5 英语语言基本结构：在英语语言结构中，一般都是把最核心的东西放在句首，其后逐次填补补充性和说明性的内容。与此相反，汉语往往是把辅助性内容放在句首，句子最后再出现句子的核心内容。例：汉：请带好身份证和准考证，明天上午8点在学校大门外集合后准时参加考试。英：Please attend the examination with your ID card and entrance ticket on time after gathering together outside the school gate at 8’o clock tomorrow morning.
6 英语语义群之间的关系英语和汉语之间一个很大的差别是，汉语通常用按逻辑关系前后排放的简单句来表示复杂的内容；英语通常用主句和从句的复合句形式来表达复杂的内容。因此，中国学生学英语时往往在对英语长句的分析理解上产生难处和困惑。结构形式：汉语： 语义成分1 || 语义成分2 || 语义成分3 || ……英语： 语义成分1 ← 语义成分2←语义成分3…例：汉语：这是一本大红旧书。这是他的书，是他爸爸昨天给他买的。他爸爸参加过那场战争，他爸爸出上在这个房子里。英语：This is a big red old book of him which was bought to him yesterday by his father who once took part in that war and was born in this house.
7 英语断句原理1. 关联词前Misunderstandings arise between people from different cultures that treat time differently（后置定语从句）.2. 动词前（主语短语）A foreigner’s first impression of the U.S. is likely to be that everyone is in a rush（表语从句） – often under pressure.3. 两个动词之间（主语从句）What he said is the most important clue of the case.4. 两个指示代词之间Short-term goals are those that usually deal with current activities, which we can apply on a daily basis.
11 Passage 1The French Revolution broke out in At the time France was in a crisis. The government was badly run and people‘s lives were miserable. King Louis XIV（16） tried to control the national parliament and raise more taxes. But his effort failed. He ordered his troops to Versailles . The people thought that Louis intended to put down （镇压）the Revolution by force. On July 14, 1789, they stormed and took the Bastille, where political prisoners were kept. Ever since that day, July 14 has been the French National Day. Louis tried to flee the country in 1792 to get support from Austria and Prussia .
12 However, he was caught and put in prison However, he was caught and put in prison. In September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. In the same year, Louis was executed. A few months later his wife, Marie also had her head cut off. The Revolution of France had frightened the other kings of Europe . Armies from Austria and Prussia began to march against France . The French raised republican armies to defend the nation. The Revolution went through a period of terror. Thousands of people lost their lives. In the end, power passed to Napoleon Bonaparte. (190 words)
13 1. What's this passage about? A. France B. King Louis.C. The French Revolution D. Europe .2. Which did not happen in 1789?A. The French Revolution broke out.B. The national economy was developing rapidly.C. The government wasn't well run.D. King Louis XIV was in power.3. Where were the political prisoners kept?A. In Versailles B. In Austria .C. In Prussia D. In Bastille.
14 4. What does the underlined word "abolished" mean? A. Put off （推迟） B. Established（建立）C. United （联合） D. Ended.5. What was NOT the effect of the Revolution?A. July 14 has become the French National Day.B. It brought some impact on the other European kings.C. Louis's wife, Marie was killed.D. The king tried to control the national parliament.
15 Passage 2In the United States , it is not customary （符合习俗的）to telephone someone very early in the morning . If you telephone him early in the day, while he is shaving or having breakfast, the time of the call shows that the matter is very important and requires immediate attention. The same meaning is attached to telephone calls made after 11: 00 p.m. If someone receives a call during sleeping hours, he assumes（设想） it‘s a matter of life or death. The time chosen for the call communicates its importance. In social life, time plays a very important part. In the U.S.A. guests tend to（往往） feel they are not highly regarded if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date. But it is not true in all countries.
16 In other areas of the world, it may be considered foolish to make an appointment too far in advance because plans which are made for a date more than a week away tend to be forgotten. The meaning of time differs in different parts of the world. Thus, misunderstandings arise between people from different cultures that treat time differently. Promptness（守时） is valued highly in American life, for example. If people are not prompt, they may be regarded as impolite or not fully responsible. In the U.S. no one would think of keeping a business associate（关系） waiting for an hour, it would be too impolite. A person who is 5 minutes late, will say a few words of explanation, though perhaps he will not complete the sentence. (260 words)
17 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. It is not customary to telephone someone in the morning and in sleeping hours in the U.S.B. The role of time in social life over the world.C. If people are not prompt, they may be regarded as impolite or not fully responsible in the U.S.D. Not every country treats the concept of time as the same.2. What does it mean in the passage if you call someone during his or her sleeping hours?A. A matter of work.B. A matter of life or death.C. You want to see him or her.D. You want to make an appointment with him or her.3. Which of the following time is proper if you want to make an appointment with your friend?A. at 7:00 am B. at 4:00 pm.C. at the midnight. D. at 4:00 am.
18 4. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. In the U.S.A. guests tend to feel they are highly regarded if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date.B. There is no misunderstanding arising between people from different cultures about the concept of time.C. It may be considered foolish to make an appointment well in advance in the U.S.A. .D. Promptness is valued highly in American life.5. From the passage we can safely infer that _________ .A. it's a matter of life or death if you call someone in day timeB. the meaning of time differs in different parts of the worldC. it makes no difference in the U.S. whether you are early or late for a business partyD. if a person is late for a date, he needn't make some explanation
19 Passage 3A foreigner‘s first impression of the U.S. is likely to be that everyone is in a rush - often under pressure. City people appear always to be hurrying to get where they are going restlessly, seeking attention in a store, and elbowing（撞、挂碰） others as they try to complete their errands（任务）. Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country.Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating places are waiting for you to finish so that they too can be served and get back to work within the time allowed. Each person hurries to make room for the next person. If you don't, waiters will hurry you.
20 You also find drivers will be abrupt （粗鲁）and that people will push past you. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small courtesies（礼节） with strangers. Don‘t take it personally. This is because people value time highly, and they resent（愤恨） someone else "wasting" it beyond a certain courtesy point.The view of time affects the importance we attach to patience. In the American system of values, patience is not a high priority（优先权）. Many of us have what might be called “a short fuse （着急上火）. ” We begin to move restlessly about if we feel time is slipping away without some return. Be（不管是…) this in terms of pleasure, work value, or rest.
21 Those coming from lands where time is looked upon differently may find this matter of pace to be one of their most difficult adjustments in both business and daily life. Many newcomers to the States will miss（省去） the opening courtesy of a business call, for example, they will miss the ritual（礼仪的） socializing（社交活动） that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee they may be traditional in their own country. They may miss leisurely business chats in a cafe or coffeehouse.
22 Normally, Americans do not assess（接近） their visitors in such relaxed（休闲的） surroundings over prolonged small talks. We seek out （搜寻）evidence of past performance rather than（而不是） evaluate a business colleague through social courtesies（社交礼节）. Since we generally assess（接近、接触） and probe（探讨） professionally rather than socially, we start talking business very quickly. (348 words)
23 1. Which of the following statements is wrong? A. Americans seem to be always under pressure.B. Americans attach less importance to patience.C. Americans don't care much about ritual socializing.D. Americans are impolite to their business colleagues.2. In the fourth paragraph, "a high priority" means:A. a less important thing B. a first concernC. a good business D. an attractive gift
24 3. Americans evaluate a business colleague____ . A. through social courtesyB. through prolonged business talksC. by establishing business relationsD. by learning about their past performance4. This passage mainly talks about _________ .A. how Americans treasure their timeB. how busy Americans are every dayC. how Americans do business with foreignersD. what American way of life is like5. We can infer from the passage that the author's tone in writing isA. critical B. ironicalC. appreciative D. objective
25 Passage 4Sixteen-year-old Maria was waiting in line（排队） at the airport in Santo Domingo . She was leaving her native country to join her sister in the United States . She spoke English very well. Though she was very happy she could go abroad, she was feeling sad at leaving her family and friends. As she was thinking all about this, she suddenly heard the airline employee asking her to pick up her luggage and put it on the scales (磅秤). Maria pulled and pulled. The bag was too heavy and she just couldn‘t lift it up. The man behind her got very impatient. He, too, was waiting to check in （办手续）his luggage.
26 “What‘s wrong with this girl. ” He said, “Why doesn’t she hurry up “What‘s wrong with this girl?” He said, “Why doesn’t she hurry up?” He moved forward and placed his bag on the counter（柜台）, hoping to check in first. He was in a hurry to get a good seat.Maria was very angry, but she was very polite. And in her best English she said, “Why are you so upset（心烦意乱）? There are enough seats for everyone on the plane. If you are in such a hurry, why can't you give me a hand with my luggage?"The man was surprised to hear Maria speak English. He quickly picked up her luggage and stepped back. Everyone was looking at him with disapproval（不赞同）. (224 words)
27 1. Maria's story happened ___________ . A. when she was leaving AmericaB. on her way back to Santo DomingoC. before she left the USAD. when she arrived at the airport2. You believe that the work of the airline employee mentioned in the story is to ______ at the airport.A. help carry people's luggageB. ask people to pick up the luggageC. check people's luggageD. take care of people's luggage3. "Why are you so upset?" Maria said to the man. She wanted to tell him that he should not be ____________ .A. surprised B. sadC. unhappy D. sorry
28 4. “Everyone was looking at him with disapproval 4. “Everyone was looking at him with disapproval.” This sentence means that the people around felt _______.A. worried about MariaB. worried about the manC. sorry for Maria's mannersD. sorry for the man's manners5. The author mentioned Maria's age at the beginning of the story in order to show that ____.A. she was young but behaved properlyB. she would not have left home aloneC. everyone around her was wrongD. it was not good that nobody offered to helpher
29 Passage 5There are three kinds of goals: short-term, medium-range and long-term goals.Short-term goals are those that usually deal with current activities, which we can apply on a daily basis. Such goals can be achieved in a week or less, or two weeks, or possibly, months. It should be remembered that just as a building is no stronger than its foundation, long-term goals cannot amount to（达到、相当于） very munch（用力嚼：此处疑为印刷笔误） without the achievement of solid short-term goals. Upon completing our short-term goals, we should date（确定） the occasion and then add new short-term goals that will build on those that have been completed.
30 The intermediate goals build on the foundation of the short-term goals The intermediate goals build on the foundation of the short-term goals. They might deal with just one term of school or the entire school year, or they could even extend（扩展） for several years. Any time you move a step at a time, you should never allow yourself to become discouraged or overwhelmed（颠覆、手足无措）. As you complete each step, you will enforce the belief in your ability to grow and succeed. And as your list of completion dates grow, your motivation（动机） and desire will increase.Long-term goals may be related to our dreams of the future. They might cover five years or more. Life is not a static thing. We should never allow a long-term goal to limit us or our course of action. (221 words)
31 1. Our long-term goals mean a lot ___________ . A. If we cannot reach solid short-term goalsB. If we complete the short-term goalsC. if we have dreams of the futureD. if we put forward some plans2. New short-term goals are built upon ___________ .A. a daily basisB. your achievement in a weekC. current activitiesD. the goals that have been completed3. When we complete each step of our goals, ________ .A. we will win final successB. we are overwhelmedC. we should build up confidence of successD. we should have strong desire for setting new goals
32 4. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Life is a dynamic thing.B. we should set up long-term goals.C. Different kinds of goals in life.D. The limitation of long-term goals.5. Which of the following statements is wrong according to the passage?A. The long-term goals cannot amount to very munch without the achievement of solid short-term goals.B. The intermediate goals build on the foundation of the short-term goals.C. Life is a static thing, thus we should never allow a long-term goal to limit us or our course of action.D. We should often add new short-term goals to those which have been completed.
33 Passage 6Britain and France are separated by the English Channel（英吉利海峡） , a body of water that can be crossed in as few as 20 minutes. But the cultures of the two countries sometimes seem to be miles apart.Last Thursday Britain and France celebrated the 100th anniversary (周年纪念) of the signing of a friendship agreement called the Entente Cordiality. The agreement marked a new beginning for the countries following centuries of wars and love-hate partnership.
34 But their relationship has been ups and downs over the past century But their relationship has been ups and downs over the past century. Just last year, there were fierce disagreements over the Iraq war - which British Prime Minister Tony Blair supported despite French President Jacques Chirac speaking out against it. This discomfort（不适、不和） is expressed in Blair and Chirac's body language at international meetings. While the French leader often greets German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder with a hug (拥抱), Blair just receives a handshake. However, some political experts say the war in Iraq could in fact have helped ties.
35 The history of divisions（分离） may well be because of the very different ways in which the two sides see the world. But this doesn't stop 12 million Britons taking holidays in France each year. However, only 3 million French come in the opposite direction. Surveys (调查) show that most French people feel closer to the Germans than they do to the British. And the re- search carried out in Britain has found that only a third of the population believes the French can be trusted. Perhaps this bad feeling comes because the British dislike France 's close relationship with Germany , or because the French are not happy with Britain 's close links with the US .
36 Whatever the answer is, as both sides celebrate 100 years of “doubtful（可疑的） friendship" , they are at least able to make jokes about each other. Here's one: What's the best thing about Britain 's relationship with France ? The English Channel . (320 words)
37 1. For centuries, the relationship between Britain and France is ___________ . A. friendly B. impoliteC. brotherly D. a mixture of love and hate2. The war in Iraq does ___________ to the relationship between France and Britain .A. good B. harmC. neither good nor harmD. both good and harm3. The British are not so friendly to ___________ and the French are not so friendly to _______.A. Germany ; America B. America; GermanyC. Germany ; Germany D. America ; America
38 4. ____________ are more interested in having holidays in _____. A. American people-" BritainB. British people"- GermanyC. French people'" BritainD. British people'" France5. What does the last sentence mean?A. As long as the English Channel exists, no further disagreement will form between France and Britain .B. The English Channel can prevent anything unfriendly happening in both France and Britain .C. France and Britain are near neighbors, and this will help balance the relationship between them.D. The English Channel is the largest enemy between France and Britain .
39 Passage 7Community service is an important component（成分） of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called “One On One（一帮一）” helps elementary（初级的） students who‘ve fallen behind. Your education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching, that is, tutoring（家教） in math and English.You‘d have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester（学期）. You can choose to help a child with math, English, or both. Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week.
40 Professor Dodge will act as a mentor（导师） to the tutors（家教） --- he‘ll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities. He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon. You can sign up （签约、约定）for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week.I‘m sure you’ll enjoy this community service---and you‘ll gain valuable experience at the same time. It looks good on your resume（简历）, too, showing that you’ve had experience with children and that you care about your community. If you‘d like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by （来访）Professor Dodge's office this week. (220words)
41 1. What is the purpose of the talk? A. To explain a new requirement for graduation.B. To interest students in a new community program.C. To discuss the problems of elementary school students.D. To recruit（招募、征集） elementary school teachers for a special program.2. What is the purpose of the program that the speaker describes?A. To find jobs for graduating students.B. To help education majors prepare for final exams.C. To offer tutorials to elementary school students.D. To provide funding for a community service project.
42 3. What does Professor Dodge do? A. He advises students to participate in certain program.B. He teaches part-time in an elementary school.C. He observes elementary school students in the classroom.D. He helps students prepare their resumes.4. What should students who are interested in the tutorials do?A. Contact the elementary school.B. Sign up for a special class.C. Submit a resume to the dean.D. Talk to Professor Dodge.5. Whom do you think the speaker addresses?A. Faculty（教职员） B. Students.C. Residents（居民） D. Graduated students.
43 Passage 8When John and Victoria Falls arrived in New York City for one-year stay, they did not bring very many things with them. They had planned either to live in a furnished（配家具的） apartment or to buy used furniture（家具）. But they soon learned about a new system that more and more people are using. The renting（租用） of home furnishings（家具用品） (bed, tables, dishes, and so on) has become one of America 's fastest growing businesses. What kinds of people rent their home furnishings instead of buying them?
44 People who are international business or government officials, foreign students, airline workers, young married couples --- people whose job or business may force them to move frequently from one city to another. They save a lot of trouble and the cost of moving their furniture each time. They simply rent new furniture when they reach their new homes. Young people with little money do not want to buy cheap furniture that they may soon dislike. They prefer to wait until they have enough money to buy furniture they really like. Meanwhile, they find they can rent better quality furniture than they could afford to buy.
45 One family, who now have a large, beautiful home of their own, liked their rented furniture so much that they decided to keep renting it instead of buying new things. But usually people don't like to tell others about it. The idea of renting home furnishings is still quite new, and they are not sure what their neighbors might think, (248words)
46 1. Which of the following has become one of America 's fastest growing businesses? A. Selling home furnishings.B. Renting furnished apartments.C. Selling used furniture.D. Renting home furnishings.2. Why do some people prefer to rent furniture?A. Because the furniture they get in this way is new.B. Because it saves them a lot of money.C. Because it saves them much trouble and money.D. Because they can always get better quality furniture in this way.
47 3. What can you infer（推断） from the passage? A. The idea of renting furniture is not acceptable.B. Renting furniture is not popular in the couple's home town.C. Only those who don't have enough money to rent furniture.D. People usually grow to like the furniture they have rented.4. Which of the following can best serve as the title of the passage?A. Rent or Buy?B. A New Way of Getting Home Furnishings.C. Furnished Apartments.D. A New Idea.5. Young people liked renting home furniture in that ___.A. They have less money.B. They don't want to buy old furniture.C. The new furniture is of good quality.D. They don't have much money and don't want to buy the cheap furniture.
48 Passage 9Paper is one of the most important products ever invented by man. Wide spread use of written language would not have been possible without some cheap and practical material to write on. The invention of paper meant that more people could be educated because more books could be printed and distributed. Together with the printing press（印刷机）, paper provided an extremely（极其） important way to communicate knowledge.
49 How much paper do you use every year How much paper do you use every year? Probably you cannot answer that question quickly. In 1900 the world's use of paper was about one kilogram for each person a year. Now some countries use as much as 50 kilograms of paper for each person a year. Countries like the United States , England and Sweden use more paper than other countries.Paper, like many other things that we use today, was first made in China . In Egypt and the West, paper was not very commonly used before the year 1400.
50 The Egyptians wrote on a kind of material made of a water plant（水生植物） The Egyptians wrote on a kind of material made of a water plant（水生植物）. Europeans used parchment（羊皮纸） for many hundreds of years. Parchment was very strong; it was made from the skin of certain young animals . We have learnt of the most important facts of European history from records that were kept on parchment. (208 words)
51 1. What's the meaning for the word "parchment"? A. The skin of young animals.B. A kind of paper made from the skin of certain young animals.C. The paper used by European countries.D. The paper of Egypt .2. Which of the following is not mentioned about the invention of paper?A. More jobs could be provided than before.B. More people could be educated than before.C. More books could be printed and distributed.D. More ways could be used to exchange knowledge.
52 3. When did the Egyptians begin to use paper widely? A. Around B. Around 1900.C. Around D. Around 900.4. Which of the following countries uses more paper for each person a year?A. China B. Sweden.C. Egypt D. Japan .5. What is the main idea of this short talk?A. More and more paper is being consumed nowadays.B. Paper enables people to receive education more easily.C. The invention of paper is of great significance to man.D. Paper contributes a lot to the keeping of historical records.
53 Passage 10Laws have been written to govern（管理） the use of American National Flag, and to ensure proper respect for the flag. Custom（习俗） has also governed the common practice in regard to（涉及） its use. All the armed services （武装部队）have precise（精细的） regulations on how to display（展示） the national flag. This may vary somewhat from the general rules. The national flag should be raised and lowered by hand. Do not raise the flag while it is folded（折叠）. Unfold the flag first, and then hoist（提升） it quickly to the top of the flagpole. Lower it slowly and with dignity（尊严）. Place no objects on or over the flag. Do not use the flag as part of a costume（服装） or athletic（运动的） uniform.
54 Do not print it upon cushions（垫子） , handkerchiefs, paper napkins（餐巾） or boxes. A federal law provides （规定）that the trademark can not be registered if it comprises（含有） the flag, or badges（徽章） of the US . When the flag is used to unveil（揭幕） a statue or monument, it shouldn‘t serve as a covering of the object to be unveiled. If it is displayed on such occasions, do not allow the flag to fall to the ground, but let it be carried high up in the air to form a feature of the ceremony. Take every precaution（防止、预防措施） to prevent the flag from soiled. It should not be allowed to touch the ground or floor, nor to brush against objects. (227 words)
55 1. How do Americans ensure proper respect for the national flag? A. By making laws B. By enforcing discipline.C. By educating the public. D. By holding ceremonies.2. What is the regulation regarding the raising of the American National Flag?A. It should be raised by soldiers.B. It should be raised quickly by hand.C. It should be raised only by Americans.D. It should be raised by mechanical means.3. How should the American National Flag be displayed at an unveiling ceremony?A. It should be attached to the status.B. It should be hung from the top of the monument.C. It should be spread over the object to be unveiled.D. It should be carried high up in the air.
56 4. What do we learn about the use of the American National Flag? A. There has been a lot of controversy（争论） over the use of flag.B. The best athletes can wear uniforms with the design of the flag.C. There are precise regulations and customs to be followed.D. Americans can print the flag on their cushions or handkerchiefs.5. What is Americans' attitude towards their National Flag?A. Arbitrary（武断的）B. Respect.C. Happy D. Brave.
57 Passage 11It has been reported that in colleges across the United States , the daytime serial drama known as the soap opera has suddenly become “in（成功、取胜）”. Between the hours of 11 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. , college television lounges（客厅、休闲室） are filled with soap opera fans who can‘t wait to（等不及、急不可耐） see the next episode（章节、片段） in the lives of their favorite characters.Actually, soaps are more than（不只是） a college favorite; they‘re a youth favorite. When school is out, high-school students are in front of their TV sets. One young working woman admitted that she turned down（放弃） a higher paying job rather than give up watching her favorite serials. During the 1960's, it was uncommon for young people to watch soap operas. The mood of
58 the sixties was very different from now the sixties was very different from now. It was a time of seriousness, and talk was about social issues of great importance.Now, seriousness has been replaced by fun. Young people want to be happy. It may seem strange that they should（竟然） turn to （求助于）soap opera, which is known for showing trouble in people‘s lives. But soap opera is enjoyment. Young people can identify with（打成一片、混同于） the soap opera character, who, like the college-age viewer, is looking for happy love, and probably not finding it. And soap opera gives young people a chance to feel close to people without having to bear any responsibility for their problems. (226 words)
59 1. What is soap opera?A. Plays based on science fiction stories.B. Plays based on non-fiction stories.C. The daytime serial dramas on TV.D. Popular documentary（文献的） films on TV.2. What can be the best title of the passage?A. College student viewers.B. Favorite TV serials.C. Soap opera fans.D. College-age viewers.3. Which are not the reasons why the soap opera suddenly becomes "in" according to the passage?A. Because the viewers want to be happy and to enjoy themselves.B. Because the soap opera makes young people feel close to their people.C. Because the viewers can find themselves in the soap opera characters.D. Because the young people have to bear the responsibilities for their troubles.
60 4. What can we learn from the passage? A. College students like soap operas more than any other social groups.B. Young people of sixties liked soap operas more than people today.C. Young viewers have turned themselves from the seriousness of sixties to enjoyment now.D. The young as a whole are trying to look for happy love but in vain.5. What message does the author want to convey to us?A. The people's favorites to drama works have been changed for a long time.B. The people's favorites to drama works change along with the times.C. The people's favorites to drama works is changed by the soap opera.D. The people's favorites have changed the drama works.
61 Passage 12How men first learnt to invent words is unknown; in other words, the origin of language is a mystery. All we really know is that men, unlike animals, somehow invented certain sounds to express thought and feelings, actions and things, so that they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed upon certain signs, called letters, which could be combined to present those sounds, and which could be written down. Those sounds, whether spoken or written in letters, we call words.The power of words, then, lies in their associations（联想） - the things they bring up before our minds. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience; and the longer we live,
62 the more certain words recall to us the glad and sad events of our past; and the more we read and learn, the more the number of words that mean something increases.Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but also express these thoughts in words which appeal powerfully to（吸引） our minds and emotions. This charming（迷人的、感染的） and telling（讲述性的） use of words is what we call literary（文学的） style. Above all, the real poet is a master of words. He can convey his meaning in words which sing like music and which by their position（立场） and association can move men to tears（感激涕零）. We should therefore learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they will make our speech silly（愚蠢的） and vulgar（粗俗的）. (239 words)
63 1. The origin of language is ___________ . A. a legend handed down from the pastB. a matter that is hidden or secretC. a question difficult to answerD. a problem not yet solved2. What is true about words?A. They are used to express feelings only.B. They can not be written down.C. They are simply sounds.D. They are mysterious.3. The real power of words lies in their _____.A. properties B. characteristicsC. peculiarity D. representative function
64 4. By "association", the author means ________ . A. a special qualityB. a joining of ideas in the mindC. an appearance which is puzzlingD. a strange feature5. Which of the following statements about the real poet is NOT true?A. He is no more than （只不过是）a master of words.B. He can convey his ideas in words which sing like music.C. He can move men to tears.D. His style is always charming.
65 Passage 13Many people who work in London prefer to live outside it, and to go in to their offices or schools every day by train, car or bus, even though this means they have to get up early in the morning and reach home late in the evening.One advantage of living outside London is that houses are cheaper. Even a small flat in London without a garden costs quite a lot to rent. With the same money, one can get a little house in the country with a garden of one's own.
66 Then, in the country one can really get away from the noise and hurry of busy working lives. Even though one has to get up earlier and spend more time in trains or buses, one can sleep better at night and during weekends and on summer evenings, one can enjoy the fresh, clean air of the country. If one likes gardens, one can spend one‘s free time digging, planting, watering and doing the hundred and one（数不尽的） other jobs which are needed in a garden. Then, when the flowers and vegetables come up（长成了）, one has got the reward（回报） together with those who have shared（分享） the secret of Nature.
67 Some people, however, take no interest in country things: for them, happiness lies in the town, with its cinemas and theatres, beautiful shops and busy streets, dance-halls and restaurants. Such people would feel that their life was not worth living if they had to live it outside London . An occasional walk in one of the parks and a fortnight‘s (two weeks) visit to the sea every summer is all the country they want: the rest （其余的东西）they are quite prepared to（随时可以） leave to（留给） those who are glad to get away from London every night. (287 words)
68 1. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. People who love Nature prefer to live outside the city.B. All the people who work in London prefer to live in the country.C. Some people enjoying city life prefer to work and live inside London .D. Many nature lovers, though working in London , prefer to live outside the city.2. With the same money needed for ___________, one can buy a little house with a garden in the country.A. getting a small flat with a gardenB. having a small flat with a gardenC. renting a small flat without a garden.D. Buying a small flat without a garden.
69 3. when the garden is in blossom, the one has been rewarded. A. living in the country.B. having spent time working in the garden.C. having a garden of his own.D. having been digging, planting and watering.4. people who think happiness lies in the city life would feel that if they had to live outside London .A. their life was meaningless.B. Their life was invaluableC. They didn’t deserve ha happy life.D. They were not worthy of their happy life.5. the underlined phrase get away from in the 3rd paragraph refers toA. deal with（处理、应付）B. do away with（废除、去掉）C. escape from（逃离、摆脱）D. prevent from（防止…）
70 Passage 14By definition, heroes and heroines are men and women distinguished（杰出、卓越） by uncommon courage, achievements, and self-sacrifice made most for the benefits of others - they are people against（依照、根据） whom we measure others. They are men and women recognized（被公认） for shaping（塑造） our nation‘s consciousness（意识、觉悟） and development as well as the lives of those who admire（赞美、崇敬） them. Yet, some people say that ours is an age where true heroes and heroines are hard to come by, where the very idea of heroism is something beyond us - an artifact（人造物） of the past. Some maintain（主张）, that because the Cold War is over and because America is at peace, our age is essentially an unheroic（无需英雄的、不出英雄的） one.
71 Furthermore, the overall（全局的、整体的） crime rate is down, poverty has been eased（减弱了） by a strong and growing economy, and advances continue to be made in medical science. Cultural icons（偶像、肖像、图标） are hard to define, but we know them when we see them. They are people who manage to go beyond（超越） celebrity (明星), who are legendary（传奇的）, who somehow manage to become mythic（神化的）. But what makes some figures（人物） icons and others mere （仅仅）celebrities? That's hard to answer. In part, their lives have the quality of a story to tell.
72 For instance, the beautiful young Diana Spencer who at 19 married a prince, renounced（断绝关系） marriage and the throne（王位）, and died at the moment she found true love. Good looks certainly help（有作用）. So does a special indefinable（无法言喻的） charm（魅力）, with the help of the media. But nothing confirms（确立、使有效） an icon more than a tragic death - such as Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy, and Princess（王妃） Diana. (258 words)
73 1. The passage mainly deals with ____________ . A. life and death B. heroes and heroinesC. heroes and icons D. icons and celebrities2. Heroes and heroines are usually ____________ .A. courageous B. good examples to followC. self-sacrificing D. all of the above3. Which of the following statements is wrong?A. Poverty in America has been eased with the economic growth.B. Superstars are famous for being famous.C. One's look can contribute to being famous.D. Heroes and heroines can only emerge in war times.
74 4. Beautiful young Diana Spencer found her genuine love ____________ . A. when she was 19B. when she became a princessC. just before her deathD. after she gave birth to a prince5. What is more likely to set an icon's status?A. Good looks.B. Tragic and early death.C. Personal attraction.D. The quality of one's story.
75 Passage 15Shyness is the cause（原因） of much unhappiness for a great many people. Shy people are anxious and self-conscious（自虑的）; that is, they are excessively （过分地）concerned with（在意） their own appearance and actions. Worrisome（令人不安的） thoughts are constantly occurring in their minds: what kind of impression am I making? Do they like me? Do I sound stupid? Am I wearing unattractive clothes?It is obvious that such uncomfortable feelings must negatively affect people. A person‘s conception of himself or herself is reflected in the way he or she behaves, and the way a person behaves affects other people’s reactions. In general, the way people think about themselves has a profound（深刻的） effect on all areas of their lives.
76 Shy people, having low self-esteem, are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. They need reassurance（放心） that they are doing “the right thing. Shy people are very sensitive to criticism; they feel it confirms（增强、巩固） their feelings of inferiority（自卑）. They also find it difficult to be pleased by compliment（赞扬） with a statement like this one, ”You‘re just saying that to make me feel good. I know it’s not true. “ It is clear that while self-awareness（自我意识） is a healthy quality, overdoing（过分） it is harmful.
77 Can shyness be completely eliminated（消除）, or at least reduced Can shyness be completely eliminated（消除）, or at least reduced? Fortunately, people can overcome shyness with determined（坚定的） and patient efforts in building self-confidence. Since shyness goes hand in hand with a lack of self-esteem, it is important for people to accept their weaknesses as well as their strengths.Each one of us is a unique, worthwhile（有身份的） individual, interested in our own personal ways. The better we understand ourselves, the easier it becomes to live up to （达到、做到）our full potential（潜力）. Let‘s not allow shyness to block our chances for a rich and fulfilling（实现、令人满意的） life. (289 words)
78 1. What does the author try to prove by citing "what kind of impression am I making?“ (Para. 1) A. Shy people benefit from their caring about their appearance.B. People's shyness made them care too much about their appearance and actions.C. It's natural that shy people don't believe other's compliments.D. Shy people think they are different from others.2. According to the writer, self-awareness is ______ .A. a good quality B. the cause of unhappinessC. harmful to people D. a weak point of shy people3. When being praised, shy people feel that it is ____.A. good B. unrealC. very reasonable D. harmful
79 4. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. Shyness helps us to develop our potentialB. Shyness enables us to understand ourselves betterC. Shyness can block our chances for a rich lifeD. Shyness has nothing to do with lack of self-esteem5. It can be inferred from the passage that shy people___ .A. should find more of their weaknessB. should understand themselves in the right wayC. had better ignore their weaknessD. can get rid of their shyness while maintaining low self-esteem
80 Passage 16Places to stay in Britain are as varied as the places you visit. Whatever your budget（预算） is the choice from basic barn（畜舍） to small hotel, from tiny cottage（农舍） to grand castle is all part of fun.HostelsCheap, good-value hostels are aimed at（目标是） all types of like-minded（情趣相同的） travelers, who prefer value over luxury and you don‘t have to be young or single to use them. Britain ’s independent hostels（旅店、客栈） and backpackers（背包旅行者） hostels also offer a great welcome. Facilities（设施） and prices vary, especially in rural areas, where some hostels are a little more than a bunkhouse (临时住房) while others are remarkably comfortable - almost like bargain（议价的） hotels.
81 Youth HotelsFounded many years ago to “help all, especially young people of limited means（手头较紧）, to a greater knowledge（见识、学识）, love and care of the countryside”, the Youth Hotels Association is still going strong in the 21st century. The network of 230 hotels is a perfect gateway（大门、门户） for exploring Britain 's towns and countryside.B&BsThe B&B (bed and breakfast) is a great British institution. In essence（基本） you get a room in somebody's house, and small B&Bs may only have one guest room, so you'll really feel like part of the family. Larger B&Bs may have four or five rooms and more facilities, but just as warm as a welcome.
82 In country areas your B&B might be in a village or an isolated（隔离的） farm surrounded by fields. Prices reflect（反映） facilities: and usually run from around ￡12 to ￡20 per person. City B&Bs charge about ￡25 to ￡30 per person, although they're often cheaper as you go further out to the suburbs.Pubs & InnsAs well as selling drinks and meals, Britain 's pubs and inns sometimes offer B&B, particularly in country areas. Staying a night or two can be great fun and puts you at the heart of the local community.Rates range from around ￡15 to ￡25 per person. Pubs are more likely to have single rooms. (332 words)
83 1. In this passage the author mainly ____________ . A. tells us where to stay while visiting BritainB. advises readers to pay a visit to BritainC. introduces the wonderful public services in BritainD. gives us some information about British life2. ___________ are mainly built for young visitors.A. Pubs & Inns B. Youth HotelsC. Hostels D. B&Bs3. If you travel alone and want to know better about family life in Britain , you'd better stay in _________ .A. Pubs & Inns B. Youth HotelsC. Hostels D. B&Bs
84 4. If you are interested in traveling with your friends but only with limited means, where is the better place for you to stay?A. Pubs & Inns B. Youth HotelsC. Hostels D. B&Bs5. Which of the following is NOT true according to the last part of the passage?A. Pubs and inns usually provide visitors bed and breakfast.B. All pubs and inns offer visitors bed and breakfast.C. Pubs and inns charge a visitor ￡25 at the most.D. If you want a single room, you are more likely to get one in pubs.
85 Passage 17What makes a person a scientist? Does he have ways or tools of learning that are different from those of others? The answer is “no”. It is not the tools a scientist uses but how he uses these tools that makes him a scientist. You will probably agree that knowing how to use a power is important to a carpenter（木匠）. You will probably agree, too, that knowing how to investigate, how to discover information, is important to everyone. The scientist, however, goes one step further, he must be sure that he has a reasonable answer to his questions and that his answer can be confirmed（验证） by other persons. He also works to fit the answers he gets to many questions into a large set of ideas about how the world works.
86 The scientist‘s knowledge must be exact The scientist‘s knowledge must be exact. There is no room for half right or right just half the time. He must be as nearly right as the conditions permit. What works under one set of conditions at one time must work under the same conditions at other times. If the conditions are different, any changes the scientist observes in a demonstration（实证） must be explained by the changes in the conditions. This is one reason that investigations are important in science. Albert Einstein, who developed the theory of relativity, arrived at this theory through mathematics. The accuracy of his mathematics was later tested through investigations, Einstein’s ideas were shown to be correct. A scientist uses many tools for measurements（测量、度量）. Then the measurements are used to make mathematical calculations that may test his investigations. (263 words)
87 1. What makes a scientist according to the passage? A. The tools he uses.B. The way he uses his tools.C. His ways of learning.D. The various tools he uses.2. "The scientist, however, goes one step further...". The author says this to show ________.A. the importance of informationB. the importance of thinkingC. the difference between scientists and ordinary peopleD. the difference between carpenters and people with other jobs3. A sound scientific theory should be one that ______ .A. works not only under one set of conditions at one time, but also under the same conditions at other timesB. does not allow any changes even under different conditionsC. can be used for many purposesD. leave no room for improvement
88 4. The author quotes the case of Albert Einstein to illustrate ___________ . A. that measurements are keys to success in scienceB. that accuracy of mathematicsC. that the investigations are important in scienceD. that the mathematical calculations may test his investigations5. What is the main idea of the passage?A. The theory of relativity.B. Exactness is the core of science.C. Scientists are different from ordinary people.D. Exactness and ways of using tools are the keys to the making of a scientist.
89 Passage 18A characteristic（特征） of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made man（自我进取的人） --- the man who has risen to the top through his own efforts, usually beginning by working with his hands. While the leader in business or industry or the college professor occupies a higher social position and commands greater respect in the community than the common laborer or even the skilled factory worker, he may take pains to（忍痛去做） point out that his father started life in America as a farmer or laborer of some sort.
90 This attitude toward manual (体力的) labor is now still seen in many aspects of American life. One is invited to dinner at a home that is not only comfortably but even luxuriously (豪华的) furnished（装备的） and in which there is every evidence of the fact that the family has been able to afford foreign travel, expensive hobbies, and college education for the children; yet the hostess probably will cook the dinner herself, will serve it （上菜）herself and will wash dishes afterward, furthermore the dinner will not consist merely（仅仅） of something quickly and easily assembled（组装、拼装） from contents of various cans and a cake or a pie bought at the nearby bakery（面包店）.
91 On the contrary, the hostess usually takes pride in careful preparation of special dishes. A professional（专业人士） may talk about washing the car, digging in his flowerbeds, painting the house. His wife may even help with these things, just as he often helps her with the dishwashing. The son who is away at college may wait on table（当服务生） and wash dishes for his living, or during the summer he may work with a construction gang（施工队） on a highway in order to pay for his education. (291 words)
92 1. From paragraph I, we know that in America _________ . A. people tend to have a high opinion of the self-made manB. people can always rise to the top through their won effortsC. college professors win great respect from common workersD. people feel painful to mention their fathers as labors2. According to the passage, the hostess cooks dinner herself mainly because __________.A. servants in American are hard to getB. she takes pride in what she can do herselfC. she can hardly afford servantsD. It is easy to prepare a meal with canned food
93 3. The expression "wait on table" in the second paragraph means "_________. A. work in a furniture shopB. keep accounts for a barC. wait to lay the tableD. serve customers in a restaurant4. The author’s attitude towards manual (体力的) labor is ______.A. positive B. negativeC. humorous D. critical5. Which of the following may serve as the best title of the passage?A. A Respectable Self-made Family.B. American Attitude toward Manual Labor.C. Characteristics of American Culture.D. The Development of Manual Labor.
94 Passage 19I often dreamed about Pisa（意大利中部比萨市） when I was a boy. I read about the famous building called the Leaning（依靠、倾斜） Tower of Pisa. But when I read the word Pisa, I was thinking about pizza（比萨饼）. I thought this tower was a place to buy pizza. It must be the best place to buy pizza in the world, I thought.Many years later, I finally saw the Leaning Tower. I knew then that it was Pisa but no pizza. But there was still something special about it for me. The Tower got its name because it really did lean to one side. Some people want to try to fix（修整、加固） it. They are afraid it may fall over and they don’t like it leans over the city.
95 I do not think it’s a good idea to try to fix it I do not think it’s a good idea to try to fix it. The Tower probably will not fall down. It is 600 years old. Why should anything happened to it now? And, if you ask me, I like what it looks like. To me it is a very human kind of leaning. Nothing is perfect. It seems to say.And who cares? Why do people want things to be perfect? Imperfect（有瑕疵的、不完善的） things may be more interesting. Let’s take the tower in Pisa. Why is it so famous? There are many other older, more beautiful towers in Italy. But Pisa tower is the most famous. People come from all over the world to see it.
96 1. The writer used to think Pisa ___. A. in SpainB. not very famousC. not the same as pizzaD. the same as pizza2. This passage is about ___.A. Italian pizzaB. Italy’s problemsC. How the Leaning Tower Pisa got its nameD. Why the writer like Pisa3. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is ___.A. modern B. falling downC. 600 years old D. 60 years old
97 4. The writer ___.A. doesn’t like what the tower looks likeB. likes what the tower looks like C. thinks it’s the most beautiful tower in the worldD. doesn’t like tower5. The writer likes the Leaning Tower of Pisa because ___.A. it’s old B. it’s perfectC. it sells pizza D. it’s imperfect
98 Passage 20One day a man and his daughter were going out for a walk. The man had put on a pair of odd（不成对的） shoes, one with a thick sole (鞋跟), and one with a thin sole. As he came out to the street, he felt very uncomfortable.Turning to his daughter, he said, “Why should one of my legs be longer than the other one?” The daughter looked at her father’s legs and said, “You have put on two odd shoes!”When he heard this, the man was very happy and thought to himself, “What a bright（聪明） daughter I’ve got!” Then he asked his daughter to go back to the house and got him another pair of shoes.
99 When the daughter went back to the house, all she could find was one shoe with thick sole and one shoe with thin sole. Taking the shoes to show her father, she said, “It’s no use changing! These shoes are also odd, one with a thick sole, and one with a thin sole.”The man listened and thought to himself, “It can’t be helped. I might as well wear the ones I have on now.” So they went for their walk.
100 1. The man thought that his daughter was ___. A. beautiful B. cleverC. lazy D. clean2. It was the ___ that found the reason for it.A. father B. daughterC. neighbor D. passer-by3. The daughter came back, bringing ___ with her.A. a pair of shoesB. a pair of odd shoesC. a pair of thick-soled shoesD. nothing
101 4. What do you think that the man should have done? A. He should return to his home and got the shoes himself.B. He should have the thick sole cut off.C. He should have changed one of his shoes.D. He should have no shoes on.5. What do you think of the man and his daughter?A. They both were not clever.B. The father was cleverer than the daughter.C. The daughter was cleverer than the father.D. Either of them was foolish enough.
102 Passage 21The dark smoke that comes out of stacks (大烟囱) or from a burning dump (垃圾) contains of tiny bits of solid or liquid matter. The smoke also contains many gases, most of which cannot be seen. Altogether, they make up（构成） serious problems of air pollution. In so many places it keeps us from seeing the sun, irritates (刺痛) our eyes, causes us to cough and make us ill. Air pollution can spread from city to city. It even spreads from one country to another. Some northern European countries have had “black snow” from pollutants（污染物） that have traveled through the air from other country and have fallen with the snow.
103 So air pollution is a global problem So air pollution is a global problem. It can kill babies, older people and those who have respiratory (呼吸) disease. In 1952, four thousand people died in one week as a result of a serious air pollution breakout in London. In 1948 in a small town in Pennsylvania, 20 people died in a four-day period of air pollution. As often found in cities, air pollution increases the risks of lung（肺） disease, such as bronchitis（支气管炎） and asthma（哮喘）. Of course, smoking and other factors help to cause these illnesses, too, but these causes have increased greatly during recent years as air pollution has become worse.
104 1. Which of the following is NOT true about the “black snow” incident? A. It happened in the northern European countries.B. It happened there because air pollution in these countries was most serious.C. Pollutants that fell with snow made it dirty.D. It is a global problem.2. Who can be killed by air pollution?A. Earth and plants.B. Stones and birds.C. Those who suffer from respiratory illnesses.D. Both A and C.
105 3. How many people died of air pollution in Pennsylvania in 1948? A. 4, B. 20.C. None D. 4,020.4. What are bronchitis and asthma?A. Different types of headache.B. lung diseases.C. Heart diseases.D. Different types of stomach aches.5. According to the passage, air pollution increases people’s chance of getting ___.A. Headache B. A lung diseaseC. Stomachache. D. Nervous breakdown
106 Passage 22Look at the instructions on the bottle of the medicine and then choose the right answers.John is twelve years old. He had a bad cold and coughed day and night. He went to see a doctor. The doctor gave him same cough medicine.Cough medicineShake it well before use.Take it three times each day before meals.Dose (药量、剂量):Age: over 14: two teaspoonfuls8-13: 1 teaspoonful4-7: 1/2 teaspoonfulNot right for children before the age of three. Put it in a cold place. Use it before December 1st, 2002.
107 1. John should take ___ a day. A. 2 teaspoonfuls B. 3 teaspoonfulsC. 4 teaspoonfuls D. 1 teaspoonful2. The medicine should be kept in ___.A. fridge B. hot waterC. any place D. in the sun3. John should ___ before he takes it.A. shake the medicine well B. eat nothingC. do some exercise D. drink a cup of tea
108 4. When kids are ___ years old, they cannot take this medicine. A. eighty B. thirtyC. two D. twelve5. John will ___ the medicine when it is left after Dec. 1st, 2002.A. throw away B. stop to takeC. take once D. take six times more
109 Passage 23A million tourists go to Barcelona every year. They want to see Antonio Gaude’s church. This unusual church has a strange history. Gaude was born in Spain in He had to work and study at the same time. He often missed classes because he had to work, but one day he designed a very unusual show-case（陈列柜、橱窗） for an exhibition in Paris. People began to give him work. He designed houses, offices and gardens. They were all very unusual. He was soon rich and famous. Then a rich bookseller said, “Will you build a church for the poor people of Barcelona? I will pay. I will build schools and workshops, too. They will help the people.”
110 “I will do it”, said Gaude “I will do it”, said Gaude. He worked for forty years, but he could not finish the church. It was too big. He needed $10, 000,000. He gave all his money to the church. He was poor again when he died in 1926, and only the front of the church was finished. But architects（建筑师）, engineers and tourists from all over the would come to see it. It is very strange, very modern and very revolutionary（革命化的）.
111 1. Which of the following titles best fits the passage? A. Barcelona ---- a Famous CityB. A Strange History of An Unusual ChurchC. A poor Architect’s Unusual WorksD. Antonio Gaude’s Life2. Which of the following is NOT true?A. Gaude was a Spanish architectB. Gaude devoted most of his life to the building of the churchC. People all over the world admire the architect very muchD. Many tourists go to see Gaude’s unfinished church
112 3. Gaude sometimes missed classes because__. A. he didn’t like itB. he had to work at the same timeC. they were too difficultD. he had to build a church4. The church is unusual because ______.A. It’s unfinishedB. it’s strangeC. It’s modernD. all of the above5. According to the passage, Gaude ________.A. suffered a lot in his lifeB. was full of sympathy to the poorC. always created unusual worksD. both B and C
113 Passage 24In England, people often talk about the weather because they can experience four seasons in one day. In the morning the weather is warm just like in spring. An hour later black clouds come and then it rains hard. The weather gets a little cold. In the late afternoon the sky will be sunny, the sun will begin to shine, and it will be summer at this time of a day.In England, people can also have summer in winter, or have winter in summer. So in winter they can swim sometimes, and in summer sometimes they should take warm clothes.
114 When you go to England, you will see that some English people usually take an umbrella or a raincoat with them in the summer morning, but you should not laugh at them.If you don’t take an umbrella or a raincoat, you will regret later in the day.
115 1. Why do people in England often talk about the weather? A. Because they may have four seasons in one day.B. Because they often have very good weather.C. Because the weather is warm just like in spring.D. Because the sky is sunny all day.2. From the story we know that when __________ come, there is a heavy rain.A. sunshine and snow B. black cloudsC. summer and winter D. spring and autumn3. The sentence “People can also have summer in winter” means “It is sometimes too ______ in winter”.A. warm B. coolC. cold D. rainy
116 4. In the sunny morning some English people usually take a raincoat or an umbrella with them because __________.A. their friends ask them to do soB. it often rains in EnglandC. they are going to sell themD. they are their favorite things5. The best title for this passage is __________.A. Bad seasonsB. Summer or winterC. The weather in EnglandD. Strange English people
117 Passage 25If you ask most Americans, they would say their favorite season of the year is summer. The weather is warm. They do not have to wear heavy clothes to keep warm. Young people do not have to go to school. They can do many activities outside, like playing sports and swimming at the beach or the pool. They like the sunshine during the day and the warm summer nights. People have written and recorded hundreds of songs about summer. There are some of our favorites.
118 One of the most famous songs about summer is from George Gershwin’s opera “Porgy and Bess”. He wrote the music in nineteen thirty-five. The opera takes place in the southern United States. It opens with these words: “Summertime and livin’ is easy. Fish are jumpin’ and cotton is high.” Leontyne Price sings the song.The nineteen fifties and sixties produced many songs about teenagers enjoying their summer vacation from school. The songs are about having fun, swimming in the ocean, driving in cars. However, for some teenagers, summer vacation was not all fun and games. Some of them had to work to earn money.
119 1. Why do most Americans like summer? A. The weather is warm.B. People do not have to go schools.C. Sunny days and warm nights.D. Both A and C.2. Why did people write and record so many songs about summer?A. Summer is warm.B. They do not have to wear heavy clothes to keep warm.C. They can do many activities outside.D. They like summer.3. What is Not true about “Porgy and Bess”?A. “Porgy and Bess” is an opera.B. “Porgy and Bess” appeared in 1935.C. “Porgy and Bess” was written by Leontyne Price.D. “Porgy and Bess” is about summer.
120 4. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. There are 1950 and 1960 songs about teenagers enjoying their summer vacation from school.B. Many songs are about teenagers having fun in summer.C. Teenagers have not only fun and games but other things in summer.D. Some teenagers have to work to earn money in summer..5. Please choose an appropriate title for the passage.A. SummerB. Children in SummerC. Summer and ChildrenD. Songs about Summer
121 Passage 26A traveler came out of the airport. There were a lot of taxies. He asked every taxi-driver his name. Then he took the third one. It cost 5 dollars from the airport to the hotel. “How much does it cost for the whole day?” the man asked. “100 dollars,” said the taxi-driver. This was very expensive, but the man said it was OK.The taxi-driver took the man everywhere. He showed him all the parks and museums in the city. In the evening, they went back to the hotel. The traveler gave the taxi-driver 100 dollars and said, “What about tomorrow?” The taxi-driver looked at the man and said, “Tomorrow? It is another 100 dollars.” But the man said, That’s OK! See you tomorrow.” The taxi-driver was very pleased.
122 The next day, the taxi-driver took the traveler everywhere again The next day, the taxi-driver took the traveler everywhere again. They visited all the parks and museums again. And in the evening, they went back to the hotel. The man gave the taxi-driver 100 dollars again and said, “I’m going home tomorrow.” The taxi-driver was very sorry because he liked the traveler and above all, 100 dollars a day was a lot of money. “So you are going home. Where do you come from?” he asked. “I come from New York.” “New York?” said the taxi-driver. “I have a sister in New York; her name is Susanna. Do you know her?”“Of course I know her. She gave me 200 dollars for you!”
123 1. Where did the traveler come from? A. England B. AmericaC. Canada D. France2. Why did the traveler take the third taxi, becauseA. the other taxi-driver asked for more money.B. the third taxi-driver was a kind-hearted man.C. he didn’t want to spend his own money on the coming visit.D. the other drivers didn’t like to take him.3. Usually the cost of traveling one day by taxi may beA. $ B. $200C. less than $ D. more than $200
124 4. Who asked the traveler to give the money to the taxi-driver? A. The traveler’s sister.B. The traveler himself.C. Nobody.D. The driver’s sister.5. The driver was unhappyA. when he heard the traveler’s last words.B. when the traveler asked every taxi-driver his name.C. when the traveler asked for his sister’s name.D. during the two-days’ visit.
125 Passage 27What must you do when you receive a present for your birthday? You have to sit down and write a thank-you note. The words “Thank you” are very important. We have to use them on so many occasions. We say them when someone gives us a drink, helps us to pick up things, hands us a letter, lends us a book or gives us a gift.Another important word is “please”. Many people forget to use it. It is rude to ask someone to do something without saying “please”. We have to use it when we ask for something, too. It may be a book or a pencil, more rice or more sauce, help or advice. It may be in the classroom, at home, at the bus-stop or over the counter. We have to use “please” to make our request pleasant.
126 We have to learn to say “sorry” too We have to learn to say “sorry” too. When we have hurt someone’s feeling, we will have to go up and say we are sorry. When we have told a lie and feel sorry, we will have to use the same word. When we have forgotten something or broken a promise, we will have to explain with that word, too. “Sorry” is a healing word. We can make people forget wrongs by using it sincerely.These three words are simple but important. They are pleasing words to use in any language.
127 1. When we receive a birthday present, we have to___________. A. return it B. give it to one of our friendsC. do nothing D. write a thank-you note2. When someone helps us to do something, we should___________.A. thank him B. say “sorry” to himC. use the word “please” D. not say anything
128 3. One of the important words in any language is___________. A. “hello” B. “yes” C. “no” D. “please”4. We have to use the word “please” when we ___________.A. hurt someone’s feeling B. ask for somethingC. receive a present D. have told a lie5. The three important words in any language are__________.A. “thanks”, “hello”, and “goodbye”B. “yes”, “no” and “really”C. “thanks”, “please” and “sorry”D. “well”, “please” and “pardon”
129 Passage 28One Christmas Eve----the night before Christmas Day---children all over Britain put a stocking at the end of their beds before they go to sleep. Their parents usually tell them that Father Christmas will come during the night.Father Christmas is very kind and hearted. He gets to the top of each house and climbs down the chimney into the fireplace. He fills each of the stocking with Christmas presents.
130 Of course, Father Christmas isn’t real Of course, Father Christmas isn’t real. In Jim and Kate’s house, “Father Christmas” is really Mr. Green. Mr. Green doesn’t climb down the chimney. He waits until the children are asleep. Then he quietly goes into their bedrooms and fills their stocking with small presents. When they were very young, Mr. Green sometimes wore a red coat. But he doesn’t do that now. The children are no longer young and they know who “Father Christmas” really is. But they still put their stocking at the end of their beds.
131 1. Christmas Eve is ___________. A. the night of Christmas DayB. the evening of Christmas DayC. Christmas DayD. The night before Christmas Day2. Father Christmas often puts presents ___________.A. into children’s hats B. into children’s stockingsC. under children’s beds D. into children’s shoes3. When the children were very young, ___________.A. they didn’t know who Father Christmas wasB. they knew that Father Christmas wasn’t realC. they thought their father was Father ChristmasD. they knew who put the presents into their stockings
132 4. When the children are older, they___________. A. know that Father Christmas is realB. ask their mother to fill their stockings with presentsC. know that Father Christmas is really their fatherD. know that Father Christmas is really their friend5. Father Christmas comes into the house through the___________.A. chimney B. back doorC. front door D. window
133 Passage 29Long, long ago there was no zero. To write the number sixty-three people wrote 63. To write six hundred and three, people wrote 6 3. The space between six and three was there to mean. “not any” tens. Sometimes people did not remember the space. It was hard to see and read.Later people used a dot to hold the space. Six hundred and three looked like this 6.3. But the dot was hard to see. So people put a circle around it like this 6⊙3. Then people could see the dot.
134 They remember the space They remember the space. At last, only the circle around the dot was used. It was like a zero. This is one story of how the zero came to be used.Now zero has many important uses. Zero tells how many. Can you tell some other ways of using zero?
135 1. Long, long ago people didn’t know to____________. A. write B. write zeroC. write numbers D. sixty-three2. Long, long ago if they wrote two hundred-eight, people wrote____________.A B C D. 2083. Later ____________was used to mean space.A. “not any” B. letter “o” C. zero D. a dot
136 4. People used circles____________. A. to remember ways B. to remember numbersC. not to forget the space D. to mean nothing5. The story tells us____________.A. how zero came to be usedB. how to write zeroC. what’s the use of zeroD. that zero means a dot, a circle or space
137 Passage 28A young boy was playing with a ball in the street. He kicked too hard, and it broke the window of a home and fall inside. A lady came to and shouted at the young boy, so he ran away, but he still wanted his ball back. A few minutes later he returned and knocked at the door of the house, and when the lady answered it, he said, “My father is going to come and fix your window very soon.”After a few minutes a man came to the door with tools in his hand, so the lady let the boy take his ball away.
138 When the man finished fixing the window, he said to the lady, “That will cost you ten dollars.” “But aren’t you the father of that boy?” the woman asked, looking surprised. “No,” he answered, equally surprised. “Aren’t you his mother?”
139 1. One day a boy played with a ball ___________. A. on the road B. near his houseC. in a playground D. in a square2. Why did the lady shout at the boy according to the passage? ___________A. Because the boy kicked the ball too hard.B. Because the boy broke her window glass.C. Because the boy broke the window glass of his own home.D. Because the boy made a lot of noise when he played with a ball.3. What did the boy do when the lady shouted at him? ___________A. He ran away and brought his father.B. He didn’t know what was wrong and ran away.C. He picked up his ball and ran back home.D. He ran away without his ball.
140 9. The lady gave the ball back to the boy because ___________. A. the repairman came at lastB. she thought the boy’s father came to repair the windowC. she was not angry any moreD. the repairman had fixed the window10. Which of the following is true according to the passage? ___________A. The boy’s father fixed the window.B. the repairman fixed the window free of charge.C. The boy’s father charged the lady 10 dollars.D. The repairman thought that the lady was the boy’s mother.
141 Passage 29My grandparents can be good fun. They are retired, so they don’t work anymore. My grandfather is 68 and my grandmother is 67, but they are not too old to be active. They exercise by playing golf and they go out for meals and to the theater. Sometimes they take me out, too. We have a good time. They also go on great holidays. Last year, they went to China and walked along the Great Wall!Sometimes, my grandparents like to criticize me. They think that children today have an easy life. Life was very different when they were young and there are many things about my life that they do not understand.
142 They tell me, over and over, how they had to start work at 16 They tell me, over and over, how they had to start work at 16. They know that I will go on to university and won’t be getting a job until I am 22! They also think that I have too many possessions, such as mobile phones, computers and PSPs. When they were young, they did not have anything like that. What they do not realize is that they cannot compare children at present time. They had the same kinds of things as the rest of people of their age - so do I. It would be very strange if I only had the possessions that they had when they were my age.
143 1. Grandparents don’t work anymore because _________. A. they are tiredB. they want to play golfC. they are retiredD. they want to enjoy their life2. My grandparents sometimes criticize me. One reason is that __________.A. I don’t go on holidays with themB. I won’t work until 22C. they had to work at 16D. children today have an easy life3. Grandparents __________ when they were young.A. had the same life as we have todayB. had the same kinds of things as we haveC. had the same kinds of things as people of their ageD. had many possessions, including mobile phones, computers and PSPs
144 4. What does this sentence “but they are not too old to be active” means? A. They are old, so they are not active.B. They are old, but they are still active.C. They are retired, so they are active.D. When they were young, they were active.5. Which of the following statements is NOT true?A. My grandparents love me very much.B. My grandparents don’t understand many things about my life.C. My grandparents don’t think I need too many possessions.D. My grandparent have realized they shouldn’t compare children at present time.
145 Passage 30Community service is an important component of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called “One On One（一帮一）” helps elementary students （小学生）who’ve fallen behind. Your education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching, that is, tutoring in math and English.You’d have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester（学期）. You can choose to help a child with math, English, or both. Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week.
146 Professor Dodge will act as a mentor（导师） to the tutors（家教）---he’ll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities. He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon. You can sign up（签约） for the program with him and begin the tutoring（家教） next week.I’m sure you’ll enjoy this community service---and you’ll gain valuable experience at the same time. It looks good on your resume（简历）, too, showing that you’ve had experience with children and that you care about your community. If you’d like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge’s office this week.
147 1. What is the purpose of the talk? A. To explain a new requirement for graduation.B. To interest students in a new community program.C. To discuss the problems of elementary school students.D. To recruit elementary school teachers for a special program.2. What is the purpose of the program that the speaker describes?A. To find jobs for graduating students.B. To help education majors prepare for final exams.C. To offer tutorials to elementary school students.D. To provide funding for a community service project.
148 3. What does Professor Dodge do? A. He advises students to participate in certain program.B. He teaches part-time in an elementary school.C. He observes elementary school students in the classroom.D. He helps students prepare their resumes.4. What should students who are interested in the tutorials do?A. Contact the elementary school.B. Sign up for a special class.C. Submit a resume to the dean.D. Talk to Professor Dodge.5. Whom do you think the speaker addresses to?A. Faculty B. Students.C. Residents. D. Graduated students.
149 Passage 31As price and building costs keep rising, the “do-it-yourself” (DIY) trend in the U.S. continue to grow. “We needed furniture for our living room,” says John Ross, “and we just didn’t have enough money to buy it. So we decided to try making a few tables and chairs.” John got married six months ago, and like many young people these days, they are struggling to make a home at a time when the cost of living is very high. The Roses took a 2-week course for $280 at a night school. Now they build all their furniture and make repairs around the house.
150 Jim Hatfield has three boys and his wife died Jim Hatfield has three boys and his wife died. He has a full-time job at home as well as in a shoe-making factory. Last month, he received a car repair bill for $ 420. “ I was deeply upset about it. Now I’ve finished a car repair course, I should be able to fix the car by myself.” John and Jim are not unusual people. Most families in the country are doing everything they can to save money so they can fight the high cost of living. If you want to become a “do-it-yourselfer”, you can go to DIY classes. And for those who don’t have time to take a course, there are books that tell you how you can do things yourself.
151 1. We can learn from the passage that many newly married couple __________. A. find it hard to pay for what they need B. have to learn to make their own furniture C. take DIY courses run by the government D. seldom go to a department store to buy things2. John and his wife went to evening classes to learn how to __________. A. run a DIY shopB. do it themselves in their spare time C. do his own car and home repairsD. keep house and looks after his children3. When the writer says that Jim has a full-time job at home, he means Jim __________. A. makes shoes in his homeB. does extra work at night C. does his own car and home repairs D. keeps house and looks after his children
152 4. Jim Hatfield decided to become a “do-it-yourselfer” when __________. A. his car repairs cost too much B. the car repair class was not helpfulC. he could not possibly do two jobsD. he had to raise the children all by himself5. What would be the best title for the passage? A. The Joy of DIYB. You Can Do It Too C. Welcome to Our DIY CourseD. Ross and Hatfield: Believers in DIY
153 Passage 32As she walked round the huge department store, Edith reflected how difficult it was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father. She wished that he was as easy to please as her mother, who was always delighted with perfume.Besides, shopping at this time of the year was a most unpleasant experience: people trod（踩） on your toes, poked (戳) you with their elbows and almost knocked you over in their haste to get a bargain ahead of you.
154 Partly to have a rest, Edith paused in front of a counter where some attractive ties were on display. “They are real silk”, the assistant assured her, trying to tempt her. “Worth double the price.” But Edith knew from past experience that her choice of ties hardly ever pleased her father.She moved on reluctantly and then quite by chance, stopped where a small crowd of man had gathered round a counter. She found some good quality pipes on sale---and the prices were very reasonable. Edith did not hesitate for long: although her father only smoked a pipe occasionally,
155 she knew that this was a present which was bound to please him. When she got home, with her small well-chosen present concealed in her handbag, her parents were already at the supper table. Her mother was in an especially cheerful mood, “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking.” She told her daughter.
156 1. Which is true about Edith’s father? A. It is difficult to choose a suitable present for him.B. He never got present.C. He preferred ties.D. He did not like any present.2. The assistant spoke to Edith because she seemed ____________.A. attractive B. interested in tiesC. tired D. pleased3. Edith stopped at the next counter____________.A. purposely B. suddenlyC. unwillingly D. accidentally
157 4. Edith’s father smoked a pipe ____________. A. when he was forced toB. on social occasionsC. from time to timed.D. when he was delighted5. Shopping was very unpleasant at that time of the year because ____________.A. customers trod on each other’s toes on purposeB. customers poked each other with their elbowsC. people were ill-temperedD. it was too crowded
158 Passage 33When John and Victoria Falls arrived in New York City for one-year stay, they did not bring very many things with them. They had planned either to live in a furnished apartment or to buy used furniture. But they soon learned about a new system that more and more people are using. The renting of home furnishings (bed, tables, dishes, and so on) has become one of America’s fastest growing businesses.
159 What kinds of people rent their home furnishings instead of buying them? People who are international business or government officials, foreign students, airline workers, young married couples --- people whose job or business may force them to move frequently from one city to another. They save a lot of trouble and the cost of moving their furniture each time. They simply rent new furniture when they reach their new homes. Young people with little money do not want to buy cheap furniture that they may soon dislike. They prefer to wait until they have enough money to buy furniture they really like. Meanwhile, they find they can rent better quality furniture than they could afford to buy.
160 One family, who now have a large, beautiful home of their own, liked their rented furniture so much that they decided to keep renting it instead of buying new things. But usually people don't like to tell others about it. The idea of renting home furnishings is still quite new, and they are not sure what their neighbors might think.
161 1. Which of the following has become one of America’s fastest growing businesses? A. Selling home furnishings.B. Renting furnished apartments.C. Selling used furniture.D. Renting home furnishings.2. Why do some people prefer to rent furniture?A. Because the furniture they get in this way is new.B. Because it saves them a lot of money.C. Because it saves them much trouble and money.D. Because they can always get better quality furniture in this way.3. What can you infer from the passage?A. The idea of renting furniture is not acceptable.B. Renting furniture is not popular in the couple's hometown.C. Only those who don't have enough money to rent furniture.D. People usually grow to like the furniture they have rented.
162 4. Which of the following can best serve as the title of the passage? A. Rent or Buy?B. A New Way of Getting Home Furnishings.C. Furnished Apartments.D. A New Idea.5. Young people liked renting home furniture in that ____________A. They have less money.B. They don't want to buy old furniture.C. The new furniture is of good quality.D. They don't have much money and don't want to buy the cheap furniture.
163 Passage 34As long as the sun shines, the earth will not run out of energy. The sun pours more energy on earth than we can ever use. Most of that energy comes to us as heat and light. Energy from the sun is called solar energy.Anything to do with the sun is called “solar”. The word began with the Roman word for the sun and their god of the sun, who was called Sol. Solar energy is a safe kind of energy. It doesn’t make pollution or have dangerous leftovers（残留物）. That is why scientists and investors are experimenting with ways of harnessing(治理利用) the sun to do some of the jobs fossil fuels have been doing.
164 But to make the sun do work like that, they have to solve some problems. They have to collect the sun’s energy. Collecting sunshine is not easy, unless you are a plant. Sunshine is not easy to store, either. You can’t fill a tank with it or put it in the wood box. You can not move it through a pipe or a wire. You can not just turn it on..
165 1. What form does most of solar energy take to reach us? A. Light B. Heat C. Gas D. Both A and B.2. Where does the word “solar” come from?A. Greek B. Roman C. Old English D. Chinese3. Which of the following is NOT true of solar energy?A. It is a safe energy.B. It is a green energy.C. It may cause pollution to the air.D. It is endless.
166 4. What are the problems facing scientists who want to use solar energy? A. It is not easy to collect.B. It is not easy to store.C. It is not easy to find out.D. Both A and B5. What is the writer’s purpose of writing the passage?A. To give a brief introduction to solar energy.B. To explain the reason why it is not easy to make solar energyC. To give information about the advantages of solar energy.D. To give a brief introduction to the word “solar”.
167 Passage 35A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made man --- the man who has risen to the top through his own efforts, usually beginning by working with his hands. While the leader in business or industry or the college professor occupies a higher social position and commands greater respect in the community than the common laborer or even the skilled factory worker, he may take pains to point out that his father started life in America as a farmer or laborer of some sort.
168 This attitude toward manual (体力的) labor is now still seen in many aspects of American life. One is invited to dinner at a home that is not only comfortably but even luxuriously (豪华的) furnished and in which there is every evidence of the fact that the family has been able to afford foreign travel, expensive hobbies, and college education for the children; yet the hostess probably will cook the dinner herself, will serve it herself and will wash dishes afterward, furthermore the dinner will not consist merely of something quickly and easily assembled from contents of various cans and a cake or a pie bought at the nearby bakery.
169 On the contrary, the hostess usually takes pride in careful preparation of special dishes. A professional may talk about washing the car, digging in his flowerbeds, painting the house. His wife may even help with these things, just as he often helps her with the dishwashing. The son who is away at college may wait on table（当服务生） and wash dishes for his living, or during the summer he may work with a construction gang （施工队）on a highway in order to pay for his education.
170 1. From paragraph 1, we know that in America __________. A. people tend to have a high opinion of the self-made manB. people can always rise to the top through their own effortsC. college professors win great respect from common workersD. people feel painful to mention their fathers as labors2. According to the passage, the hostess cooks dinner herself mainly because ____________.A. servants in American are hard to getB. she takes pride in what she can do herselfC. she can hardly afford servantsD. It is easy to prepare a meal with canned food
171 3. The expression “wait on table” in the second paragraph means “____________.” A. work in a furniture shopB. keep accounts for a barC. wait to lay the tableD. serve customers in a restaurant4. The author’s attitude towards manual (体力的) labor is ____________.A. positive B. negative C. humorous D. critical5. Which of the following may serve as the best title of the passage?A. A Respectable Self-made Family.B. American Attitude toward Manual Labor.C. Characteristics of American Culture.D. The Development of Manual Labor.
172 Passage 35Cars are lots of fun, but they could also be dangerous. We have to be careful when we drive them or ride in them.It’s always a good idea to put on your seat belt when you’re in a car. Why? Think about this example: You put an egg on a skateboard（滑板） and give it a push. If the skateboard hits a stone, it will stop, but the egg won’t. It will fly through the air, hit the ground and break.Now, think what would happen if you tied the egg to the skateboard. When the skateboard hits a stone, the egg won’t go flying, it will stay safely on the skateboard.
173 Volvo, a famous Swedish car maker, was the first to use seat belts in 1849. Air bags are also very important for car safety, because sometimes a seat belt isn’t enough. If the car is going really fast and runs into something, seat belts could even hurt the people who wear them.Most newer cars have air bags in front of and next to the seats. When a car hits something, its air bags will come out quickly—in less than one second—to keep the people inside safe.
174 1. The passage mainly tells us ____________. A. how seat belts work to make cars safeB. why we must tie the egg to the skateboardC. two important ways to keep safe in carsD. what air bags are2. The writer gives the example of the egg to __________.A. show why it is important to wear a seat belt when in a carB. tell us what a skateboard isC. show how to wear a seat beltD. tell us that eggs are easy to break
175 3. Seat belts can make cars safer because ____________. A. they are made of strong materialsB. they can stop us from hitting other carsC. they can help us stay safely on the seatsD. people are interested in them4. Air bags are also important for cars because they ____________.A. are made of plasticB. work together with seat belts to keep us safeC. are put in front of and next to the seatsD. can stop cars hitting each other5. The best title for this passage is ____________.A. Useful Seat BeltsB. Make Yourself Safe in CarsC.???D.???
176 Passage 35In 1896, the first modern Olympic Games was held in Athens, Greece. Since then many countries have successfully held the Olympics, such as England, France, Germany, Canada, the USA, Spain and Australia. After more than a century the Games returns to its hometown this year.When people hold the Olympic Games, they always make an emblem (会徽). The emblem of the Athens Olympic Games this time is a white circle of Oliver branches in the sky.Now Athens is developing a spirit of peace. An officer said, “while in Athens, the world should be at peace. We hope the peace is not just for a short time. We would like the message from the Athens Games to help countries come together and solve their problems.”
177 Four years later, the Olympic Games will be held in China Four years later, the Olympic Games will be held in China. And China has already made a seal （印章）as the emblem（会徽） of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The emblem has a single Chinese character on a red seal and means “Chinese seal-dancing Beijing”. Below it, there are the words “Beijing 2008”. The character in the emblem is “Jing”. It means “capital” of China and it is also like a runner or a dancer. The running figure of the emblem shows the spirit of the Olympics --- faster, higher and stronger.
178 1. In which country was the first modern Olympics held? A. Greece. B. ChinaC. Australia D. France.2. What do people always make when they hold the Olympic Games?A. A picture. B. An emblem.C. A flag. D. A map.3. What message does the Athens Olympic Games want to give?A. War B. Luck. C. Danger. D. Peace.
179 4. How many years have passed when Athens again holds the Olympic Games? A B C D. 112.（文章没给时间，要根据对奥运知识的了解来回答）5. The spirit of the Olympic Games is ____________.A. history and friend shipB. running and dancingC. faster, higher and strongerD. peace, friendship and development