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Sustainable Cities. Chapter Overview Questions How is the worlds population distributed between rural and urban areas, and what factors determine how.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Cities. Chapter Overview Questions How is the worlds population distributed between rural and urban areas, and what factors determine how."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Cities

2 Chapter Overview Questions How is the worlds population distributed between rural and urban areas, and what factors determine how urban areas develop? How is the worlds population distributed between rural and urban areas, and what factors determine how urban areas develop? What are the major resource and environmental problems of urban areas? What are the major resource and environmental problems of urban areas? How do transportation systems shape urban areas and growth, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of transportation? How do transportation systems shape urban areas and growth, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of transportation?

3 Chapter Overview Questions (contd) What methods are used for planning and controlling urban growth? What methods are used for planning and controlling urban growth? How can cities be made more sustainable and more desirable places to live? How can cities be made more sustainable and more desirable places to live?

4 Core Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil 70% of Curitibas 2 million people use the bus system. 70% of Curitibas 2 million people use the bus system. Only high-rise apartments are allowed near bus routes and devote the bottom 2 floors to stores. Only high-rise apartments are allowed near bus routes and devote the bottom 2 floors to stores. Bike paths run through the city. Bike paths run through the city. Cars are banned from 49 blocks of the citys downtown. Cars are banned from 49 blocks of the citys downtown.

5 Core Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil This bus system moves large numbers of passengers based on its infrastructure: This bus system moves large numbers of passengers based on its infrastructure: Express lanes for buses only. Express lanes for buses only. Double and triple length buses. Double and triple length buses. Extra-wide doors for easy boarding. Extra-wide doors for easy boarding. Figure 23-1

6 Fig. 23-1, p. 548 Route ExpressInterdistrictDirectFeederWorkers City center

7 URBANIZATION AND URBAN GROWTH People move to cities because push factors force them out of rural areas and pull factors give them the hope of finding jobs and a better life in the city. People move to cities because push factors force them out of rural areas and pull factors give them the hope of finding jobs and a better life in the city. Urban populations are growing rapidly and many cities in developing countries have become centers of poverty. Urban populations are growing rapidly and many cities in developing countries have become centers of poverty.

8 Major Urban Areas of the World Satellite images of the earth at night showing city lights. Currently, 49% of the worlds population live in urban areas (2% of earths land area). Satellite images of the earth at night showing city lights. Currently, 49% of the worlds population live in urban areas (2% of earths land area). Figure 23-2

9 Fig. 23-2, p. 550 Karachi 10.4 million 16.2 million Dhaka 13.2 million 22.8 million Tokyo 26.5 million 27.2 million New York 16.8 million 17.9 million Cairo 10.5 million 11.5 million Mumbai (Bombay) 16.5 million 22.6 million Calcutta 13.3 million 16.7 million Osaka 11.0 million 11.0 million Los Angeles 13.3 million 19.0 million Mexico City 18.3 million 20.4 million Lagos 12.2 million 24.4 million Delhi 13.0 million 20.9 million Jakarta 11.4 million 17.3 million Manila 10.1 million 11.5 million Sao Paulo 18.3 million 21.2 million 2015 (projected) Shanghai 12.8 million 13.6 million Buenos Aires 12.1 million 13.2 million Beijing 10.8 million 11.7 million Key 2004 (estimated)

10 Case Study: Urbanization in the U.S. About 48% of Americans live in consolidated metropolitan areas (bottom map). About 48% of Americans live in consolidated metropolitan areas (bottom map). 8 of 10 Americans live in Urban areas. 8 of 10 Americans live in Urban areas. Figure 23-4

11 Urban Sprawl When land is available and affordable, urban areas tend to sprawl outward because: When land is available and affordable, urban areas tend to sprawl outward because: Federal government loan guarantees stimulated the development of suburbs. Federal government loan guarantees stimulated the development of suburbs. Low-cost gasoline and government funding of highways encourages automobile use. Low-cost gasoline and government funding of highways encourages automobile use. Tax-laws encourage home ownership. Tax-laws encourage home ownership. Most zoning laws separate residential and commercial use of land. Most zoning laws separate residential and commercial use of land. Many urban areas lack proper planning. Many urban areas lack proper planning.

12 Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl in and around Las Vegas, Nevada between 1973 and 2000. Urban sprawl in and around Las Vegas, Nevada between 1973 and 2000. Figure 23-5

13 Urban Sprawl As they grow and sprawl outward, urban areas merge to form megalopolis. As they grow and sprawl outward, urban areas merge to form megalopolis. Bowash runs from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. Bowash runs from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. Figure 23-7

14 Highway trust fund

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16 Brownfield Brownfields - Contaminated properties that have been abandoned or are not being used up to potential because of pollution concerns. Brownfields - Contaminated properties that have been abandoned or are not being used up to potential because of pollution concerns. Up to one-third of all commercial industrial sites in urban core of many big cities fall into this category. Steel Yard Commons. In many cases, property owners complain that unreasonably high purity levels are demanded in remediation programs. Up to one-third of all commercial industrial sites in urban core of many big cities fall into this category. Steel Yard Commons. In many cases, property owners complain that unreasonably high purity levels are demanded in remediation programs.

17 Fig. 23-6, p. 553 Natural Capital Degradation Urban Sprawl Land and Biodiversity Human Health and Aesthetics Water Energy, Air, and Climate Economic Effects Loss of croplandContaminated drinking water and air Increased runoff Increased energy use & waste Higher taxes Loss of forests and grasslands Increased surface water & groundwater pollution Decline of downtown business districts Increased air pollution Weight gain Loss of wetlands Increased greenhouse gas emissions Noise pollution Increased use of surface water and groundwater Increased unemployment in central city Loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitats Sky illumination at night Enhanced global warming Decreased storage of surface water and groundwater Loss of tax base in central city Increased wildlife roadkill Traffic congestion Warmer microclimate (urban heat island effect) Increased soil erosion Increased flooding Decreased natural sewage treatment

18 URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Urban areas can offer more job opportunities and better education and health, and can help protect biodiversity by concentrating people. Urban areas can offer more job opportunities and better education and health, and can help protect biodiversity by concentrating people.

19 URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Cities are rarely self-sustaining, can threaten biodiversity, lack trees, concentrate pollutants and noise, spread infectious diseases, and are centers of poverty crime, and terrorism. Cities are rarely self-sustaining, can threaten biodiversity, lack trees, concentrate pollutants and noise, spread infectious diseases, and are centers of poverty crime, and terrorism. Figure 23-3

20 URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Urban areas rarely are sustainable systems. Urban areas rarely are sustainable systems. Figure 23-8

21 Fig. 23-8, p. 554 InputsOutputs Energy Solid wastes Food Waste heat Air pollutants Water Water pollutants Raw materials Greenhouse gases Manufactured goods Noise Money Wealth Information Ideas

22 URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Noise levels of some common sounds. Prolonged exposure to lower noise levels and occasional loud sounds can greatly increase internal stress. Noise levels of some common sounds. Prolonged exposure to lower noise levels and occasional loud sounds can greatly increase internal stress. Figure 23-9

23 Fig. 23-9, p. 555 Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure Noise Levels (in dbA) Normal breathing Quiet rural area RainfallVacuum cleaner Lawn mower Rock music Earphones at loud level WhisperQuiet room Normal conversation Average factory Chain saw Military rifle Air raid siren Thunder- clap (nearby) Boom cars

24 URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Extreme poverty forces hundreds of millions of people to live in slums and shantytowns where adequate water supplies, sewage disposal, and other services do not exist. Extreme poverty forces hundreds of millions of people to live in slums and shantytowns where adequate water supplies, sewage disposal, and other services do not exist. Figure 23-10

25 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment. Should squatters around cities of developing countries be given title to land they live on? Should squatters around cities of developing countries be given title to land they live on? a. No. No one has the right to steal and pollute public or private lands. a. No. No one has the right to steal and pollute public or private lands. b. Yes. The poor need homes. b. Yes. The poor need homes.

26 TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Land availability determines whether a city must grow vertically or spread out horizontally and whether it relies mostly on mass transit or the automobile. Land availability determines whether a city must grow vertically or spread out horizontally and whether it relies mostly on mass transit or the automobile. If Americans doubled their use of mass transit from 5% to 10%, this would reduce U.S. dependence on oil by 40%. If Americans doubled their use of mass transit from 5% to 10%, this would reduce U.S. dependence on oil by 40%.

27 TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Motor vehicles provide personal benefits and promote economic growth, but also kill and injure many people, pollute the air, promote urban sprawl, and result in traffic jams. Motor vehicles provide personal benefits and promote economic growth, but also kill and injure many people, pollute the air, promote urban sprawl, and result in traffic jams. Although it would not be politically popular, we could reduce reliance on automobiles by having users pay for their harmful effects. Although it would not be politically popular, we could reduce reliance on automobiles by having users pay for their harmful effects.

28 Solutions: Redesigning Urban Transport Alternatives include walking, bicycling, and taking subways, trains, and buses. Alternatives include walking, bicycling, and taking subways, trains, and buses.

29 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment. Should half the U.S. gasoline tax be used to develop mass transit, bike lanes, and other alternatives to the car? Should half the U.S. gasoline tax be used to develop mass transit, bike lanes, and other alternatives to the car? a. No. Money needed to repair roads and bridges should not be spent on bike paths and other projects that few people would use. a. No. Money needed to repair roads and bridges should not be spent on bike paths and other projects that few people would use. b. Yes. Encouraging alternatives to personal vehicles will decrease pollution and save energy. b. Yes. Encouraging alternatives to personal vehicles will decrease pollution and save energy.

30 Fig. 23-11, p. 560 Trade-Offs Bicycles AdvantagesDisadvantages Affordable Little protection in an accident Produce no pollution Do not protect riders from bad weather Quiet Require little parking space Not practical for trips longer than 8 kilometers (5 miles) Easy to maneuver in traffic Take few resources to make Can be tiring (except for electric bicycles) Very energy efficient Lack of secure bike parking Provide exercise

31 Fig. 23-12, p. 560 Trade-Offs Mass Transit Rail AdvantagesDisadvantages More energy efficient than cars Expensive to build and maintain Produces less air pollution than cars Cost-effective only along a densely populated narrow corridor Requires less land than roads and parking areas for cars Commits riders to transportation schedules Causes fewer injuries and deaths than cars Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents Reduces car congestion in cities

32 Fig. 23-13, p. 561 Trade-Offs Buses AdvantagesDisadvantages More flexible than rail system Can lose money because they need low fares to attract riders Can be rerouted as needed Often get caught in traffic unless operating in express lanes Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system Commits riders to transportation schedules Can greatly reduce car use and pollution Noisy

33 Fig. 23-14, p. 561 Trade-Offs Rapid Rail AdvantagesDisadvantages Can reduce travel by car or plane Expensive to run and maintain Ideal for trips of 200– 1,000 kilometers (120–620 miles) Must operate along heavily used routes to be profitable Much more energy efficient per rider over the same distance than a car or plane Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents

34 Solutions: Redesigning Urban Transport Potential routes for high-speed bullet trains in the U.S and parts of Canada. Potential routes for high-speed bullet trains in the U.S and parts of Canada. Figure 23-15

35 Case Study: Destroying a Great Mass Transit System in the U.S. In the early 1900s, the U.S. had one of the worlds best street car systems. In the early 1900s, the U.S. had one of the worlds best street car systems. It was bought and destroyed by companies to sell cars and buses. It was bought and destroyed by companies to sell cars and buses. At the same time, National City Lines worked to convert electric-powered commuter locomotives to diesel-powered ones. At the same time, National City Lines worked to convert electric-powered commuter locomotives to diesel-powered ones.

36 URBAN LAND-USE PLANNING AND CONTROL Most land-use planning in the U.S leads to poorly controlled urban sprawl and fund this often environmentally destructive process with property taxes. Most land-use planning in the U.S leads to poorly controlled urban sprawl and fund this often environmentally destructive process with property taxes. Smart growth can help control growth patterns discourage urban sprawl, reduce car dependence, and protect ecologically sensitive areas. Smart growth can help control growth patterns discourage urban sprawl, reduce car dependence, and protect ecologically sensitive areas.

37 Fig. 23-16, p. 563 Solutions Smart Growth Tools Limits and Regulations Limit building permits Urban growth boundaries Greenbelts around cities Public review of new development Protection Preserve existing open space Buy new open space Buy development rights that prohibit certain types of development on land parcels Zoning Encourage mixed use Concentrate development along mass transportation routes Promote high-density cluster housing developments Taxes Tax land, not buildings Tax land on value of actual use (such as forest and agriculture) instead of highest value as developed land Tax Breaks For owners agreeing legally to not allow certain types of development (conservation easements) For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields) Planning Ecological land-use planning Environmental impact analysis Integrated regional planning State and national planning Revitalization & New Growth Revitalize existing towns & cities Build well-planned new towns and villages within cities

38 Case Study: Land-Use Planning in Oregon Oregon has a comprehensive land-use planning process: Oregon has a comprehensive land-use planning process: Permanently zone all rural land as forest, agriculture, or urban land. Permanently zone all rural land as forest, agriculture, or urban land. Draw an urban growth line around each community. Draw an urban growth line around each community. Place control over land-use planning in State hands. Place control over land-use planning in State hands.

39 MAKING URBAN AREAS MORE SUSTAINABLE AND DESIREABLE PLACES TO LIVE There is a growing movement to create mixed-use villages and neighborhoods within urban areas where people can live, work and shop close to their homes. There is a growing movement to create mixed-use villages and neighborhoods within urban areas where people can live, work and shop close to their homes.

40 Cluster Development High density housing units are concentrated on one portion of a parcel with the rest of the land used for commonly shared open space. High density housing units are concentrated on one portion of a parcel with the rest of the land used for commonly shared open space. Figure 23-17

41 Fig. 23-17a, p. 565 Creek Undeveloped land Marsh

42 Fig. 23-17b, p. 565 Typical housing development

43 Fig. 23-17c, p. 565 Cluster Cluster housing development Creek Cluster Pond

44 The Ecocity Concept An ecocity allows people to walk, bike, or take mass transit for most of their travel, and it recycles and reuses most of its wastes, grows much of its own food, and protects biodiversity by preserving surrounding land. An ecocity allows people to walk, bike, or take mass transit for most of their travel, and it recycles and reuses most of its wastes, grows much of its own food, and protects biodiversity by preserving surrounding land.

45 The Ecocity Concept Principles of sustainability: Principles of sustainability: Build cities for people not cars. Build cities for people not cars. Use renewable energy resources. Use renewable energy resources. Use solar-power living machines and wetlands for waste water treatment. Use solar-power living machines and wetlands for waste water treatment. Depend largely on recycled water. Depend largely on recycled water. Use energy and matter efficiently. Use energy and matter efficiently. Prevent pollution and reduce waste. Prevent pollution and reduce waste. Reuse and recycle at least 60% of municipal solid waste. Reuse and recycle at least 60% of municipal solid waste.

46 The Ecocity Concept Protect biodiversity by preserving, protecting, and restoring surrounding natural areas. Protect biodiversity by preserving, protecting, and restoring surrounding natural areas. Promote urban gardens and farmers markets. Promote urban gardens and farmers markets. Build communities that promote cultural and economic diversity. Build communities that promote cultural and economic diversity. Use zoning and other tools to keep the human population and environmentally sustainable levels. Use zoning and other tools to keep the human population and environmentally sustainable levels.


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