gases Class 2 GasesCompressed, liquefied, dissolvedand toxic gasessymbols
87Possible additional dangers: Toxic, corrosive or explosive Class 3Flammable liquidsPossible additional dangers:Toxic, corrosive or explosiveExamplesPaints, solvents, petrol, used oil, substances from pickling, hardenerbased on Isocyanate, acetone, ethanolSymbols
89Symbols Class 4.2 Spontaneously combustible materials Examples Phosphorus, chemicals from laboratoriesSymbols
90Dangerous when wet materials/ Water-reactive substances Class 4.3Dangerous when wet materials/Water-reactive substancesExamples Calcium carbide, sodium, aluminium phosphide, lithiumSymbols
91Symbols Class 5.1 Oxidizing substances Class 5.2 Organic peroxides ExamplesAmmonium nitrate fertilizer, pool chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and otherperoxides, potassium permanganate, chemicals from laboratories, saltsof sulphates, chromic acidSymbols
92Class 6.1Toxic substancesExamplesCyanide, arsenic, mercury and mercury containing waste, pesticides solid and liquids, halogenated solvents, methylene chloride (used as a paint stripper and a degreaser)Symbols
96Sources of hazardous waste Most hazardous waste is generated by industries; including car repair shops; the construction, ceramics and printing industries; manufacturers of chemicals, paper, leather, cleaning agents, cosmetics, and metals. Mixtures of hazardous and non-hazardous waste are also labelled hazardous. To help you identify some of the waste streams common to your business, see the following table to find a list of typical hazardous wastes generated by small- and medium size businesses.
97Construction Pesticide application and cleanup How Generated Type of BusinessDry-cleaning & Laundry PlantsFurniture/Wood Manufacturing and RefinishingConstructionVehicleMaintenancePrinting and AlliedIndustriesEquipment RepairPesticide End- Users/ApplicationServicesEducational andVocational ShopsPhoto ProcessingLeatherManufacturingHow GeneratedCommercial dry-cleaning processesWood cleaning and wax removal, refinishing/stripping, staining, painting, finishing, brush cleaning and spray brush cleaningPaint preparation and painting, carpentry and floor work, other specialty contracting activities, heavy construction, wreckingand demolition, vehicle and equipment maintenance for construction activitiesDegreasing, rust removal, paint preparation, spray booth, spray guns, brush cleaning, paint removal, tank cleanout, installing lead-acid, batteries, oil and fluid replacementPlate preparation, stencil preparation for screen printing, photo processing, printing,cleanupDegreasing, equipment cleaning, rust removal, paint preparation, painting, paint removal, spray booth, spray guns, and brush cleaning.Pesticide application and cleanupAutomobile engine and body repair, metalworking, graphic arts-plate preparation, woodworkingProcessing and developing negatives /prints, stabilization system cleaningHair removal, bating, soaking, tanning, buffing, and dyeing
98INTERNATIONAL Act for hazardous waste, Other international schemes on hazardous wasteRio declaration on Environment and Development: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, June 1992The Rio Declaration constitutes itself as a set of principles that enunciate environmental protection with principles such as sustainable development, which is the central thrust of the Declaration. Among its most important principle, we can highlight Principle 16 (referring to the outmost importance or irreversible damage), Principle 16 (referring t the internalization ofenvironmental costs and use of economic instruments), and Principle 19 (prevention of transboundary environmental effects through closer coordination between states).The Rio Declaration has been referred to especially with regard to the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principle.
99Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutant, 2001 The Stockholm convention echoes some of the principles of the Rio Declaration and aims towards global cooperation and sustainable development. The most relevant provision isArticle 6- Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from stockpiles and wastes. This Article also states that the parties included in this convention must keep the Basel convention in mind and cooperate as closely with one another. This article also deals with the abolition oftransboundary movement of wastes and stresses on the need to develop ways of reducing them.Although this convention has not been specifically referred to in any text of judgment, the fact that it is in relation to the Basel convention and the Rio Declaration grants it some validity in India.
100The International Maritime Organization's International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution of Ships (MARPOL), 1973Adopted on 2 November 1973, MARPOLtakes into consideration pollution by oil, chemicals, harmful substances in packaged form, sewage and garbage. The aim of this convention was to preserve the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances.A new and important feature of the 1973 Convention was the concept of "special areas“ which are considered to be so vulnerable to pollution by oil that oil discharges within them have been completely prohibited, with minor and well defined exceptions.
101The 1973 Convention identified the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the Baltic Sea, the Red Sea and the Gulfs area as special areas. Nevertheless, it must be noted that this legislation applies only to activities in port areas. All other regions of the sea are ignored. Also, the Act is too basic and does not enter into necessary specifications. However, if legislation could be enacted based on MARPOL as well as the above Act, a suitable legislation can be enacted.India is also a party to this treaty, and even though there is no specific legislation made after this treaty, the Indian Ports Act, 1908 is applicable to some extent.
102International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 13 February 2004Its objective is to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments. Parties are given the right to take more stringent measures with respect to the prevention, reduction or elimination of the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments, consistent with international law. Parties should ensure that ballast water management practices do not cause greater harm than they prevent to their environment, human health, property or resources, or those of other States [International Maritim Organization, 2002]. This treaty has not yet been ratified by India; thought the National Institute of Oceanography has recognized the health and environmental hazards of ballast water in port areas [ However, the Indian Ports Act 1908 could be applied for the same purpose as it clearlyincludes ballast within its ambit.
104Short term hazardsShort term hazard are sorts of physical hazards and health hazards, especially:CorrosiveHigh inflammably or risk of explosionWater reactiveOxidizingToxicity by ingestion, inhalation or skin absorptionSkin or eye contact hazards, irritant
106Examples of common products are paint cleaners, gasoline, drain cleaners and chlorine bleach. Products may be quite safe when used according to instructions, but still be capable of easy misuse. Carefully examine product labels for written warnings as well as warning symbols.
107ToxicityToxicity is the quality, relative degree, or specific degree of being toxic or poisonous, which iscapable of causing injury or death through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption. Some toxic substances are known to cause cancer (carcinogens), genetic damage (mutagens), and fetalharm (teratogens).
108Acute effectsEffects that are felt soon afterwards exposure, usually within 24 hours and in some casesalmost immediately characterized by severe symptoms with a sudden onset. Skin burns anddisfigurement from splashing battery acid, fire caused by an exploding aerosol can stored tooclose to a stove, or an overnight fish kill resulting from dumping toxicants down the stormsewer are examples of acute dangers caused by hazardous products.
109Chronic effectsEffects that are gradual and occur through repeated exposure over an extended period of time. Headache and trouble thinking caused by carbon monoxide leaking from an appliance, allergic reactions that occur each time you open the cupboard where aromatic cleaningproducts are stored, or the slow pollution of ground waster resulting from the disposal of small amounts of herbicide down a sinkhole every growing season are examples of chronic dangers caused by hazardous substances. Some of the most common chronic health effects are liver or kidney damage, central nervous system damage, cancer and birth defects.
110Long term hazards :• Risks to the environment, plants, animals and humans through long run or repeated exposure and through accumulation of toxic substances: Carcinogen, reproductive toxin• Accumulation of toxic substances in water bodies, groundwater and soil posing a long-run risk to agro- and aquacultureToxic compounds enter the environment in many ways and in many forms. Some are poured into sewers or onto the ground, some are carried in exhaust fumes from cars and factories, others may be taken as solids to landfills and dumps.
111Once in the environment, chemicals may undergo series of reactions forming new products, some of which may be toxic, and some of which may take on a new phase (solid, liquid, or gas). Compounds can also move from one environmental medium to another. Acid rain is an example of airborne toxics moving from one environmental medium- the air- to another –water. Toxics can thus reach humans and animals through variety of pathways. Toxics enter our bodies through ingestion (the mouth), inhalation (breathing), and dermal absorption (movement through the skin, includingthe eye tissues).
113The net accumulation by an organism of a chemical from its combined exposure to water, food, and sediment makes bioaccumulation occurrence. Species higher in the food net can be exposed to all the chemicals that lower-order species accumulate. Being at the top of thefood chain, humans are susceptible to high levels of bio accumulated toxins in their diets.Lifelong exposure to even low-level concentrations of contaminants from species lower in the food can cause serious health problems, including cancer, birth defects, birth complications,and nervous and mental disorders. Pesticides and heavy metals are common sources ofcontamination by bioaccumulation.
114The time span in which long-term effects become noticeable pose a great risk to society that have not taken the necessary measures to handle or prevent this problem. Hence, it is importantto acknowledge the long and short-term effects of hazardous waste appropriately.
115Why hazardous waste is to manage? The levels of dangerous wastes grow. Industries and individuals continue to be largely unaware of this major environmental problem. As a result, many people and industries are failing to prevent the creation of hazardous waste or to limit the negative effects it produces.Individual often throw out goods without realizing that they are headed for a landfill and could be dangerous for the environment. No matter where people put these hazardous waste materials,there is always a chance that they could find their way into the ground, and eventuallyinto our bodies.
116Hazardous waste is produced both on a huge scale by major industries and on a relatively tiny scale by individuals. No matter where it comes from, waste can be dangerous. One of the main causes of the abundance of hazardous waste is that people do not realize how large a problem it is. Because it can be simply removed and sent to a landfill, it is often assumed that the problem ends there. Industries have often displayed an unwillingness to find ways to deal with hazardous waste because of the expenses associated with it.
117Many industries and governments create crude landfills to store waste, and often just dump waste chemicals into nearby bodies of water. Chemicals used for industrial processes oftencreate dangerous forms of waste. The amount of these chemicals has risen heavily in the past, as more areas of the world industrialize and new products are produced. Over different chemicals are used in industries worldwide. Often, it is difficult and expensive to get rid of these chemicals and to store them in a way that does not endanger human life or the environment. Obviously, not all of these chemicals are dangerous, but many are and they do create serious problems.
118Environmental pollution and public health risks due to improper handling, storage and illegal disposal of hazardous waste can be reduced substantially once adequate facilities and procedures for hazardous waste management will be in place. Especially children, women and poor parts of the population are negatively affected by mproper disposal and handling of hazardous waste, in particular by small- and medium size companies. Most of the urban poor live in the vicinity of polluted drainage canals, contaminated sites and pollution creating companies.
119In many cases, the long-term health effects of hazardous waste exposure may not be fully realized, thus meriting precautionary activities. Improperly managed hazardous wastes also threaten ecosystems and limit future availability of our soil, air, groundwater, and surface water resources for meeting agricultural, industrial, commercial, and dwelling needs. In general, the potential effects of hazardous waste on the environment include followings
120Key to Cradle to Grave Management Contamination of ground water by infiltration (e.g. from landfill leachate)Contamination of surface waters (streams, rivers, lakes, etc.) by direct disposal or run-offShort-or long-term contamination of solids and sedimentsKey to Cradle to GraveManagement
121Exposure The amount of toxic chemical our body comes in contact with In the air we breathe, the food we eat and our skin is exposed toThe higher the concentration of the exposure the larger the doseThe longer the exposure the larger the doseProtective clothing, equipment and containment can break the exposure chain
122Routes of Exposure Dermal absorption Oral (Ingestion) Inhalation InjectionInhalation and injection are the most rapid
123DermalMay cause itching, redness, burns, and solvents may dissolve skin oils leaving skin more susceptible to the absorption of chemicalsThe eyes are especially susceptible to harm
124IngestionNot common in the workplace, but issues of facial cleanliness, and eating are concernsIs a serious problem at home with children i.e. lead paint chips
125InjectionGreatest risk in medical facilities, or from microbial exposure from nail punctureBiological sources of toxins as well; insects, scorpions, spiders and snakes!We Will Come Back to Inhalation later
126Acute toxicity Back to toxicity: Result of short term exposure Causes effects that are felt at the time of exposure or soon thereafterMost toxic effects don’t cause permanent, irreversible damage (acute & chronic)
127Chronic toxicity Due to long-term exposure Effects appear after months or years of exposureCancer, emphysema, or nervous system damage caused by heavy metals, drugs and alcohol are examples of some chronic health effects
128Relative toxicityAs the dose of a toxic substance increases the harmful effects are generally expected to increaseDose-Response RelationshipLOAEL: Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level - or the lowest dose that causes a lethal effectNOAEL - No Observable Adverse Effect Level
129Threshold levelThe lowest concentration that could produce a harmful effect (doesn’t necessarily mean lethal)Varies among people exposed depending upon their sensitivityA safety factor is used to reduce the allowable concentration to assure no ill effects
130Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) Dose at which 50% of the test population dies Used with dermal and oral toxicityLC Lethal Concentration used for toxicity from inhalation
131Effects other than death! The dose or concentration to produce toxic effects in 50% of the populationToxic Dosage TD50Toxic Concentration - TC50
132Toxic EffectsLocal Effects – damage caused at the site of first contact with toxicant (eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin)Systemic Effects – Damage done by toxicants carried by the bloodstream to vital organs (liver, kidneys, heart, nervous and reproductive system
133Additional factors associated w/ Toxic Effects Local effects provide warning that exposure has occurredSystemic effects may occur without being felt or sensed
134AccumulationChronic, or long term exposure is particularly dangerous because some chemicals build up in the bodyThe body does not get a chance to repair itself
135Latency PeriodThe delay between the exposure and the resultant harmful effectsSome effects take a long time to manifest themselvesFor some chemicals, effects may not appear for 30 or 40 yearsExample is asbestos
136InteractionChemicals can combine with toxicants and alter their behavior
137Reaction Chemicals can combine and form new harmful substances i.e. bleach plus drain cleaner = chlorine gas and hydrochloric acid
138Additive EffectMost health and safety regulations assume that the effects of two chemicals together is equal to the sum of each alone
139Antagonism A subtractive effect One substance reduces the effects of another
140SynergismTwo chemicals can interact within the body to produce an effect different from the effect of either chemical alone, and greater than their sumA pack of cigarettes a day or exposure to asbestos increases the chance of lung cancer by six timesThe two exposures together increases one’s risk by 90 times!
141Sensitivity Individuals vary in how they react Age, sex, inherited traits, diet, state of health, use of medication, drugs, alcohol and pregnancyIncludes AllergiesSome people are affected by a very low dose of a substance (i.e. bee stings)Substances that initiate allergic responses are called sensitizers
142Respiratory System Exchange of gases, oxygen in, carbon dioxide out The air we breathe contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% trace gasesEvaporation of liquids such as gasoline or formaldehyde allows them to enter the body
143Inhalation (Back to Routes of Exposure) Most critical route of entry for most workers handling toxic chemicalsQuick entry and absorption into the bloodstreamAbility of some toxic agents to accumulate in the respiratory system itself
144The nose and mouth warm and humidify the air we breathe The bronchial tubes lead to alveoli, 300 million tiny air sacs where air is exchangedOxygen is transferred to hemoglobin within the red blood cells of the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is released
145Fibrosis Some particles cause a build up of fibrous connective tissue Emphysema is an example of this type of effectHampers the transfer of oxygen to the bloodstreamSilica from mining, quarrying and pottery glazing, coal dust and asbestos
146Inhaling dusts or mists Harmful particles may be deposited in the bronchi or the alveoliLarger particles may be coughed up but smaller ones remain to cause lung damageParticles less than 10 microns penetrate deeper into the lungs causing bronchitisLow level long term exposure to smoke, vehicle exhaust can trigger chronic bronchitis and emphysema
147Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with water vapor in the alveoli forming acids Ammonia and chlorine gas can dissolve in the mucus of the lungs creating caustic solutionsInjured lung tissue allows liquids to move from the capillaries into the alveoli causing pulmonary edemaA person can literally drown in their own fluids
148Smell Our sense of smell does not always warn of exposure Carbon monoxide is odorlessWe can become desensitized to some smells after exposure “olfactory fatique”Example is H2S (page 81)
149Cardiovascular system The heart and blood vessels transport oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the bodyThe heart and brain are especially sensitive to a lack of oxygenWaste products are picked up and carried to the lungs and kidneys
150HemoglobinAn iron containing protein in red blood cells which carry oxygen to the rest of the bodySome chemicals (i.e.CO) interfere with this process causing chemical asphyxiationHemoglobin has a much greater affinity for CO than oxygen (300 times greater)
151Digestive and Filtration Systems Food and water supply the body with materials for maintenance and repair and a source of energyThe digestive system breaks down large molecules like proteins, complex carbohydrates and fats
152LiverProcesses chemicals found in the blood traveling from the intestineConverts foods into other chemicals, destroys toxins, manufactures protein and stores glucose
153Liver DiseaseSevere liver disease prevents the organ from rendering toxic chemicals harmless, some which may be normal body chemicalsWhen they reach the brain they may cause tremors, confusion or coma
154Some chemicals are stored in the liver The liver can destroy toxic substances like alcohol and nicotineIf exposure is chronic and long term, cells may be damaged and replaced by fibrous tissue, a condition called cirrhosis
155Bloodstream and Kidneys Our body fluids must maintain a balanced amount of potassium, sodium, chloride and calcium ions and blood acidsThe kidneys maintain this balance and filter out waste materials
156The body must remain hydrated for the kidneys to perform their function If the body loses more that 10% of it’s weight in water cells will no longer function and the result is coma & deathKidney malfunction causes toxic chemicals to build up in the bloodstream which can result in coma and death
157Kidney cancers are known to be associated with exposure to some industrial chemicals Mercury in waterways is converted to methyl mercury, which is ingested by fishIf the fish are eaten the chemical inhibits the kidney’s ability to balance the body’s chemicals which blocks nerve transmissions, Minimata Disease
158Nervous System and Sensory Organs Brain, spinal cord are considered the central nervous system and process signals from the peripheral nervous systemThe two types of nerves are motor and sensoryThe autonomic nervous system takes care of all the bodily functions which are in the background
159Pesticides and metals, such as lead and mercury, can interfere with the chemical transfer of informationThis may cause tremors, paralysis, loss of reflexes and/or feelingMercury caused “Mad Hatter’s Disease”
160Brain Must receive a continuous supply of oxygen See chart on page 86 for symptoms of oxygen deficiency
161EyesInflammation and infection of the mucus-membrane lining of the eyelids and eyeballs can be caused by irritation from chemical pollutantsAcids and bases are corrosive and can penetrate to the interior of the eye very quickly i.e. lime in wall plasterMethyl or wood alcohol can cause total blindness from damage to the optic nerve
162SkinMade up of three layers, the epidermis, the dermis and subcutaneous tissueThe dermis, or live skin, contains blood vessels, nerves, nerve receptors, hair follicles and sweat and oil glandsThe skin protects against the invasion of bacteria, the sun’s rays and the loss of moisture
163It senses pressure, pain and temperature and regulates the body’s temperature through blood flow and sweat glandsCorrosive chemicals can dissolve naturally protective coatings and/or react with the skinSome chemicals, like solvents that` dissolve fats, are absorbed directly into the bloodstream
164Carcinogenicity The tendency for cancer to occur Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cellsIt is first indicated by malignant tumors which tend to invade the surrounding tissue and then spread to distant sites within the body
165During the 1970’s the public became aware of the potential for chemicals to cause cancer Studies of chemicals indicate that only a small number in commercial use cause cancer
166One in three people will develop cancer during their lifetime Yet only 10 – 15% of these are from occupational exposure to chemicalsThere are 30 chemicals considered to be human carcinogens and 200 that are suspect based on animal studies
167MutagenicityThe ability of a substance to cause damage to genetic materialA substance that is a carciogen is usually a mutagenBut not all mutagens cause cancer
168TeratogenicityA substances tendency to interfere with the development of an unborn childA teratogen causes birth defects
169Determining Carcinogenicity Epidemiological studies are retrospective and look at past exposures to a sample group and compare this with their health historyLifestyle risk contributors like smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are considered
170A prospective study maintains environmental data as well as exposure and medical records on workers as they are exposedThese studies are difficult in companies where there is a large turnover of employees because the latency period of many cancers is over 20 years
171Animal testingUsually performed on rodents using procedures endorsed by regulatory agencies like the EPAAnimals are given doses likely to yield maximum incidence of tumor formation then statistical analysis is used to estimate the cancer risk of low doses in humans
173Hazardous Waste Management Options Produce Less WasteAvoid creating wastes in the first placeRecycle and ReuseConvert to Less Hazardous SubstancesPhysical Treatment (Isolation)IncinerationChemical Processing (Transformation)Bioremediation (Microorganisms)
174Hazardous Waste Management Options Store PermanentlyRetrievable StorageCan be inspected and periodically retrieved.Secure LandfillsModern, complex landfills with multiple liners and other impervious layers and monitoring systems.
176Producing Less Waste and Pollution Waste management (high waste approach)Burying, burning, shippingWaste prevention (low waste approach)Reduce, reuse, recycleChemical or biological treatmentBurial
177Dealing with Materials Use and Wastes 1st Priority2nd PriorityLast PriorityPrimary Pollutionand Waste Prevention• Change industrialprocess to eliminateuse of harmfulchemicals• Purchase differentproducts• Use less of a harmfulproduct• Reduce packaging andmaterials in products• Make products thatlast longer and arerecyclable, reusable oreasy to repairSecondary Pollution• Reduce products• Repair products• Recycle• Compost• Buy reusable andrecyclable productsWaste Management• Treat waste to reducetoxicity• Incinerate waste• Bury waste inlandfill• Release waste intoenvironment fordispersal or dilutionFig. 21.4, p. 521
178Dealing with Hazardous Wastes Produce Less WasteConvert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous SubstancesPut in Perpetual StorageManipulateprocessesto eliminateor reduceproductionRecycleandreuseLandtreatmentIncinerationThermalChemicalphysical, andbiologicalOcean andatmosphericassimilationLandfillUndergroundinjectionWastepilesSurfaceimpoundmentsSaltformationsArid regionunsaturatedzone
179Reuse Extends resource supplies Maintains high-quality matter Reduces energy useRefillable beverage containersReusable shipping containers and grocery bags
180Characteristics of Recyclable Materials Easily isolated from other wasteAvailable in large quantitiesValuablePay-as-you-throw garbage collection
181Benefits of Recycling Reduces global warming Reduces acid deposition Reduces urbanair pollutionMake fuelsupplieslast longerReducesSavesenergyenergy demandwater pollutionRecyclingReduces solidwaste disposalmineraldemandProtectsspecieshabitatdestructionFig. 21.7, p. 530
182Sanitary Landfill Compacted solid waste Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Synthetic linerSubsoilWhen landfill is full,layers of soil and clayseal in trashMethane storageand compressorbuildingElectricitygeneratorLeachatetreatment systemMethane gasrecoveryPipe collect explosivemethane gas used as fuelto generate electricityCompactedsolid wastestorage tanksmonitoringwellGroundwaterLeachate pipesLeachate pumped upto storage tanks forsafe disposalClay and plastic liningto prevent leaks; pipescollect leachate frombottom of landfill
183Deep-well Disposal Advantages Safe method if sites are chosen carefullyWastes can beretrieved ifproblemsdevelopLow costDisadvantagesLeaks or spills atsurfaceLeaks fromcorrosion of wellcasingExisting fracturesor earth quakescan allow wastesto escape intogroundwaterEncourageswaste productionFig , p. 538
188Next TopicsEffect of Hazardous waste on Aquatic System and how do they enter the food chains routes of entry ,fate of toxicants in body
189Products Processing and manufacturing Food/yard waste Hazardous waste Raw materialsProcessing andmanufacturingProductsWaste generated byhouseholds andbusinessesSolid and hazardouswastes generated duringthe manufacturing processFood/yardwasteHazardouswasteRemainingmixed wastePlasticGlassMetalPaperFigure 16.5: Integrated waste management: wastes are reduced by recycling, reuse, and composting or managed by burial in landfills or incineration. Most countries rely primarily on burial and incineration.To manufacturers for reuse orfor recyclingHazardous wastemanagementCompostLandfillIncineratorFertilizer
190Case Studies: LeadLead poisoning (neurotoxin) major problem in children; leads to death and survivors can suffer form palsy, partial paralysis, blindness, and mental retardationPrimary Sources of LeadLeaded gasolineLead paint (Lead in plasticsLead in plumbing
194Case Studies: Chlorine Environmentally damaging and potential health threatSources of ChlorinePlasticsSolventsPaper and pulp bleachingWater disinfection
195Case Studies: DioxinsPotentially highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbonsSources of DioxinsWaste incinerationFireplacesCoal-fired power plantsPaper productionSewage sludge
196NOTIFICATION NEW DELHI, THE 20 th May , 2003 S.O. 593(E). - Whereas the draft of certain rules called the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2002 was published under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Environment and Forests number S.O. 553(E), dated 21 st May, 2002 in the Gazette of India, Part-II, Section 3, Sub-section (ii) of the same date inviting objections and suggestions from all persons likely to be affected thereby, before the expiry of the period of sixty days from the date on which copies of the Gazette containing the said notification were made available to the public;
197And whereas copies of the said Gazette were made available to the public on the 5 th day of June, 2002;And whereas the objections and suggestions received within the said period from the public in respect of the said draft rules have been duly considered by the Central Government;Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by sections 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986), the Central Government hereby makes the following rules further to amend the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989, namely:
198These rules may be called the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2003. They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.In the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 (herein after referred to as the said rules), in rule 2, after clause (c), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely: -bio-medical wastes covered under the Bio-Medical Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 made under the Act;wastes covered under the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 made under the Act; and(f) the lead acid batteries covered under the Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 made under the Act."For rule 3 of the said rules, the following rule shall be substituted, namely:-
199“hazardous waste” means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances, and shall include-
200wastes listed in column (3) of Schedule-1; wastes having constituents listed in Schedule-2 if their concentration is equal to or more than the limit indicated in the said Schedule; andwastes listed in Lists ‘A' and ‘B' of Schedule-3 (Part-A) applicable only in case(s) of import or export of hazardous wastes in accordance with rules 12, 13 and 14 if they possess any of the hazardous characteristics listed in Part-B of Schedule 3”.Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, -all wastes mentioned in column (3) of Schedule-1 are hazardous wastes irrespective of concentration limits given in Schedule-2 except as otherwise indicated and Schedule-2 shall be applicable only for wastes or waste constituents not covered under column (3) of Schedule-1;
20115. In the said rules, for Schedules 1 to 4, the following Schedules shall be substituted, namely:- [See rule 3(14)(a)]List of Hazardous Wastes
202Petrochemical processes and pyrolytic operations List of Hazardous WastesS.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes1231.Petrochemical processes and pyrolytic operations1.1 Furnace/reactor residue and debris*1.2 Tarry residues1.3 Oily sludge emulsion1.4 Organic residues1.5 Residues from alkali wash of fuelsStill bottoms from distillation processSpent catalyst and molecular sievesSlop oil from wastewaterETP sludge containing hazardous constituents2.Drilling operation for oil and gas production2.1 Drill cuttings containing oil2.2 Sludge containing oil2.3 Drilling mud and other drilling wastes*3.4.5.Cleaning, emptying and maintenance of petroleum oil storage tanks including shipsPetroleum refining/re-refining of used oil/recycling of waste oilIndustrial operations using mineral/synthetic oil as lubricant in hydraulic systems or other applicationsOil-containing cargo residue, washing water and sludgeChemical-containing cargo residue and sludgeSludge and filters contaminated with oilBallast water containing oil from ships.Oily sludge/emulsionSpent catalystSlop oilOrganic residues from processChemical sludge from waste water treatmentSpent clay containing oil5.1 Used/spent oil5.2 Wastes/residues containing oil
203Secondary production and/or use of zinc S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes123.7.8.Secondary production and/or use of zincPrimary production of zinc/lead/copper and other non-ferrous metals except aluminiumSecondary production of copper6.1 Sludge and filter press cake arising out of zinc sulphate production6.2 Zinc fines/dust/ash/skimmings (dispersible form)6.3 Other residues from processing of zinc ash/skimmings6.4 Flue gas dust and other particulates*Flue gas dust from roasting*Process residuesArsenic-bearing sludgeMetal bearing sludge and residue including jarositeSludge from ETP and scrubbers8.1 Spent electrolytic solutions8.2 Sludges and filter cakes8.3 Flue gas dust and other particulates*9.Secondary production of lead9.1 Lead slag/Lead bearing residues9.2 Lead ash/particulate from flue gas10.11.12.Production and/or use of cadmium and arsenic and their compoundsProduction of primary and secondary aluminiumMetal surface treatment, such as etching, staining, polishing, galvanising, cleaning, degreasing, plating, etc.Residues containing cadmium and arsenicSludges from gas treatmentCathode residues including pot lining wastesTar containing wastesFlue gas dust and other particulates*Wastes from treatment of salt slags and black drosses*12.1 Acid residuesAlkali residuesSpent bath/sludge containing sulphide, cyanide and toxic metalsSludge from bath containing organic solventsPhosphate sludgeSludge from staining bathCopper etching residuesPlating metal sludge12.9 Chemical sludge from waste water treatment
204Production of asbestos or asbestos-containing materials S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes123188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.Production of iron and steel including other ferrous alloys (electric furnaces; steel rolling and finishing mills; Coke oven and by product plant)Hardening of steelProduction of asbestos or asbestos-containing materialsProduction of caustic soda and chlorineProduction of acidsProduction of nitrogenous and complex fertilizersProduction of phenolProduction and/or industrial use of solventsProcess dust *Sludge from acid recovery unitBenzol acid sludgeDecanter tank tar sludgeTar storage tank residue14.1 Cyanide-, nitrate-, or nitrite-containing sludge14.2 Spent hardening saltAsbestos-containing residuesDiscarded asbestosDust/particulates from exhaust gas treatment.Mercury bearing sludgeResidue/sludges and filter cakes*Brine sludge containing mercuryResidues, dusts or filter cakes*Spent catalyst*Spent catalyst*Spent carbon*Sludge/residue containing arsenicChromium sludge from water cooling towerChemical sludge from waste waster treatmentResidue/sludge containing phenol20.1 Contaminated aromatic, aliphatic or napthenic solvents not fit for originally intended useSpent solventsDistillation residues
20521.1 Wastes and residues 21.2 Fillers residues S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes12321.22.Production and/or industrial use of paints, pigments, lacquers, varnishes, plastics and inksProduction of plastic raw materials21.1 Wastes and residues21.2 Fillers residuesResidues of additives used in plastics manufacture like dyestuffs, stabilizers, flame retardants, etc.Residues of platicisersResidues from vinylchloride monomer productionResidues from acrylonitrile productionNon-polymerised residues
206S.No.ProcessesHazardous Wastes123220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.35.36.Production and/or industrial use of glues, cements, adhesive and resinsProduction of canvas and textilesIndustrial production and formulation of wood preservativesProduction or industrial use of synthetic dyes, dye-intermediates and pigmentsProduction or industrial use of materials made with organo-silicone compoundsProduction/formulation of drugs/ pharmaceuticalsProduction, use and formulation of pesticides including stock-pilesLeather tanneriesElectronic IndustryPulp & Paper IndustryDisposal of barrels / containers used for handling of hazardous wastes / chemicalsPurification processes for air and waterPurification process for organic compounds/solventsWaste treatment processes, e.g. incineration, distillation, separation and concentration techniques
208Schedule - 2 List of Wastes Constituents with Concentration Limits* Class AConcentration limit: 50 mg/kgA1 Antimony and antimony compoundsA2 Arsenic and arsenic compoundsA3 Beryllium and beryllium compoundsA4 Cadmium and cadmium compoundsA5 Chromium (VI) compoundsA6 Mercury and mercury compoundsA7 Selenium and selenium compoundsA8 Tellurium and tellurium compoundsA9 Thallium and thallium compoundsA10 Inorganic cyanide compoundsA11 Metal carbonylsA12 NapthaleneA13 AnthraceneA14 PhenanthreneA15 Chrysene, benzo (a) anthracene, fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, benzo (K) fluoranthene, indeno (1, 2, 3-cd) pyrene and benzo (ghi) peryleneA16 halogenated compounds of aromatic rings, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, polychloroterphenyls and their derivativesA17 Halogenated aromatic compoundsA18 BenzeneA19 Organo-chlorine pesticidesA20 Organo-tin Compounds
209Class B Concentration limit: 5, 000 mg/kg B1 Chromium (III) compoundsB2 Cobalt compoundsB3 Copper compoundsB4 Lead and lead compoundsB5 Molybdenum compoundsB6 Nickel compoundsB7 Inorganic Tin compoundsB8 Vanadium compoundsB9 Tungsten compoundsB10 Silver compoundsB11 Halogenated aliphatic compoundsB12 Organo phosphorus compoundsB13 Organic peroxidesB14 Organic nitro-and nitroso-compoundsB15 Organic azo-and azooxy compoundsB16 NitrilesB17 AminesB18 (Iso-and thio-) cyanatesB19 Phenol and phenolic compoundsB20 MercaptansB21 AsbestosB22 Halogen-silanesB23 Hydrazine (s)B24 FlourineB25 ChlorineB26 BromineB27 White and red phosphorusB28 Ferro-silicate and alloysB29 Manganese-silicateB30 Halogen-containing compounds which produce acidic vapours on contact with humid air or water, e.g. silicon tetrachloride, aluminium chloride, titanium tetrachloride
210Class C Concentration limit; 20, 000 mg/kg C1 Ammonia and ammonium compoundsC2 Inorganic peroxidesC3 Barium compounds except barium sulphateC4 Fluorine compoundsC5 Phosphate compounds except phosphates of aluminium, calcium and ironC6 Bromates, (hypo-bromites)C7 Chlorates, (hypo-chlorites)C8 Aromatic compounds other than those listed under A12 to A18C9 Organic silicone compoundsC10 Organic sulphur compoundsC11 IodatesC12 Nitrates, nitritesC13 SulphidesC14 Zinc compoundsC15 Salts of per-acidsC16 Acid amidesC17 Acid anhydrides
211Class D Concentration limit: 50, 000 mg/kg D1 Total SulphurD2 Inorganic acidsD3 Metal hydrogen sulphatesD4 Oxides and hydroxides except those of hydrogen, carbon, silicon, iron, aluminum, titanium, manganese, magnesium, calciumD5 Total hydrocarbons other than those listed under A12 to A18D6 Organic oxygen compoundsD7 Organic nitrogen compounds expressed as nitrogenD8 NitridesD9 Hydrides
212Class ERegardless of concentration limit; Classified as hazardous wastes at all concentrationsE1 Flammable substancesE2 Substances which generate hazardous quantities of flammable gases on contact with water or damp air
213Schedule 3 [See rules 3 (14) (c) & 12(a)] Part A: Lists of Wastes Applicable for Import and ExportListBasel No.Description of WastesAnnex- I**Annex -III#OECD No.Customs CodeAIMetal and Metal bearing wastesA1010Metal waste and waste consisting of alloys of the following metals, but excluding such wastes specified on list B(corresponding mirror entry under List B in brackets)- AntimonyY276.1, 11, 12AA070ex- CadmiumY26- Tellurium- LeadY28Y31
215Part B: List of Hazardous Characteristics Code Characteristic1 ExplosiveAn explosive substance or waste is a solid or liquid substance or waste (or mixture of substances or wastes) which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such speed as to cause damage to the surroundings (UN Class 1; HI)3 Flammable LiquidsThe word "flammable" has the same meaning as "inflammable". Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids, or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (for example, paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc. but not including substances or wastes otherwise classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at temperatures of not more than 60.5ºC, closed-cup test, or not more than 65.5ºC, open-cup test. (Since the results of open-cup tests and of closed-cup tests are not strictly comparable and even individual results by the same test are often variable, regulations varying from the above figures to make allowance for such differences would be within the spirit of this definition).4.1 Flammable SolidsSolids, or waste solids, other than those classed as explosives, which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.
2164.1 Flammable SolidsSolids, or waste solids, other than those classed as explosives, which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.4.2 Substances or wastes liable to spontaneous combustionSubstances or wastes which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up on contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire.4.3 Substances or wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gasesSubstances or wastes which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities..
2175.1 OxidizingSubstances or wastes which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other materials.5.2 Organic PeroxidesOrganic substances or wastes which contain the bivalent-O-O- structure are thermally unstable substances which may undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition.
2186.1 Poisons (Acute)Substances or wastes liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact.6.2 Infectious substancesSubstances or wastes containing viable micro organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animals or humans.8 CorrosivesSubstances or wastes which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue, or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means of transport; they may also cause other hazards.10 Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or waterSubstances or wastes which, by interaction with air or water, are liable to give off toxic gases in dangerous quantities.11 Toxic (Delayed or chronic)Substances or wastes which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve delayed or chronic effects, including carcinogenicity).12 EcotoxicSubstances or wastes which if released present or may present immediate or delayed adverse impacts to the environment by means of bioaccumulation and/or toxic effects upon biotic systems.13 Capable by any means, after disposal, of yielding another material, e.g., leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.
219Schedule 4List of Non-Ferrous Metal Wastes Applicable for Registration of RecyclersWaste CategoryWaste Type1Brass Scrap2Brass Dross3Copper Scrap4Copper Dross5Copper Oxide mill scale6Copper reverts, cake and residue7Waste Copper and copper alloys8Slags from copper processing for further processing or refining9Insulated Copper Wire Scrap/copper with PVC sheathing including ISRI-code material namely "Druid"10Jelly filled copper cables11Spent cleared metal catalyst containing copper12Nickel Scrap13Spent catalyst containing nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper and arsenic14Zinc Scrap15Zinc Dross-Hot dip Galvanizers SLAB16Zinc Dross-Bottom Dross17Zinc ash/skimmings arising from galvanizing and die casting operations18Zinc ash/skimming/other zinc bearing wastes arising from smelting and refining19Zinc ash and residues including zinc alloy residues in dispersible form20Spent cleared metal catalyst containing zinc21Mixed non-ferrous metal scrap22Lead acid battery plates and other lead scrap/ashes/residues not covered under Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001.
220Specifications for Used oil Suitable for Re-refining Schedule - 5*Specifications for Used oil Suitable for Re-refiningSr.No.ParameterMaximum Permissible Limit1231.Colour8 hazen units2.Water15%3.Density0.85 to 0.954.Kinemetic Viscosity cSt at 100˚C1.0 to 325.Dilutents15% vol.6.Neutralisation No.3.5 mg KOH/g7.Saponification value18 mg KOH/g8.Total halogens4000 ppm9.Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Below detection limit10.Lead100 ppm11.Arsenic5 ppm12.Cadmium+Chromium+Nickle500ppm13.Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)6%
221(cadmium+chromium+nickel+lead+arsenic) 605 ppm maximum Schedule – 6Specifications for Waste Oil Suitable for RecyclingSr. No.ParameterLimit1231.Sediment5% (maximum)2.Heavy Metals(cadmium+chromium+nickel+lead+arsenic)605 ppm maximum3.Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)6% maximum4.Total halogens4000 ppm maximum5.Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Below Detection Limit
222List of Authorities and Corresponding Duties Schedule - 7[ See rule 4(B) and 12 (4) ]List of Authorities and Corresponding Duties. No.AuthorityCorresponding Duties1231.Ministry of Environment and Forests under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986(i) Identification of hazardous wastes [Rule 3(14)](ii) Permission to exporters [rule 14](iii) Permission to importers [rule 13](iv) Permission for transit of hazardous wastes through India [rule 12(2)]2.Central Pollution Control Board constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974(i) Co-ordination of activities of State Pollution Control Boards/Committees(ii) Conduct training courses for authorities dealing with management of hazardous wastes(iii) Recommend standards and specifications for treatment and disposal of wastes and leachates Recommend procedures for characterization of hazardous wastes.(iv) Sector specific documentation to identify waste streams(s) for inclusion in Hazardous Wastes Rules(v) Prepare guidelines to prevent/reduce/minimize the generation and handling of hazardous wastes(vi) Registration and renewal of registration of Recyclers/Re-refiners of non-ferrous metal wastes and used oil/waste oil [Rule 19](vii)Any other function under Rules delegated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests
2233.State Government/Union Territory Government/ AdministrationIdentification of site(s) for common treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) [Rule 8(2)]Assess EIA reports and convey the decision of approval of site or otherwise [rule 8(6)]Acquire the site or inform operator of facility or occupier or association of occupiers to acquire the site [Rule 8(7)]Notification of sites [Rule 8(7)]Publish periodically an inventory of all disposal sites in the State/Union territory [Rule 8(7)]
224S. No.AuthorityCorresponding Duties4.State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974(i) Inventorisation of hazardous wastes [Rule 9(3)](ii) Grant and renewal of authorisation [Rule 5](iii) Monitoring of compliance of various provisions and conditions of authorisation including exports and imports(iv) Issue of public notice and conduct public hearing [Rule 8(4)](v) Examining the applications for imports submitted by the importers and forwarding the same to Ministry of Environment and Forests [Rule 13 (1) & (2)](vi) Implementation of programmes to prevent/reduce/minimise the generation of hazardous wastes(vii) Action against violations of Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 19895.Directorate General of Foreign Trade constituted under the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992.Grant of licence for import of hazardous wastes [Rule 13 (5)](ii) Refusal of licence for hazardous wastes prohibited for imports or export [Rule 12(7)]6.Port Authority under Indian Ports Act, 1908 (15 of 1908) and Customs Authority under the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962).(i) Verify the documents [Rule 13 (6)](ii) Inform the Ministry of Environment and Forests of any illegal traffic [Rule 15](iii)Analyse wastes permitted for imports and exports(iv)Train officials on the provisions of the Hazardous Wastes Rules and in the analysis of hazardous wastes(v) Take action against export/import violations under the Indian Ports Act, 1908/Customs Act, 1962