1ENV 506 INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT LECTURER:ABD. RAHIM DALFACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCESUiTM
2INTRODUCTIONA key thrust of National Vision Policy is pursuing environmentally sustainable development to reinforce long-term growth.Waste represent social, political,economic, physical and environmental concerns.Preventing and managing waste is the heart of sustainable development.Plan for future
3STATUS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA An ever-expanding population and high rates of economic development in Malaysia resulted in the generation of vast amount of waste.It is estimated about 17,000 ton/day of waste generated in Peninsular Malaysia.
4Average per capita generation of waste 0.85 kg/cap/day. Con’t…Average per capita generation of waste kg/cap/day.About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur.About 76% of waste generated are collected.1-2% is recycled and the remainder is taken to disposal sites.
5About 5% waste collected in KL are reused and recycled. Con’t…About 5% waste collected in KL are reused and recycled.Over 40% of 175 disposal sites are operating as dumpsite.Intermediate treatment is limited to small-scale thermal treatment plant in resorted islands.
6ROLE OF FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Three level of GovernmentFederal Government- Ministry of Housing & Local Government- Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister Dpt.- Department of Environment- Ministry of HealthState GovernmentLocal Authorities
7ROLE OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Local Government Department,MHLG handles all matters related to Solid Waste Management funding and policy developmentthis is done in coordination with the Economic Planning Unit and others government agencies.
8Interagency Cooperation Con’t…Interagency CooperationMHLG has established a Technical Committee on SWMcomprising of relevant government agencies, Local University Researchers and Research Institution.
9RESEARCH ON SWM BY MHLG AND OTHER AGENCIES Study on Strategic Plan for SWM.Study on Safety Closure & Rehabilitation of Landfill Sites in Malaysia.Study on Solid Waste Composition & Characteristic.Study on Composting.
10ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT Local Authorities are the implementing agencies and have direct responsibility over solid waste collection, treatment and disposal.
11LEGISLATION RELATED TO SWM Local Government Act 1976Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974Environment Quality Act 1974Refuse Collection, Removal and Disposals By-Laws.
12THE WAY FORWARD – Strategic Plan Principles to guide development of Strategic Plan:Direct participation of Federal Government.Privatization of SWM servicesSustainable waste managementInter cooperation amongst government and stakeholders.Public awareness programDevelopment of technical and managerial capability
15THE WAY FORWARD Reduce Reuse Recycling Intermediate Processing Waste MinimizationReduce / ReuseRecyclingIncineration(With Energy Recovery)(Without Energy Recovery)LandDisposalWaste Hierarchy(FUTURE)ReduceReuseRecyclingIntermediateProcessingDisposal
16Legislation & Institutional THE WAY FORWARDLegislation & InstitutionalReview existing legislationEnable federalization and privatizationEnhance waste minimizationIdentifying all stakeholdersInstitutional strengthening
17Privatization To improve SWM services To relinquish financial burden Con’t…PrivatizationTo improve SWM servicesTo relinquish financial burdenWider involvement by the private sectorFinal stage of agreement (transition period)
18Benefit of private Sector Participation UK & US StudiesCosts have been at least 25% lower due to rationalized operation and greater management flexibility.Canadian StudiesCosts have been at least 25% lower in most provinces60% lower in Atlantic ProvinceHigh costs in Quebec Province were due to older and large equipment, large crew sizes and lower productivity.
19Latin American Studies Costs have been at least 50% lower due to higher labor and vehicle productivityMalaysian StudyCosts have been at least 20% lower due to grater efficiency
21INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ZERO EMISSION) Solid waste management facilitiesPersekitaran KitaPengurusan sisa pepejal yang baik memerlukan pendekatan yang bersepadu.Kitarsemula Sisa & TenagaSlagBahan BinaanBahan Tidak TerbakaratauKitarsemulaBuang Ke Tapak Pelupusan
22Con’t…Public ParticipationLack of public awareness in solid waste management.Require full attentionA key to success in waste minimization and solid waste management.
23SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT DefinitionThe discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste in manner that is accordance with the best principles of public health, economic, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and environmental consideration.
24ELEMENT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT The activities associated with the management of solid waste from the point of generation to final disposal has been group into five elements.GenerationStorageCollection,Transportation and TransferTreatmentDisposal
26DefinitionThe selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs to achieve specific waste management objective and goals
27Hierarchy of ISWMSource ReductionRecycleWaste TransformationLandfillingMonitoring and Evaluation
28Hierarchy of ISWM Source Reduction highest rank of the ISWM most effective way to reduce the quantity waste, costs & env. Impacts.Involve reducing the amount and/or toxicity of the wasteMay occur through the design, manufacture, packaging of products
29Minimum volume of material Longer useful life Cont’minimum toxic content,Minimum volume of materialLonger useful lifeMay also occur at the household, commercial, industrial facility.Selective buying patterns & reuse of product & material.
30Recycle Second highest rank Cont’RecycleSecond highest rankImportant factor in reducing the demand or resources & the amount of waste requiring disposal by landfill.Involvedseparation and collection of waste materialsPreparation of the material for Reuse, Reprocessing, remanufacture
31Reuse, reprocessing and remanufacture of these materials
32Cont’Waste TransformationInvolved the physical, chemical or biological alterationImprove the efficiency of SWM operation & systemsTo recover reusable & recyclable materialsTo recover conversion products & energyHeat & biogasReduce use of landfill capacity
33Landfilling For solid waste that cannot be recycle & no future use Cont’LandfillingFor solid waste that cannot be recycle & no future useResidual matter remaining after separationResidual matter remaining after recovery of combustion products / energyInvolves the controlled disposal of waste
36DEFINITIONS Definition 1 Defined as wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and unwantedDefinition 2By products of human activities. Physically it contains the same materials as are found in useful products
37Con’t…Definition 3Refuse is define as putrescrible and non-putrescrible solid wastes including garbage, ashes, rubbish, street cleanings, dead animal and industrial wastes
38Con’t…Definition 4Garbage is the putrescrible animal or vegetable waste generated from the handling, preparation, consumption of food and is organic in nature
39Con’t…Definition 5Ash is the residue i.e. the waste product of fuel used for industrial purposes. It is incombustible part of the fuel and is usually used for the landfilling or as a constituent in cement making.
40Con’t…Definition 6Rubbish is combustible and non-combustible part of refuse like paper, rags, wood, and glass
41CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE Five main categories of solid waste :Municipal Solid WasteAgriculture wasteIndustrial wasteHazardous wasteMedical waste
43Municipal Solid Wastemainly the household waste include commercial waste and institutional waste.it composition depends on factors such as living standard, geographical location, type of housing and seasons.
44Some are considered as hazardous waste Agriculture wasteWastes and residues resulting from diverse agricultural activities include plant residue and animal waste.food processing waste is consider as agriculture wasteSome are considered as hazardous waste
45Industrial waste comprises waste from industrial processes E.g construction, fabrication, manufacturing, refineries, chemical plantsSome of these could also include hazardous waste
46Hazardous wasteWastes or combination of wastes that pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human.special group of wastes define by certain criteria containing substances causing hazard.Sometimes hospital waste is also classified as hazardous waste
47the hazard effect could be due to any or all of following: Con’t…the hazard effect could be due to any or all of following:ignitabilitycorrosivityreactivitytoxicityinfectivity
48Medical WasteHospital waste includes hazardous and non- hazardous waste.hazardous waste clinical wasteNon-hazardous -Clinical wastes are any waste consist human tissue, blood or other body fluids, excretion include infectious waste.
49Urban waste In the form of solid, semi-solid, liquid and gases Could organic and anorganiccould divide into six types
50Type of urban waste household wastes city wastes commercial wastes industrial wastesliquid wastegaseous wastes
51Household wastesconsist of wastes generated in the preparation of foodmainly garbage, fuel, residue, house sweeping, household discard, garden wastes and animal dung.
52City wastes derived from street cleaning, park, school. consist mainly paper, dry leaves, animal dung, etc.
53commercial wastes from office, shops and markets, restaurants, hotel include high proportion of paper, cardboard, wood, food waste ,glass and plastic.Hospital waste some time include in commercial wastes.
54Industrial wastesfrom the manufacturing and the processing industries, construction .proposition of wastes depending on the type of industry.include metal ores, wood, lime, tiles, food waste, special waste and hazardous wastes.
55Liquid waste include mainly domestic sewage and factory effluents. could be organic and inorganic liquid.e.g.Agro wasteschemical factory
56gaseous wastescould be from exhaust fume of factories, incinerator and chimney discharges.
57Sources of solid wastes domestic or residentialmunicipal servicescommercialInstitutionalconstruction and demolitiontreatment plant siteindustrialagricultural
59Domestic or residential Type of Solid WasteDomestic or residentialFacilities, activities /locationType of solid wasteSourceResidentialSingle family & multifamily detached dwelling,Low, medium & high-rise apartment, etc.Food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, textile, leather, yard waste, wood, glass, tin, cans, aluminum, other metal, ash, street leaves, special waste, household hazardous waste.Special waste:Bulky items, consumer electronics, white goods, yard wastes collected separately, batteries, oil and tires.
60Commercial Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste Source Stores, restaurants, markets, hotel, motel, print shop, service station, auto repair shop.Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food waste, glass, metal, special waste, hazardous waste, ets.
61Institutional Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste SourceInstitutionalSchools, hospitals, prisons, governmental centers.Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food waste, glass, metal, special waste, hazardous waste, ets.
62Construction and Demolition Facilities, activities /locationType of solid wasteSourceConstruction and demolitionNew construction sites, road repair/renovation sites, razing or building, broken pavement.Wood, steel, concrete, dirt, etc.
63Municipal Services Facilities, activities /location Type of solid wasteSourceMunicipal service(Excluding treatment facilities)Street cleaning, landscaping, catch basin cleaning parks and beaches, other recreational areas.Special waste, rubbish, street sweepings, landscape and tree trimmings, catch basin debris, general waste from parks, beaches and recreational areas.
64Treatment plant sites Facilities, activities /location Type of solid wasteSourceTreatment plant sites;Municipal incineratorsWater, waster water and industrial treatment processes, etc.Treatment plant wastes, principally composed of residual sludges.
65Municipal Solid Waste Facilities, activities /location Type of solid wasteSourceMunicipal solid wasteAll as aboveAll as above
66Industrial Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste Source Construction, fabrication, ligh & heavy manufacturing, refineries, chemical plants, power plants, demolition, etc.Industrial process wastes, scrap materials, etc.Non-industrial wastes including food wastes, rubbish, ashes, demolition & construction wastes, special wastes, hazardous waste.
67Agricultural Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste SourceAgriculturalField and row crops, orchards, vineyards, dairies, feedlots, farm, etc.Spoiled food wastes, agricultural wastes, rubbish, hazardous wastes.
69ELEMENT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT The activities associated with the management of solid waste from the point of generation to final disposal has been group into six elements.Waste GenerationWaste StorageWaste CollectionWaste Transfer and TransportWaste Treatment and Disposal
70Waste GenerationUrbanization and industrialization - many changes in the quality and quantity of solid wastes generatedSome of the changes included:change in waste characteristicincreased volume of wasteuse modern techniques in MSWMconcentration of large population in a small area
71The type of produced depends upon various factors : Con’t….The type of produced depends upon various factors :standard of livingoccupationhabits of dietaryAverage per capita generation of waste 0.85 kg/cap/day. About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur.
72Housing area generates the largest amount of waste. Con’t….Housing area generates the largest amount of waste.The high income group residential areas - high percentage of leaves, glass and plasticMarket areas - large percentage of garbage and leaves,Hay & straw is the large proposition in commercial areas
73Con’t….Slum areas higher percentage of hay & straw , lower percentage of glass &
77International Trend in MSW Generation Most Asian country produce lower quantities of waste (mean 0.56 kg/capita/day) except Japan.The developed industrial countries generate more (mean 0.96 kg/capita/day).Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong show the pattern of waste generation similar to EC countries (0.86 kg/capita/day)77
78US is the largest per capita generating of MSW (1.97 kg/capita/day). Scandinavian countries generated above the per capita EC average (>0.96 kg)The population size does not influence the rate of waste generation.78
79Waste composition organic waste paper textile/leather wood Malaysia generate about 72% compostable waste, comprising;organic wastepapertextile/leatherwoodGarbage is the main component to 48%Paper and cardboard is the second most abundant component (18 to 30% is)
80The composition of MSW reflects the affluence of the society: Cont’….Plastic waste was at 9 – 16%KL generate only 9% plastic waste compare to 14 – 16% generate other three cities around KLThe composition of MSW reflects the affluence of the society:The way of lifeEconomic statusSocial behaviour
82Composition of refuse from the municipality of KL, Petaling Jaya and Penang for the year 1990 Kuala LumpurPetaling JayaPaper & cardboard25.530.027.0Textile & leather18.104.22.168Plastics11.29.816.4Rubber0.80.22.0wood22.214.171.124garbage32.840.836.5Metal ferrous & non-ferrous126.96.36.199Glass & ceramics1.43.0Others85.91.0
84Waste StorageIncluding the waste handling, processing, separation and storage.The type of container use is highly variable depend on the amount of waste generated, the frequency of collection and whether waste separation is mandated.The most commonly used in Malaysia are the plastic container.Daily collection 7 – 11 litresWeekly collection 20 – 30 litres
85WASTE HANDLINGRefer to the activities associated with managing solid waste until they are place in the containers used for storage.The activities will vary depending on:Type of waste materials are separatedType of collection serviceMay also requires to move the loaded containers to the collection point.
86Residential dwellings Three categories most often used:Low-rise dwellingUnder 4 storiesSingle family detachedSingle family attachmultifamily
87Type of container used depend on whether waste separation is mandated. Tenants are responsible for placing the containers of solid waste around their dwelling.Type of container used depend on whether waste separation is mandated.Home owner will placed the containers filled with wastes to the street curb.
88Medium-riseFrom 4 to 7 storiesHandling methods for Low- and medium- rise Apartment depending on the waste storage location and collection method.Location of storage include basement storage, outdoor storage, occasionally, compactor storage.
89High-riseOver 7 storiesThe most common methods are:Waste are pick up by building maintenance personnelWaste are taken to the basement/service area by tenantsWaste are placed by the tenants in vertical chute.
90Waste discharged in chutes are collected in large containers. The chutes are available in diameter from 12 to 36 inches ( ) and the most common diameter is 24 inches.The use of disinfection and sanitizing unit as recommended.
91Separation Separation of waste components including: Paper Cardboard Aluminum canGlassplastic containers
92Factors that must be consider in the onsite storage include Cont’….Factors that must be consider in the onsite storage includeThe effects of storage on the waste components.The type container to be usedThe container locationPublic health and aesthetics.
93Effects of storage on the waste components. Cont’….Effects of storage on the waste components.Effects of storing wastes include:Biological decompositionWaste will immediately start to undergo microbiological decomposition (putrefaction)If waste are allowed in storage containers for extended period of time, flies will start to breed and odors compounds can develop.
94The absorption of fluids Cont’….The absorption of fluidsComponents of solid waste have differing initial moisture contents, re- equilibration take place.The moisture will become distributed throughout the waste.The degree of absorption depend on the length of time.Waste also can absorb water from rainfall that enter into container.
95The contamination of waste components Major waste components may be contaminated by small amount of waste.E.g: motor oil, paints, household cleaner.Effect : reduce the value of the individual waste components for recycling.
96Types of containersThe type and capacities of container used depend on:the characteristics and type of solid waste to be collected.type of collection system.The collection frequencyThe space available for placement of containers.
97Low-rise dwelling (manual curbside collection) Cont’….Low-rise dwelling (manual curbside collection)Container should be light enough to handle easily.Injury to collector have results from handling container that loaded to heavy.Upper weight limit between 40 to 65lb.30 gal. galvanized metal or plastic container is proven the least expensive of storage for low-rise dwelling.
98Galvanize metal tend to be noisy when being emptied and can be damage. Cont’….The choice container materials depend on the preferences to the home-owner.Galvanize metal tend to be noisy when being emptied and can be damage.Some plastic containers tend to crack under ultraviolet ray and the freezing temperature.Temporary and disposal containers are routinely used as temporary – remove along the waste.The problem of temporary containers is difficult to loading them.
99Cont’….The use of all types and different grades of container liners is common.A disadvantage in the using of liner, if the waste are to be separated by component or they are to be combusted, has to be break up.
100Low-rise dwelling (mechanized curbside) Cont’….Low-rise dwelling (mechanized curbside)The containers are designed specifically to work with the container-unloading mechanism attach to the collection vehicle.The container size is from about 75 to 120 gallons. 90 gallons container being the most common.
101Low- & medium-rise apartment Cont’….Low- & medium-rise apartmentThe two most common types have been use are:Individual plastic or galvanized metalLarge portable or fix containerThe container is kept in enclosed areas which easy access to nearby street.The containers are equipped with caster or roller
102Where chutes are available separation storage containers are not used. High-rise apartmentWhere chutes are available separation storage containers are not used.The most common storage for wastes accumulate from apartment include:Enclosed storage containers or disposal bagsLarge open-top containers for uncompacted waste, bulky items,Large open-top container for recycle materials.
103Commercial facilities Cont’’….Commercial facilitiesTypes of container depend to a large extents the on the methods use of collectionUsually large open-top containers are used for unseparated wasteThe use of container equipped with compaction mechanismSpecial onsite processing equipment may also be used – recoverable material
104Container storage locations Depend on the type of dwelling or commercial and industrial facilities, available space and access to collection service.Residential dwellingLow-rise detached dwellings usually are placedAt the sides of rear of the houseIn alleyIn or next to the garage
105Commercial & industrial facilities depend on the location of available space & service access conditionlocation & type of containers not own by the commercial or industries Solid waste thatThe contents of large containers are removed by elevator to the:
106Large storage container Compactors used in conjunction with storage containersStationary compactorsOther processing equipments.
107All of the office paper is now collected for recycle. Cont’’….The older large office & commercial buildings are used inadequate equipment and tend to create handling problem.All of the office paper is now collected for recycle.
108Public Health & Aesthetics Infestation of vermin & insects – mechanical vectorsMost effective control is proper sanitation.Use container with tight lids.The period washing the containerPeriodic removal biodegradable materialsExcellent description of solid waste- disease relationship
109Odors can be controlled; AestheticsRelated to the production of odors & un- maintenance of sanitary condition.Odors can be controlled;through the use container with tight lidsReasonable collection frequency.If odors persist, the contents of the container – spray with the masking deodorantTo maintain aesthetic condition, the container should scrubbed & wash periodically
110The common communal storage methods used in Asian country include: Con’t….The common communal storage methods used in Asian country include:Depotsimple enclosure of brick walllow public health aesthetic valueCommonly found in development countries
111slightly improvised depot within an enclosure around the storage area. Con’t….Enclosureslightly improvised depot within an enclosure around the storage area.Exposed to rain and causes air pollution and odorsNot suitable in modern society
112more appropriate and hygienic Con’t….Fixed storage binsmore appropriate and hygienicOccasionally, an irrseponsible people tend to burn the refuse in the bin.If not emptied regularly become threat to human health.
113commonly used in Malaysia can be easily loaded/unloaded Drum Con’t….Portable steel binscommonly used in Malaysiacan be easily loaded/unloadedDrum200 litres drumprovided in some cities in Asia
114Found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan Con’t….Concrete pipe SectionFound in India, Bangladesh and PakistanCapacity depend on size of pipescavengers and animal always messing up the bins
116Planning the waste collection system Factors need to be consider:population distribution & densitytopography & road layoutcharacteristic of the waste & quantitydisposal method usedweather conditiontype & number vehicles availablenumber of location of transfer stationroad design
117Collection of solid waste The term collection included:picking up of solid waste from the sources,hauling of wastes to the location where the contents of the collection vehicle are emptiedThe unloading of collection vehicle is also consider part of the collection operation.The activities associated hauling & unloading are similar
118The gathering or picking up of SW vary with the characteristic of: Con’t….Activities associated with hauling and unloading similar for most collection systemThe gathering or picking up of SW vary with the characteristic of:the facilities.Activities.location where wastes are generated.method use for storage of accumulated wastes between collections.
119Collection in an urban area is difficult and complex: Con’t….Collection in an urban area is difficult and complex:Development of urban and sub-urbanGeneration become more diffuse & quantity of waste increases.The responsible of the municipal or district council the privet waste management companies.
120Low-rise detach dwelling (commingled) Manual method use for collection residential waste include:The direct lifting & carrying of loaded containers to the collection vehicle.The rolling the loaded containers on their rims to the collection vehicleThe use of small lifts for rolling loaded to the collection vehicle.
121Basically, four common types of residential collection service Con’t….The method of waste collection will influence the quality and quantity of recovered material and the mode of disposal.Basically, four common types of residential collection servicecurballeysetout-setbacksetout
122Curb Door to door collection Con’t….CurbDoor to door collectionHomeowner responsible for placing the containers.Most common method in MalaysiaTerrace houses or link housesmaterial collected from the home by the collection crew
123The use of small satellite vehicles Con’t….In other case the collection vehicle equipped with auxiliary container – then emptied to the collection vehicleThe use of small satellite vehiclesThe empty bins are taken back by the owners
124the bins are messed up by scavengers bin are stolen Con’t….Disadvantages:the bins are messed up by scavengersbin are stolenanimal sometimes mess up the bins – looking for food
125Also call back lane collection Commonly used in many part of Asia Con’t….AlleyDoor to collectionAlso call back lane collectionCommonly used in many part of Asia
126Setout-setback Door to collection Con’t….Setout-setbackDoor to collectionContainers are set out from homeowner’s property and set back after emptied by additional crew.Use two groups of collectorsFaster
127Setout Door to collection Same as setout-setback except: Con’t….SetoutDoor to collectionSame as setout-setback except:Homeowners is responsible to return the container to storage location.Individual house collectionbungalow
128Con’t….Manual methodsManual methods used for the collection of residential waste include:The direct lifting & carrying of loaded containers to vehicleRolling the loaded container to the vehicleUse small lift for rolling loaded container
129Low- and Medium-rise Apartments Curbside collection is common for most low- and medium-rise apartments.Maintenance staff is responsible for transporting the containers to the street for curb collectionIf large containers are used, the collection vehicle will equipped with unloading mechanisms.
130High-rise ApartmentsUsually large containers are used to collect wastes large apartment building.The contents of the containers may be emptied mechanically or may be hauled to an off-site location.
131Commercial & industrial Facilities Manual & mechanical means are used to collect wastes.In many large cities solid wastes are collected early morning or late eveningPlastic bag, cardboard boxes and other disposal container are used in manual collection.Collection usually accomplished with three or four person crew
132containers usually used are: Movable containers Container that can be couple to large stationary compactorLarge capacity open top containers
133Collection of waste (separated at source) Must be collect gathered together before they can be recycle.The method of collection include:Curbside collection using conventional & special designed collection vehicleIncidental curb collectionDelivery by homeowners to drop-off & buy- back centers.
134Residential (curbside collection) Recyclable materials are collected separately from commingled waste.Some programs require residents to separate several different material & store in their own containers.Other programs only one or two containers to store commingled recyclable.The vehicle used are for collect the separated waste are:standard collection vehiclespecialized collection vehicle.
135Type of Collection System The system used may classified from several points of view such as:The mode of operation.Equipment useType of waste collectedcollection system have been classified according to their mode of operation into two categories.Hauled container systems (HCS)Stationery container systems (SCS)
136Hauled Container Systems (HCS) Suitable for removal of waste where the rate of generation is high.The use of large containers reduce handling time.The advantage:is the flexibility – many different sizes & shapes for the collection all types of waste.Require one truck & driver to accomplish the collection cycle
137Three types of haul container system: Hoist truck tilt-frame container Disadvantagethe use of vary large containers leads to low- volume utilization unless loading aids provided.Three types of haul container system:Hoist trucktilt-frame containerTrash trailer
138Hoist truck systems container size from 0.2 to 10 cu3 (2 to 12 yd3) Applicable in only limited cases which are:For small operation and collects from a few pickup pointsFor the collection of bulky item and industrial rubbish
139Tilt-frame container Widely use especially among private collectors Used tilt frame loaded vehicle and large containers.Suitable for collection of all types of solid waste rubbish.Various type of large containers are available for use with these vehicles
140Open-top containers are used at warehouse and construction sites Large containers in conjunction with stationary compactors are common at apartment, commercial, and transfer station.
141Trash trailerSimilar to tilt frame container systemBetter for the collection heavy rubbish & often used for the demolition waste.
142Pneumatic and hydraulic system More complex than hydraulic systems. Con’t….Pneumatic and hydraulic systemMore complex than hydraulic systems.Use low pressure air and vacuum conduit system to transport rubbish through underground pipetransport wastes from high density apartments or commercial activities to central location for processing.
143Reduces traveling time & increases the waste collection efficiency & minimize management cost. Hydraulic transports is being used for the transport of food wastesThe major problem of this method is the / waste water used for transporting the wastes must be treated.This system practical in areas where proper processing facilities are incorporated into treatment system.
145Con’t….Routes of CollectionThe guideline should be taken in to consideration when design the layout the collection routes:Existing policies and regulationsthe number & arrangement of the containersFrequency of collection
146Existing system characteristic the number crewVehicle typeBegin and end should be near arterial street.In hilly area:Should start at the top and proceed downhill as the vehicle become loaded
147The last container to be collected must be located nearest to the disposal site Traffic congested locationShould be collect as early in the daySources at extremely large quantitiesServiced during the first part of the day
148Scattered pickup points the number & arrangement of the containersdistance between containersnumber of block & arrangement
149Layout of collection routes The general steps involved in establishing route include:Preparation of location mapsData analysisPreliminary layout of routesEvaluation of the preliminary routes & the development of balanced route by successive trials
150Collection routes Layout – Step1 Map of the commercial, industrial, or resident housing area to be serve.Plot the solid waste pickup point:LocationCollection frequencyNumber of containersEnter on the map the estimate quantity of waste at each pickup location (if use mechanically loaded containers)
151Con’t….For residential sources - assume that approximately the same average quantity number of homes per block will be shownUse the tracing paper once the basic data have been entered on the work map
154Transfer StationThe transfer of wastes from one location to another – more distant locationContents small collection vehicles are transferred to large vehicles to transport the waste over extended distancesTransfer and transport operation also used in conjunction with MRFs to transport recover material to markets/residue material and waste-to-energy facilities.
155The need for transfer operation Transfer and transport operations become necessity when haul distance to available disposal sites increase.Also become necessity when disposal sites cannot be reach directly by highway (sites in remote control).Transfer station is integral part of all types of MRFs and MR/TFsThe time require for transportation is the key factor especially in the traffic congested city.
156Located between the disposal site & the centre of the city The function are volume reduction & sorting of waste for recyclingAdditional factor that tend to make the use of transfer station includes:The occurrence of illegal dumping due to excessive haul distancesThe location of disposal sites relatively far from collection routes
157The use of small-capacity collection vehicles The existence of low-density residential service area
159Types of transfer station Classified into three typeDirect loadStorage loadcombined direct load and storage load
160Direct loadSmall capacityWastes discharge directly into the open-top trailer to be use to transport to compaction facilities.large capacityThe wastes in collection emptied directly into transport vehicle, orThe wastes in the collection vehicles are emptied temporarily onto unloading platform
161The wastes are then push into the transport trailers. The new technology of direct-load transfer station, replace the use of open- top transfer vehicle with the compaction facilities.The compaction facilities can be use to compact wastes into the transfer trailers.
163Storage loadWastes are emptied directly into a storage pit then they are loaded into transport vehiclesVarious types of auxiliary equipment are used to load the wastes into the transport vehicles.The different between direct-load and storage-load is the capacity to store wastes.
186Factors to be consider for location of transfer station. As near as possible to the collection area.easy access to highwayminimal public and environmental risk/objectioneconomical aspectscapacity of collection vehiclestorage space requiretime require to unload the collection trucks
187number of trucks that will use facilities transfer trailer capacityoperation hourstype of waste processes
188Motor Vehicle transport CollectionCompactorscommonly use for door to door collectionEquipped with compacter facilitiescapacity 12m3Use for the compactable waste
189Roll on roll off (RORO)Top-open truck used for commercial and residential areasFor bulky and uncompactable wastesSide loaderWithout compactorManually door to door collection
190Used for transporting bulky & uncompactable wastes. Open trucksUsed for transporting bulky & uncompactable wastes.Used for door to door collectionNot recommended for garbage and refuseHand cartsCommonly use by the street sweepers
191Transfer stationOpen-top semitrailerCapacity 40mEnclose semitrailerEquipped with satationary compactorDrop-bottom open-top semitrailerUnloaded with hydraulic tipping ramp
193Waste Treatment and disposal ideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition:environment friendlycause no health hazardeconomically less demandingmaximum recycling optionsShould not be labour intensive
194Waste TreatmentThe treatment of solid waste prior to disposal includes:recyclingcompactionpulverisation
195Waste disposalideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition:environment friendlycause no health hazardeconomically less demandingmaximum recycling optionsShould not be labour intensive
196Disposal without treatment: dumping in waterdumping on landdirect disposal (sanitary land field)Disposal involve some treatmentincinerationbiological treatmentpyrolysis
197Disposal On LandLandfill methodDefine as the physical facilities use for the disposal of residual in the surface soils of the earth.Sanitary landfill refer to engineered facilities for the disposal of SWM designed and operated to minimize the public health and environmental impacts
198One of the primary technologies use to disposal of solid waste. The most economically if suitable land is available at low cost, environmentally accepted method and simple.The only method that can deal with all material in solid wasteDirect disposal without treatment and Also used for the final disposal of treated waste.
199Sanitary LandfillDefine as:Method of disposing refuse on land without creating nuisance or hazard to public healthor safety by utilizing the principle of engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical areaThe goal for design and operation of modern landfill is to eliminate/ minimize the impacts to human and environment
200and to reduce it to the smallest practical volume and cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each day’s or at such more frequent as many be necessaryalso call as control tipping and involves the covering of the waste daily with soil or other modern materialconsist depositing the wastes in 1 -2 m tick layer in low-laying lands or excavation
201Landfill Planning, Design and operation The element s should be consider in the planning , design and operation of landfill are as below:Landfill layout and designLandfill operations and managementThe reaction occurring in the landfillThe management of leachateEnvironmental monitoringLandfill closure
202Landfill siting consideration Siting of new landfill is one of the difficult tasks faced by the most communities.Several factors must be consider in evaluating potential site for-long term disposal of solid waste.Final selection of a disposal site usually is best on the result of a detail site survey, engineering design, cost study and EIA.
203The factors should be consider are ; Haul distanceLocation restrictionAvailable land areaSite accessSoil condition and topographyClimatological conditionsSurface water hydrologyGeologic and hydrogeologic conditionsLocal environmental conditionsPotential ultimate uses for the completed site
204Preparation of the site First StepExisting site drainage must be modified to route any runoff away from the landfill area.Drainage of the landfill area itself must be modified to route water away from the initial fill areaConstruction of access roads, weighing facilities and fences installation.
205Second StepThe excavation and preparation of the landfill bottom and sub surface siteModern landfills are constructed in sections – allows only the small part of the unprotected landfill surface to be expose to precipitation.Excavations are carried out over time – not prepare the landfill bottom at onceExcavated material can be stockpiled on unexcavated soil to minimized the precipitation problem
206If the bottom of the landfill is lined at once, the storm water runoff must be remove from the portion of the landfill that is not being used.To minimized cost, it desirable to obtain the cover material from the landfill site whenever possible.The excavated material stockpiled for later use.Vadose zone and groundwater monitoring equipment is installed before the landfill liner is laid down.
207Leachate collection and extraction faciliteis are place within or on top of the liner Usually the liner extends up the excavated wall of landfill.Installation of the horizontal gas recover trenches at the bottom of the landfillTo minimized the release of VOCs, vacuum is applied and air is drown through the completed portion of landfillThe gas that is remove must be burned under controlled condition to destroy the VOCs
208A soil berm must be constructed at the downwind side of the planned fill area before the fill operation begin.Foe the excavated landfill, the wall of the excavation usually served as the initial compaction face.
209The placement of wasteThe waste is placed in cell beginning along the compaction faceThe waste deposited in each operating period usually one day from in an individual cell.Wastes deposited are spread out in 45 – 60 cm layers and compactedTypically the cell height vary from 2.8 – 4 metres
210The length of the working face varies with the site condition the size of the operation The width of the a cell varies from cm –depending on the design and capacity of of the landfill.The exposed faces of the cell are covered with a thin layer of soil (15 to 30 cm) at the end of each operating period.After or more lifts has be place, horizontal gas recovery trenches can be excavated in the completed space.
211The excavated trenches are filled with gravel and perforated plastic pipes are installed in the trenchesSuccessive lifts are place on top of another until the final design grade is reached.A cover layer is applied to the completed landfill section tominimized infiltration of precipitationto route drainage away from the active section of the landfillThe landscaping to control erosion
212Reactions in landfill Biological reactions The organic material in MSW lead to the production of landfill gas and liquids.Decomposition process usually proceed aerobically for a short period.During aerobic decomposition, CO2 is the gas producedOnce the available O2 has been consumed, the composition become anaerobic and the organic matter converted to CO2 and CH4 and ammonia and hydrogen Sulfide.
213Chemical ReactionInclude dissolution and suspension of landfill materials and biological conversion products in the liquid percolating, evaporation and vaporization of chemical compound and waterThe organic compounds can subsequently be released into the atmosphere – through the soil or from uncover leachate treatment facilitie.Other chemical reactions include those between certain organic compound and clay liner.
214Physical reactionsThe important physical changes are:the lateral diffusion of gases and emission of landfill gases to surrounding environmentMovement of leachate within the landfill and into underlying soilSettlement caused by consolidation and decomposition of landfill materialLandfill gas movement and emission particularly important consideration in landfill management because;
215Internal pressure could causing the landfill cover crack and leak Escaping landfill gas may carry trace carcinogenic and teratogenic compounds into the environmentBecause high CH4 contents, may be can cause burning or explosionLeachate migration is another concern
216Concerns with the landfill Uncontrolled release of landfill gasThe impact of uncontrolled discharge of landfill gasUncontrolled release of leachateThe breeding of disease vectorThe health and the environmental impact
222fires are uncontrolled air pollution smell DisadvantagesOpen dumpingpotential source of diseasefires are uncontrolledair pollutionsmellpollute nearby waterways & ground wateruglyscavenging
223Sanitary landfilldestruction of habitats - (wetland)cause of urban land shortagehence transportation cost – (distant)lost of resources – cannot be replaceleachate leakage - (groundwater contamination)maintanance after completion require 10 to 15 yearsNon-available of suitable cover material
224Level of Sanitary Landfill Level 1: control tippingLevel 2: sanitary landfill with bound and daily soil coverLevel 3: sanitary landfill with leachate recirculationLevel 4: sanitary landfill with leachate treatment facilities.
225Landfill TechnologyThe most common landfill technologies arearea methodtrench methodramp methodsandwich method
226Area method/Depression terrain is unsuitable for the excavation of trenchesSolid waste cells constructed in a large arealayers of cells are created until the permitted height reachedEach cell represents the waste received and compacted in place and covered each day.
227Can accommodate very large volume operation Earth dyke with height of one lift (2-3 m) is first constructed to gate the support for compacting.The wastes are unloaded at the top of the earth dyke and spread and compacted on the slope of the dyke.The layers dept is from 30 – 60 cm.
228Depression method best for area where natural depression exist. The installation liners and leachate collection system is relative easy.The earth cover of this system is usually obtain from borrow-pit or brought from elsewhere.
229Trench MethodWaste is spread and compacted in an excavated trenchThe excavator tailings are used as cover materialBest for flat land where the excavation of trenches can be carryout easily.The ground water level should be sufficiently low
230The trench size varies in length and width: dept: 1 – 2 metrewidth: 2 – 5 metrelength: 30 – 120 metreWastes are spread into thin layers from cm and compacted before soil cover in introduced.
231Ramp methodalso call progressive slope.A combination of area method and trench methodSolid waste is spread and compacted on a slopecover material is obtained directly from the front of the working face.The excavation of cover material provides a depression for the next day waste.
232Ramp is about 15 metre wide and 30 metre length and suitable height. Trucks come on the top of the ramp and discharge their contents inside the trench.
233Sandwich methodUsed when the solid waste is deposited horizontally into narrow valleys.Cover soil layer is added over each layer of solid waste
235Modern Sanitary Landfill incorporatesgas collection, storage and compressor systemleachate collection, storage and treatment facilities.prevent leachate leakage into ground water
236gas leakage detection p robes. leachate monitoring well and ground water monitoring well
237Design & operation SLFSeveral important factors must be considered:land areacover materialcell design and constructionequipment requirementpersonnel requirementfinancedrainage
238spread and compactionwater supplyfire prevention facilitiesfencing -gatehouseoperation timeland use after completion of landfillwheel cleaningnotice board
239Population protection site locationrainfalltemperatureSoil typewindHydrological properties and water table
240compaction landfillessential to reduce settlementtake about 2 yearsprevent fireeliminates odour, flies & verminfor building structure – 10 – 12 years
241ideally compacted fill should have density of 900 – 950 kg/m3 densities are measure by using backhoe method and auger method.the values depend on:
242Type of wastePretreatmentComposting of wasteTime of landfillMoisture contentType of landfillStage of compaction
243Leachatedefine as liquid that has percolated through solid waste and has extracted Dissolved or suspended material
244average amount of leachate generated is 150L//tonne contain organic matter, nitrogen (ammoniacal), suspended solid salts & colouring matter.constration of eluted matters will be highest the first 3 – 8 years.
245quantity of leachate produced depend on factors: Soil typeWaste compositionDegree of compositionRainfallEvaporationLandfill type and age
250physicochemical treatment to removes/reduce COD, metal, suspended solid and colourthe process used are:sedimentation with coagulationsand filtrationozone oxidationActivated carbon adsorptionChelating resin adsorption
251Landfill gasthe microbial degradation generate gaseous products.methane production begins several month to one/two years after depositionthe rate of production depends on:size and composition of solid wasteage of solid waste and landfill
252moisture containtemperature conditions in landfillquantity and quality of nutrientsorganic contain of refusepH and alkalinity of liquidspresence of toxic or hazardous material
253gas production ranges from 1.3 to 1.7 L/kg/yr the main component of the gas is CH4 (55%), CO2 (45%),Biodegradation of solid waste could be describe under four phases:the aerobic phasehydrolysis and fermentationanaerobic phasedecelerated methane production
254Biological treatmentConsists two main optionsComposting (aerobic)Biogasification (anaerobic)
255DefinitionComposting define as the biological degradation of the organic components of waste under controlled condition to produce a stable end product call compost
257composting of organic material generates CO2 and H2O. Biogasification generates CH4 , CO2, and H2O.The final products of biotreatment are stable & could be use as fertilizer.Composting is an exothermic process & max. temperature C
258The aerobic phasein the presence of O2,oxygen & nitrogen are depleted while CO2 increasesThe phase lasts only a few days
259Hydrolysis and fermentation biological polymersAnaerobic phasebeginning of methane generationbacteria (methanogens) responsible for degradation substances.
260decelerated methane production concentrations of carboxylic acid decreases to below 100 mg/l.
261Monitoring wells are installed within and around the landfill. Gas monitoringinvolve the monitoring of methane and other volatile organic compound.Monitoring wells are installed within and around the landfill.Two type of gas monitoring device can be use.barhole probepermanent probe
262Barhole probeperforme near structure or along the parameter of a landfill.only obtain one time measurement of gas concentration at shallow depts.permanent probelocated along the parameter of the landfill at location identify during the hydrogeology investigationPeriodically gas samples collected from these wells are analysed for methane contain & and other gas.
264INCINERATIONDefine as:Control process for burning solid, liquid and gaseous combustible wastes to gases and residue containing non-combustible material.
265is any facility used wholly or in part for the controlled combustion of municipal wastes and other waste.waste materials are treated at incinerator plants through the controlled application of that converts waste feed by high temperature oxidation to gaseous material.during combustion the moisture is vapourised while the combustible waste is also vapourised and oxidised.
266final products are CO2, water vapour, ash, and non-combustible or residue.
267Objectives of thermal treatment volume reductionreduces 90% MSWreduces 70% of weightlife span of a landfill could be longer
268the output generally inert and more stable when landfill. Waste stabilisationoutputs from the incinerator are ash, flue gas and combustible residue.the output generally inert and more stable when landfill.
269Waste to energy conversion reduce the usage of fossil and fuelConversion of natural resources.
270kill all the pathogen – important in the clinical/hospital waste. Sanitisation of wastehigh temperature (800 – 11000C)outlet oCkill all the pathogen – important in the clinical/hospital waste.
271categories of incinerator Three categories: mass burningSelected burningsource separated materials
272The Incineration Process Four types of incineratorMultiple chamber incineratorNon-heat utilization incineratorFluidised bed incineratorRotary kiln combustor
273Multiple chamber incinerator the simplest incineratorcombustion proceeds in two sagecombustion in the ignition chambergaseous phase combustion in the secondary combustion chamber.
274used when quality of waste is below 340 kg/hr Two typeretortused when quality of waste is below 340 kg/hrIn-lineused for higher capacities
275differences between two type are direction of gas flowpresence of a common wall between the primary and secondary combusting stage in retort in the rotary typehave length to width ratio of 1:1 to 2.4:1 for retort type and 2:1 to 5:1 for in-line type
277Non-heat utilisation incinerator similar with multiple chamber incinerator except the waste to energy process is not includedaccommodate up to 1,000 tonnes/day.capacity of storage pit 16 to 36 hrs of refuse intake
278furnaces used are vertical circular, multicell rectangular or rotary kiln.
279Fluidised bed incinerator uses a vertical furnace as alternate designdevelop and commonly used in Japanthe combustion chamber contains a fluidised bedadvantage of this system is less mechanical problems
280FBI has a maximum capacity 350 tonnes/day more efficient in burning and flue gas volume is smaller.start up time is much smaller – 5 min
281Rotary kiln combustorrotary kiln is circular, inclined, cylindricalslow revolving combustion chamberwaste is rotated slowlyperforation along the kiln allow O2 be pumped – efficient burning
282energy transfer by three method radiation from the refractory inner space surface transfer energy to all surface in the kilnby convection from the hot combustion gasses to the feed materialthe hot refractory surface continuously comes into contact with the underside of the bed
283Products of incineration siftingfine material include ash, metal fragments, glass, unburnt organic substances etc..residueall solid material that are left after incinerationremove continuously or in batches
284clinker and fly ash10% is the fused ashes, etc.. is use as component of cement, concrete or road making.the fly ash comes from the gas scrubbing unitthe quantity of fly ash usually 12 – 15 kg/tonne of refusealso used in cement making, concrete, brick and road making
285suspended particulates flue gasvented air emitted from a chimney after combustion in burner. It can include nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxides, water vapor, sulfur dioxides, particles and many chemical pollutants(FSL)
286the equipments used to remove are: the fabric filter – almost 100% efficiencyelectronic precipitations -96 – 100% efficiency
288waste gasremoved via the stackthe high and diameter depends amount of climatic and lanscaping of the area
289heavy metalfound in the stack gas, bottom ash, filter dust or in salt and sludges from dust cleaningthe heavy metal are:Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, F, Pb, Hg, Ni, S and Zn.
290Distribution of heavy metal in incinerator residue Fraction %Stack gas %Bottom ash %Filter dust %Salt and sludges from gas cleaning %Cadmium0.0411853.6Chlorine0.1291576Chromium0.01945.80.27Copper954.90.53Fluorine1.5693.026Lead75240.9Mercury2.175.186Nickel87130.61Sulphur0.47501040Zinc0.0549510.7
292Acid GasSO2, HCL and HF can be remove by three methodswet methodDry methodsemi dry methodWet methodPollutions are removed by large quantities of slaked lime or aqueous sodium hydroxide in Ventury scrubbing system
293The limestone mixed by two ways: with the waste before incinerationintroduce separately into the furnaceSemi dry methodused a spray of lime (CaO) mixed with water into the flue gas flow
294Dioxin control Organic pollutant – high level of toxicity Persistence in the environmentThe emission of dioxin can be control with further treated of flue gas by;adsorption onto activated carbon filterscatalyst uses:mix metal oxide catalystdestroy the dioxin by reaction with O2
295NOx controlled by in fluidised bed incinerator by controlling the amount of air inlet to the cobustion processWhere NOx production cannot be prevented, it is remove by the injection of urea or ammonia into the flue gas.
296Advantages of incineration incineration is sanitary, odourless and dustlessresidue only 20% of the original weight and can be used for making cement and other materials for construction industryrequire very little space and very few personnel
297can be located centrally even within the town and reducing transportation costs. energy production and other by-product could generated revenueash and other residue are pathogen- freepre sorting and recycle could be incorporated and this reduces the volume to be incinerated
298Disadvantages of incineration high capital cost and high operating costtake time to plan, design constructionrequire skill personneldisposal of ash require landfillmay cause air pollution and long term environmental effect
299High moisture content in refuse make it more expensive to incinerate dioxin is a component of the flue gas especially when the wastes contain a high proportion of plasticrequire pre-sorting otherwise the slag volume would be higher
300RECYCLERecycle of solid waste is reduce the amount of waste introduce to the environment.also reduce the use of primary commodities or raw materialRecycle paper would reduce 60% of water usage, save 70% of the energy and reduce the emission of the pollutants as much as 50 %
301Recycle glass would reduce the usage of water by 50%, 79% of the mining waste could be avoided and air pollution could be reduce by 14%Recycle plastic reduce 30% of energy to make polystyrene foam products compare with the energy used for paper cups made
302Why it is important to recycle Lack of spaceNot wise to build one landfill after anotherPollution, hygiene and other issues must be considerWater pollutionMost land areas are catchment areaToxic leachate will pollute the water
303Air pollutionDecomposition releases gasPollute air and contribute to global warmingCreate unpleasant environmentSave energyOne aluminum can save enough energy to keep a TV set onOne glass bottle can saves 100 watts
304Compromising health Air and water pollution Live close with landfill Vector may carry diseases
305The benefits of recycle Cut down the need for disposal capacityLower emission from landfill, incinerators and litterReduce of energy usage and emissionLessen impacts and conserve raw materialThe energy recovery will increase due to;Reduction in energy use and related emission and reduction in extraction and manufacturing processLong term, value of conservation materials
306The limitation in recycle The definition of waste is varies among the different nationLack of incentives among developing countries for technology developmentThere are no fix price for the recycle product and the erratic price fluctuations favour incineration or landfill
307Usually curb side collection is preferred when recycle is higher Usually curb side collection is preferred when recycle is higher. The “bring” system is not conducive to participantsThere no incentive for recycle in many South East Asia countriesFrequent recycle causes contamination risk due to heavy metal accumulation.
308Recycle in MalaysiaRecycle was introduced in PJ in In 1996, yellow box recycling programme was launchedIn KL plastic is the main material recycled followed by metals. However, less then 1% is recycle.The awareness is high among Malaysian but very few actually practiceOnly 30 to 40% of paper is recycle compare with US 50% and some European nation 60 to 70%
309The important elements of integrated solid waste management are not officially and legally incorporated into the Malaysian waste management practiceOrganized source reduction and recycle are lacking although a few NGOs do carry out recycle activitiesOnly 1 to 2% of the garbage is recycle and the target should be 25 to 30%Recycle of paper is currently practiced in Malaysia especially KL, Penang and Ipoh
310Among Asian countries, Australia, Japan and India have a high recover (60 to 80%) Which increase commitment in certain sector, recycling of glass in Malaysia has increase
311What we can recycle? Paper The principal types of waste paper that are recycled are old newspaper, cardboard, high grade paper and mix paperExcept tissue paper, carbon paper, aluminum foil/wax paper, plastic liminated paper and contaminated paper
312GlassContainer glass (for food packing), flat glass (window glass), pressed or amber glassExcept crystal, mirror, window panes vehicle screen, porcelain, ceramic, bulb, laboratory apparatus and toxic containerGlass, to be reprocessed is often separated by color into categories of clear, green and amber
313AluminumAluminum recycle is made up of two sector: aluminum cans and secondary aluminumSecondary aluminum includes window frame,sliding and gutterExcept paint container, toxic container and solvent containerThe demand for recycled aluminum cans is high. It take 95% less energy to produce an aluminum cans from an existing cans than from ore
314Plastic Classified into two categories: Clean commercial grade scrap Post consumer scrapTwo type of post consumer plastic that most commonly recycle are:polyethylene terephtalate (PETE/1)High density polyethyelene (HDPE)
315Ferrous metal (iron & steel) Traditionally come from large item such as cars and appliancesMany communities have large scrap metal piles at the local landfill or transfer stationIn many cases, the pile are unorganized in different metal are mix together – making them unattractive to scrap buyer
316Steel can use as food container (juice, soft drink and food) and easily separated from mixed recyclable or municipal waste.
317From construction and demolition project: Non-ferrous metalsRecyclable non-ferrous metal from household items:Outdoor furniture, kitchen cookware and appliance, ladder, tool and hardwareFrom construction and demolition project:Cooper wire, pipe, and plumbing supplies, light fixture, aluminum siding, gutters.
318From large consumer, commercial and industrial products: Appliance, automobiles, boats aircraft and machineryVirtually all nonferrous metal can be recycled if they are sorted and free of foreign materials such as plastic, fabrics and rubber
319Methods for the collection of recycle materials The methods used for the collection of recycle materials includes curbside collection and delivery by homeowner to drop-off and buy- back centresThe future separation and processing of waste that have been source-separation is at Material Recover Facilities (MRFs) or Integrated Material Recover Facilities/transfer facilities (MRTFs)
320Drop-off centreRequired residents or businesses to separate recyclable materials at the source and bring to a specified drop-off or collection centreRequire residents to store the materials until sufficient and material is collected to the drop-off centre.The storage of multiple material types is a problem in densely populated area.
321To encourage participation, most successful programs have made drop-off centres has convenient as possibleOther incentives, such as donating portions of proceeds a local charity
322Buy-Back CentresRefers to a drop-off program that provides monetary incentive to participateThe residents are paid for their recyclable either directly or indirectly through reduction in monthly collection and disposal fees.
323Options for the separation of waste materials Separation is a necessary operation in the recovery of reusable and recyclable materials from MSWSeparation can be accomplished either at the source of generation or at MRFs / MRTFs.
324Integrated MRTFsThe function of a drop-off centre for separation waste.The facilities include:Material separation facilitiesA facility for the composting and bioconversion of wasteA facility for the production of refuse- derive fuelTransfer facility
325Chemical and biological processes are use to reduce the volume and weight and to recover conversion products and energyThe most common used chemical transformation process is combustion.Used in conjunction with the recovery of energy.The most commonly used biological transformation process is aerobic composting
326RECYCLE FOR THE BETER FUTURE If you do care, start recycleRECYCLE FOR THE BETER FUTURE……. OR WOULD YOU RATHER LIVE IN THE WASTE?.....
327Field capacity of solid waste Factor that limit growth of vegetation on landfill
330Increasingly, municipalities additionally address urban environment issues related to solid waste management. Public concern and sensitivity to environmental issues is driving this expanded agenda. These includehealth and environmental impacts of accumulated uncollected waste and clandestine disposal siteshealth and environmental impacts of solid waste facilities, including transfer, composting and landfill facilitiesair emissions from waste collection and transfer vehiclesspecial handling and disposal of hazardous wastes, including healthcare and industrial hazardous waste.
331health and environmental impacts (see papers Occupational and Environmental Health Issues of Solid Waste Management: Special Emphasis on Middle and Lower-Income Countries and Environmental Health at a glance) of accumulated uncollected waste and clandestine disposal siteshealth and environmental impacts of solid waste facilities, including transfer, composting and landfill facilitiesair emissions from waste collection and transfer vehiclesspecial handling and disposal of hazardous wastes, including healthcare and industrial hazardous waste.
335Disease and Injury Risks for Solid Waste Workers (Based on data from various countries that is presented within this document)6 times more relative risk of Infectious Disease (Denmark)\74\2.6 times more relative risk for Allergic Pulmonary Disease and 1.4 for Non-Allergic Pulmonary Disease (Denmark)\74\2.5 times fore relative risk for Chronic Bronchitis (Geneva in Switzerland)
3361.2 increased risk of hepatitis (Genoa in Italy)\47\ 3 times more relative risk for Parasites (India)\11\10 times more relative risk for Acute Diarrhea (Romania)\21\2 times more relative risk for Coronary Disease (USA)\17\1.3 times more relative risk for Injury (Romania)\22\
3375.6 times more relative risk for Accidents (Denmark)\74\ 10 times more relative risk for Accidents (USA)\12,43,74\1.9 times more relative risk for Musculoskeletal Problems (Denmark)\74\
338Health Risk Factors for Solid Waste Workers Waste contentfecal matter, blood, body fluids, animalFleshhazardous chemicals and heavy metalsvolatile organic and greenhouse gasespressurized gas containers, munitionsHeavy loads, lifting exertion and vibrationLandfill slides, fires and vehicle accidentsNoise