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by Anastasija Dudnykova

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1 by Anastasija Dudnykova
French Revolution by Anastasija Dudnykova


3 Quotation "Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive But to be young was very heaven!" William Wordsworth

4 Table of content Causes of the French Revolution
The Old Regime & 3 Estates Tension Financial crisis Session of the Estate General Oath of the Tennis Court King’s response Fall of the Bastille Consequences Rise of the French peasants The Great Fear The National Assembly Declaration of Rights of Men Women in the revolution Constitutional Monarchy Marie Antoinette The Constitution Church and the National Assembly Legislative Assembly Declaration of Pillnitz End of the monarchy

5 Short video


7 Causes I. Widespread famine and starvation (little Ice Age)
Social division in 3 classes Louis XV. fought for many years verge of bankruptcy Louis XVI. supported troops in American Revolution  sending resources from France  deprivation of food for poor people in France  also appealing new revolutionary ideas high unemployment a decline in the 1780s in France's textile industry. The importation of British textiles, cheaper and of better quality than French textiles -, created unemployment among France's spinners and weavers.

8 Causes II. high bread prices Maria Antoinette’s spending
Increase of taxes for the Roman Catholic Church Population growth  The population of France had grown to between 24 and 26 million - up from 19 million in 1700, without a concomitant growth in food production Farmers around Paris consumed over 80 percent of what they grew, so if a harvest fell by around 10 percent, which was common, people went hungry

9 The Old Regime It basically consisted of the 3 Estates

10 3 Estates The clergy The nobility

11 …and everyone else Merchants Poor peasants Bourgeoisie

12 The clergy about 100 000 ppl had important privileges
exemption from regular taxes ability to tax landowners

13 The nobility About ppl They owned about 25 percent of the French land They also had some special privileges: Exalted social position Lighter taxes Exclusive fishing and hunting rights A lot of monopolies like bread baking and wine pressing equipment and also the right to wear swords

14 Everyone else Contained a lot of different social groups
Rich merchants Lawyers Poor peasants Artists Day laborers

15 Tension Tension between the nobility and rich members of the third estate  the bourgeoisie (upper middle class) They rose up To begin a great social revolution

16 Financial crisis French revolution had its origins in the king’s financial difficulties Government was forced to finance the support of american revolution with borrowed money  huuuuuge national debt Less than 20% of the national budget was available for the productive functions of the state Like general administration and transportation This had fatal impact on the french financial situation

17 Session of the Estate General
Was held in July 1788 they had three separate houses Each house held one vote, despite the fact that the third estate consisted of majority of the population of France All estates agreed that financial regulations should be loosened Royal absolutism should give a way to a constitutional monarchy Individuals rights will be guaranteed by law Nobility and clergy controlled all decisions because of their close ties among themselves

18 Estates General

19 May 1789 1200 delegates paraded through the streets of Versailles to an opening session Delegates of the third estate refused to negotiate about anything until they were incluced into sessions with other 2 estates Six week later, few parish priests began to go over to the 3rd estate On June 17th They started to call themselves the National Assembly

20 Oath of the Tennis Court
June 20th Delegates of the 3rd estate Moved to the large indoor tennis court Because of ‘repair’ going on in their hall Here they swore the famous Oath of the Tennis Court Pledging not to disband until they had written a new constitution

21 What was the Oath of the Tennis Court?
Members of the National Assembly took oath not to separate under any circumstances, to reassemble wherever circumstances require until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.


23 King’s response On June 23, Louis XVI
ordered the 3 Estates to meet together. At the same time he took on advice of court nobles and his relatives To dismiss the Estates General using force He called army of troops toward Versailles And on July 11th dismissed his finance minister Jaques Necker He also dismissed his other liberal ministers

24 Fall of the Bastille perceived to be a symbol of monarchist tyranny
In Paris people were blaming rich and the old regime for their troubles The king had replaced his former finance minister Necker with a baron named Breteuil People didn’t like it, and went in the streets Demonstrators attacked the cavalry and debris Crowds emptied gunshops. Soldiers joined the crowds and joined in the looting. Those storming the Bastille killed a few of the 30 or so garrison soldiers defending it, and the attackers suffered 98 killed and 78 wounded. The crowd released the seven who had been prisoners in the Bastille


26 Consequences Fighting continued until the prison was surrounded
King was forced to recall the ministers And disperse his troops The uprising had broken the power of monopoly of the royal army Thus saving the National Assembly

27 Rise of French peasants
While the delegates continued debating Peasants at the countryside were extremely hungry and poor They started to burn the feudal documents Attacking the houses of their landlords In some areas they started to reocuppy their old common lands They stopped to pay taxes And started to seize the forests  ppl grew into fear of them  the Great Fear

28 The Great Fear The vagabonds and peasants seized the countriside as well And began to rebell They simply tried to free themselves from the …. They succeed On August 14th, 1789 The delegates of Versailles Agreed to get rid of the old noble privileges

29 The National Assembly On August 4, the National Assembly made the abolition of feudal privileges official. Nobles were prohibited from charging dues, from making people work on roads or from holding exclusive hunting rights. And the National Assembly ended obligations to pay tithes to the Church. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen declaration spoke of man's natural right to liberty and right to resist oppression The main issue was how powers would be divided between the king and elected representatives of the people - including the question of the king having veto powers over legislation The National Assembly had declared itself sovereign but was seeking the king's cooperation. Deputies to the National Convention and the many who supported the revolution looked upon Louis with greater suspicion. The French Revolution was beginning to suffer from exaggeration, fear and an inability to work around disagreements.

30 Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Issued on August 27 By the National Assembly the draft of which had been discussed with Thomas Jefferson, then the U.S. ambassador to France This was a statement of principles  to educate and enhance love of liberty Every man has a natural right for liberty  and a right to ressist opression and a right of property Virtue and talent, it stated, should be the only requirements for public office. It claimed that all "men" should be equal before the law, that arbitrary arrests should be illegal, that people should be presumed innocent until proven otherwise in a court of law, and that there should be freedom of opinion concerning religion.



33 Women's March on Versailles
women of Paris played a large role in the unfolding of the Revolution Since they have a lot of hungry children at home to feed, any fluctuation in bread price affected them very deeply They were ready to riot about that They invaded the Assembly armed with sticks and pikes They invaded the royal apartments searching for the queen, Marie Antoinette they hated her for her behaviour and her uncontrolled spending of the French budget only the intervention of Lafayette and the National Guard saved the royal family

34 Women's March on Versailles II.
a mob of fishwives, led by the ex-courtesan Anne Theroigne de Mericourt, who brought the royal family to Paris on October 5th, marched to Versailles en masse the day before, demanding that "the Baker" bring bread to the starving Parisian population Women were active in the galleries of the National Assembly, always ready to plead their hunger and demand action. However, regardless of all of their achievements, they were not rewarded for any of those

35 Women fighting in the name of France
In response to "Rights of Man and Citizen", prominent woman of letters and abolitionist Olympe de Gouges wrote "Rights of Woman and Citizen" in 1791— a document that called for the same suffrage, property and civil rights to pertain to women as to men. At the same time, Mary Wollstonecraft, an English radical who would be the mother of Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein, wrote the Vindication of the Rights of Women even though, women did not succeed with these documents, they did achieve some succes In 1790, the Dutch baroness Etta d'Palme won the right for women to file divorces. Also The Paris Commune declared spousal abuse as a crime.

36 Women in the French army
When the war broke out many patriotic women wanted to take up arms to fight for their country The "Amazons", a Parisian militia, begged the National Assembly that they could "fight with weapons other than a needle and spindle." Some women did join army However in late 1792, women were officially banned from joining the army, Even though France was in desperate need of soldiers.

37 Constitutional Monarchy
Some royalties fled to Russia, Austria and England These were people who had bought lace, dresses and other goods, and, with orders down, unemployment began to rise among the women who made these goods International trade went down Common people in France suffered from hunger and hardship People of Paris lost their temper Another mob formed, 7000 strong, mostly women, armed with sticks, scythes and pikes. The mob marched the twelve miles to Versailles and they invaded the National Assembly, believing they could cajole the assembly into making bread available. They invaded the apartments of royalty, overwhelming and killing bodyguards. They shouted that they were going to cut off the queen's head and fry her liver. However she fled through a secret passageway

38 Marie Antoinette Queen of France, 1755 - 1793
was born on November 2nd, 1755 in Vienna, Austria The youngest daughter of Francis Stephen I and Maria Theresa, who were Emperor and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire She married the crown prince of France in 1770. Four years later she became queen when her husband was crowned King Louis XVI (House of Bourbon) The ideology in the 18th and 19th centuries was changing, and in fact she was also at wrong time at the wrong place

39 The last queen of France
Her people didn’t like her After a failed attempt to flee Paris in 1791 Antoinette continued to seek aid from abroad When Austria and Prussia declared war on France, she was accused of passing military secrets to the enemy On August 10, 1792 the royal family was arrested on suspicion of treason and imprisoned. On January 21, 1793 King Louis XVI was convicted and executed on the guillotine. Marie Antoinette was cruely treated during her final days of captivity. Her best friend, the Princess de Lambelle, was killed and her severed head was put on a pike and paraded in front of the Queen.

40 Her end… Her children (Marie Therese and Louis XVII) were taken from her. Louis XVII was subjected to abuse by the family's jailers and later died, supposedly of Tuberculosis and malnutrition Marie Therese, her firstborn daughter was the only family member to survive Antoinette followed her husband to the guillotine on October 16, 1793. She was executed without proof of the crimes for which she was accused. She was only 37 years old.

41 Monarchy continued… The Bourbon monarchy was restored in 1814 after the fall of Napoleon succession went to the closest living relative of Louis XVI who became Louis XVIII He had escaped to Britain where he sat out the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars After Napoleon abdicated in 1871, France became a republic.

42 The Constitution In Paris, the National Assembly continued to struggle to create a constitution, and it tried to create economic relief it nationalized Church lands in November Claiming it belongs to the nation Not to the church In April 1790 the National Assembly issued paper money, the assignat, backed by the value of these lands In 1790 was better weather condition  bringing more harvest to the country Bringing more food  more relief

43 The constitution and National Assembly
National Assembly abolished tariff barriers within France  that has been a money-making tool for the nobility They also abolished trade guilds and corporations, local authorities were forbidden to accept representations from any worker group or to offer employment to a member of any such group

44 Religion and the National Assembly
In their opinion the revolution they were making was according to Christian principles They believed that: French citizens needed religion That religion is a force to civilize people and that the Gospels had humanistic and moral values They also liked to put religion under the control of the Revolution They wanted a more liberal religion than the Catholic Church

45 Louis XVI and National Assembly
he was accused of sheltering priests who had refused to take the oath of loyalty to the state In June 1791 he fled from France with his family However he was caught in Belgium and returned to Tuileries He was more as a prisoner The National Assembly also suspended his powers Some members of the National Assembly wanted to get rid of him but some were afraid to do so They did not kill him, however they restricted him by the certain orders: He couldn’t have any control over the army No authority over local government And he couldn’t have any of his representatives in the parlament

46 The constitution repeated some of what was said in the Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens: all men were said to be born with equal rights, and everyone was said to be free to speak, write or print his opinions provided he did not abuse this privilege Also the amount of taxes person had to pay was based on one’s possesion The king gave his acceptance on September 13  revolution appeared complete Public opinion was on the revolution’s side However, aggravations had been created by government trying to exercise authority over religion This was the beginning when the revolution started to damage itself

47 Legislative Assembly Male voter elected new members to the new legislative constitution  Legislative Assembly  the National Assembly had been dissolved Members from the National Assembly could not enter the Legislative Assembly However, rich people continued to have most of the political power

48 but… Not all the French people supported the revolution
Catholic priests and nobles opposed the new order

49 Division of the Legislative Assembly
Legislative Assembly became divided into three groups The conservatives: Wanted to end the revolution They wanted kind but with restricted power The radicals: Wanted more powerful changes than those by the National Assembly They wanted a republic and to get rid of the king The moderates: They didn’t have any extreme opinions or views They agreed with either side depending on what was more convenient for them

50 Declaration of Pillnitz
Leopold II. of Austria And king Frederick William II of Prussia Issued the Declaration of Pillnitz In it, they invited other European emperors to help to return the monarchy in France Legislative Assembly reacted  by declaring the war with Austria That happened in April, 1792 A lot of other european monarchs like Sardinia and Prussia decided to support Austria

51 End of the monarchy There were many failures of french in the war with Austria The discontent grew among the people of France Commune, the government of city of Paris Demanded that Legislative Assembly should abolish the monarchy The king was accused of plotting against the Constitution by helping the other countries to overthrow the Constitution Troops arrived from city Marseilles, singing La Marseillaise  later became french national anthem On August 10, 1792 got rid of the office of king Later the Legislative Assembly tried to rule France It didn’t work out well They didmissed themselves Created the National Convetion  that would create a new constitution

52 Robespierre’s prediction
Louis accepted the Constitution in September 1791 Young lawyer and delegate Maximilien Robespierre ( ) Said ‘the revolution is over’ He was both right and wrong Right- most constructive and lasting reforms were in place Wrong- much more radical stage lay ahead

53 Short videos Start 1:40

54 Bibliography

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