3Quotation"Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive But to be young was very heaven!"William Wordsworth
4Table of content Causes of the French Revolution The Old Regime & 3 EstatesTensionFinancial crisisSession of the Estate GeneralOath of the Tennis CourtKing’s responseFall of the BastilleConsequencesRise of the French peasantsThe Great FearThe National AssemblyDeclaration of Rights of MenWomen in the revolutionConstitutional MonarchyMarie AntoinetteThe ConstitutionChurch and the National AssemblyLegislative AssemblyDeclaration of PillnitzEnd of the monarchy
7Causes I. Widespread famine and starvation (little Ice Age) Social division in 3 classesLouis XV. fought for many years verge of bankruptcyLouis XVI. supported troops in American Revolution sending resources from France deprivation of food for poor people in France also appealing new revolutionary ideashigh unemploymenta decline in the 1780s in France's textile industry.The importation of British textiles, cheaper and of better quality than French textiles-, created unemployment among France's spinners and weavers.
8Causes II. high bread prices Maria Antoinette’s spending Increase of taxes for the Roman Catholic ChurchPopulation growth The population of France had grown to between 24 and 26 million - up from 19 million in 1700, without a concomitant growth in food productionFarmers around Paris consumed over 80 percent of what they grew, so if a harvest fell by around 10 percent, which was common, people went hungry
9The Old RegimeIt basically consisted of the 3 Estates
12The clergy about 100 000 ppl had important privileges exemption from regular taxesability to tax landowners
13The nobilityAbout pplThey owned about 25 percent of the French landThey also had some special privileges:Exalted social positionLighter taxesExclusive fishing and hunting rightsA lot of monopolies like bread baking and wine pressing equipmentand also the right to wear swords
14Everyone else Contained a lot of different social groups Rich merchantsLawyersPoor peasantsArtistsDay laborers
15TensionTension between the nobility and rich members of the third estate the bourgeoisie (upper middle class)They rose upTo begin a great social revolution
16Financial crisisFrench revolution had its origins in the king’s financial difficultiesGovernment was forced to finance the support of american revolution with borrowed money huuuuuge national debtLess than 20% of the national budget was available for the productive functions of the stateLike general administration and transportationThis had fatal impact on the french financial situation
17Session of the Estate General Was held in July 1788they had three separate housesEach house held one vote,despite the fact that the third estate consisted of majority of the population of FranceAll estates agreed that financial regulations should be loosenedRoyal absolutism should give a way to a constitutional monarchyIndividuals rights will be guaranteed by lawNobility and clergy controlled all decisions because of their close ties among themselves
19May 17891200 delegates paraded through the streets of Versailles to an opening sessionDelegates of the third estate refused to negotiate about anything until they were incluced into sessions with other 2 estatesSix week later, few parish priests began to go over to the 3rd estateOn June 17thThey started to call themselves the National Assembly
20Oath of the Tennis Court June 20thDelegates of the 3rd estateMoved to the large indoor tennis courtBecause of ‘repair’ going on in their hallHere they swore the famous Oath of the Tennis CourtPledging not to disband until they had written a new constitution
21What was the Oath of the Tennis Court? Members of the National Assembly took oath not to separate under any circumstances,to reassemble wherever circumstances requireuntil the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundationsall members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.
23King’s response On June 23, Louis XVI ordered the 3 Estates to meet together.At the same time he took on advice of court nobles and his relativesTo dismiss the Estates General using forceHe called army of troops toward VersaillesAnd on July 11th dismissed his finance minister Jaques NeckerHe also dismissed his other liberal ministers
24Fall of the Bastille perceived to be a symbol of monarchist tyranny In Paris people were blaming rich and the old regime for their troublesThe king had replaced his former finance minister Necker with a baron named BreteuilPeople didn’t like it, and went in the streetsDemonstrators attacked the cavalry and debrisCrowds emptied gunshops.Soldiers joined the crowds and joined in the looting.Those storming the Bastille killed a few of the 30 or so garrison soldiers defending it, and the attackers suffered 98 killed and 78 wounded.The crowd released the seven who had been prisoners in the Bastille
26Consequences Fighting continued until the prison was surrounded King was forced to recall the ministersAnd disperse his troopsThe uprising had broken the power of monopoly of the royal armyThus saving the National Assembly
27Rise of French peasants While the delegates continued debatingPeasants at the countryside were extremely hungry and poorThey started to burn the feudal documentsAttacking the houses of their landlordsIn some areas they started to reocuppy their old common landsThey stopped to pay taxesAnd started to seize the forests ppl grew into fear of them the Great Fear
28The Great FearThe vagabonds and peasants seized the countriside as wellAnd began to rebellThey simply tried to free themselves from the ….They succeedOn August 14th, 1789The delegates of VersaillesAgreed to get rid of the old noble privileges
29The National AssemblyOn August 4, the National Assembly made the abolition of feudal privileges official.Nobles were prohibited from charging dues, from making people work on roads or from holding exclusive hunting rights.And the National Assembly ended obligations to pay tithes to the Church.Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizendeclaration spoke of man's natural right to liberty and right to resist oppressionThe main issue was how powers would be divided between the king and elected representatives of the people - including the question of the king having veto powers over legislationThe National Assembly had declared itself sovereign but was seeking the king's cooperation.Deputies to the National Convention and the many who supported the revolution looked upon Louis with greater suspicion. The French Revolution was beginning to suffer from exaggeration, fear and an inability to work around disagreements.
30Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizen Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenIssued on August 27By the National Assemblythe draft of which had been discussed with Thomas Jefferson, then the U.S. ambassador to FranceThis was a statement of principles to educate and enhance love of libertyEvery man has a natural right for liberty and a right to ressist opressionand a right of propertyVirtue and talent, it stated, should be the only requirements for public office. It claimed that all "men" should be equal before the law, that arbitrary arrests should be illegal, that people should be presumed innocent until proven otherwise in a court of law, and that there should be freedom of opinion concerning religion.
33Women's March on Versailles women of Paris played a large role in the unfolding of the RevolutionSince they have a lot of hungry children at home to feed, any fluctuation in bread price affected them very deeplyThey were ready to riot about thatThey invaded the Assembly armed with sticks and pikesThey invaded the royal apartments searching for the queen, Marie Antoinettethey hated her for her behaviour and her uncontrolled spending of the French budgetonly the intervention of Lafayette and the National Guard saved the royal family
34Women's March on Versailles II. a mob of fishwives, led by the ex-courtesan Anne Theroigne de Mericourt,who brought the royal family to Paris on October 5th,marched to Versailles en masse the day before, demanding that "the Baker" bring bread to the starving Parisian populationWomen were active in the galleries of the National Assembly, always ready to plead their hunger and demand action.However, regardless of all of their achievements, they were not rewarded for any of those
35Women fighting in the name of France In response to "Rights of Man and Citizen", prominent woman of letters and abolitionist Olympe de Gougeswrote "Rights of Woman and Citizen" in 1791—a document that called for the same suffrage, property and civil rights to pertain to women as to men.At the same time, Mary Wollstonecraft,an English radical who would be the mother of Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein,wrote the Vindication of the Rights of Womeneven though, women did not succeed with these documents, they did achieve some succesIn 1790, the Dutch baroness Etta d'Palme won the right for women to file divorces.Also The Paris Commune declared spousal abuse as a crime.
36Women in the French army When the war broke outmany patriotic women wanted to take up arms to fight for their countryThe "Amazons", a Parisian militia, begged the National Assemblythat they could "fight with weapons other than a needle and spindle."Some women did join armyHowever in late 1792, women were officially banned from joining the army,Even though France was in desperate need of soldiers.
37Constitutional Monarchy Some royalties fled to Russia, Austria and EnglandThese were people who had bought lace, dresses and other goods, and, with orders down, unemployment began to rise among the women who made these goodsInternational trade went downCommon people in France suffered from hunger and hardshipPeople of Paris lost their temperAnother mob formed, 7000 strong, mostly women, armed with sticks, scythes and pikes. The mob marched the twelve miles to Versailles and they invaded the National Assembly, believing they could cajole the assembly into making bread available. They invaded the apartments of royalty, overwhelming and killing bodyguards. They shouted that they were going to cut off the queen's head and fry her liver.However she fled through a secret passageway
38Marie Antoinette Queen of France, 1755 - 1793 was born on November 2nd, 1755 in Vienna, AustriaThe youngest daughter of Francis Stephen I and Maria Theresa, who were Emperor and Empress of the Holy Roman EmpireShe married the crown prince of France in 1770.Four years later she became queen when her husband was crowned King Louis XVI (House of Bourbon)The ideology in the 18th and 19th centuries was changing, and in fact she was also at wrong time at the wrong place
39The last queen of France Her people didn’t like herAfter a failed attempt to flee Paris in 1791 Antoinette continued to seek aid from abroadWhen Austria and Prussia declared war on France, she was accused of passing military secrets to the enemyOn August 10, 1792 the royal family was arrested on suspicion of treason and imprisoned.On January 21, 1793 King Louis XVI was convicted and executed on the guillotine.Marie Antoinette was cruely treated during her final days of captivity.Her best friend, the Princess de Lambelle, was killed and her severed head was put on a pike and paraded in front of the Queen.
40Her end…Her children (Marie Therese and Louis XVII) were taken from her.Louis XVII was subjected to abuse by the family's jailers and later died, supposedly of Tuberculosis and malnutritionMarie Therese, her firstborn daughter was the only family member to surviveAntoinette followed her husband to the guillotine on October 16, 1793.She was executed without proof of the crimes for which she was accused.She was only 37 years old.
41Monarchy continued…The Bourbon monarchy was restored in 1814 after the fall of Napoleonsuccession went to the closest living relative of Louis XVI who became Louis XVIIIHe had escaped to Britain where he sat out the Revolution and the Napoleonic warsAfter Napoleon abdicated in 1871, France became a republic.
42The ConstitutionIn Paris, the National Assembly continued to struggle to create a constitution, and it tried to create economic reliefit nationalized Church lands in NovemberClaiming it belongs to the nationNot to the churchIn April 1790 the National Assembly issued paper money, the assignat, backed by the value of these landsIn 1790 was better weather condition bringing more harvest to the countryBringing more food more relief
43The constitution and National Assembly National Assembly abolished tariff barriers within France that has been a money-making tool for the nobilityThey also abolished trade guilds and corporations,local authorities were forbidden to accept representations from any worker group or to offer employment to a member of any such group
44Religion and the National Assembly In their opinion the revolution they were making was according to Christian principlesThey believed that:French citizens needed religionThat religion is a force to civilize peopleand that the Gospels had humanistic and moral valuesThey also liked to put religion under the control of the RevolutionThey wanted a more liberal religion than the Catholic Church
45Louis XVI and National Assembly he was accused of sheltering priests who had refused to take the oath of loyalty to the stateIn June 1791 he fled from France with his familyHowever he was caught in Belgium and returned to TuileriesHe was more as a prisonerThe National Assembly also suspended his powersSome members of the National Assembly wanted to get rid of him but some were afraid to do soThey did not kill him, however they restricted him by the certain orders:He couldn’t have any control over the armyNo authority over local governmentAnd he couldn’t have any of his representatives in the parlament
46The constitution repeated some of what was said in the Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens: all men were said to be born with equal rights, and everyone was said to be free to speak, write or print his opinions provided he did not abuse this privilegeAlso the amount of taxes person had to pay was based on one’s possesionThe king gave his acceptance on September 13 revolution appeared completePublic opinion was on the revolution’s sideHowever, aggravations had been created by government trying to exercise authority over religionThis was the beginning when the revolution started to damage itself
47Legislative AssemblyMale voter elected new members to the new legislative constitution Legislative Assembly the National Assembly had been dissolvedMembers from the National Assembly could not enter the Legislative AssemblyHowever, rich people continued to have most of the political power
48but… Not all the French people supported the revolution Catholic priests and nobles opposed the new order
49Division of the Legislative Assembly Legislative Assembly became divided into three groupsThe conservatives:Wanted to end the revolutionThey wanted kind but with restricted powerThe radicals:Wanted more powerful changes than those by the National AssemblyThey wanted a republicand to get rid of the kingThe moderates:They didn’t have any extreme opinions or viewsThey agreed with either side depending on what was more convenient for them
50Declaration of Pillnitz Leopold II. of AustriaAnd king Frederick William II of PrussiaIssued the Declaration of PillnitzIn it, they invited other European emperors to help to return the monarchy in FranceLegislative Assembly reacted by declaring the war with AustriaThat happened in April, 1792A lot of other european monarchs like Sardinia and Prussia decided to support Austria
51End of the monarchyThere were many failures of french in the war with AustriaThe discontent grew among the people of FranceCommune, the government of city of ParisDemanded that Legislative Assembly should abolish the monarchyThe king was accused of plotting against the Constitution by helping the other countries to overthrow the ConstitutionTroops arrived from city Marseilles, singing La Marseillaise later became french national anthemOn August 10, 1792 got rid of the office of kingLater the Legislative Assembly tried to rule FranceIt didn’t work out wellThey didmissed themselvesCreated the National Convetion that would create a new constitution
52Robespierre’s prediction Louis accepted the Constitution in September 1791Young lawyer and delegateMaximilien Robespierre ( )Said ‘the revolution is over’He was both right and wrongRight- most constructive and lasting reforms were in placeWrong- much more radical stage lay ahead