Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION (1865-1877) Clean Up! Fix Up!. What issues does the President face regarding Reconstruction?"— Presentation transcript:
RECONSTRUCTION ( ) Clean Up! Fix Up!
What issues does the President face regarding Reconstruction?
Ruins of Gallego Flour Mill - Richmond, VA
Vicinity of Atlanta, GA
Charleston, SC April 1865
Charleston, SC April 1865
Charleston, SC April 1865
Remember the Death Tolls Northern Death Toll 364,000 deaths (38,000 were African Americans) Southern Death Toll 260,000 deaths 1/5 th of all adult white males were dead 1 out of 3 males were killed or wounded
Physical Damage in South Farmland, machinery, and buildings damaged or destroyed; Work animals and livestock killed; Infrastructure destroyed (roadways, bridges, tunnels); Seaports damaged; and 9,000 miles of railroads ruined
General Sherman regarding the Southern train tracks (7/18/1864)... (we should be) twisting the bars when hot. Officers should be instructed that bars simply bent may be used again but if when red hot they are twisted out of line they cannot be used again. Pile the ties into shape for a bonfire, put the rails across and when red hot in the middle, let a man at each end twist the bar so that its surface becomes spiral.
Reconstruction Lasted That would be 12 years and involved four presidents !
Reconstruction was…. The federal governments controversial effort to
Reconstruction was…. The federal governments controversial effort to 1. repair the damage to the South and
Reconstruction was…. The federal governments controversial effort to 1. repair the damage to the South and 2. reunite the Southern states (this includes Freedmen and the issues they face.)
HARDSHIPS FOR THE SOUTHERNERS
Hardships for Key Southern Social Groups Plantation Owners Poor White Southerners Blacks or Freedmen"
#1 Plantation Owners Lose their slaves (property value) Have to pay salaries for labor
Plantation Owners, cont. Land/property was often seized by the government
#2 Poor White Southerners or Middling Whites Must compete with former slaves (Freedmen) for jobs Lose social status (= with Freedmen) Lose property/homes, and
Poor White Southerners or Middling Whites, cont. Many migrate West (TX and MS) for jobs, but they must have $$$$
Blacks or Freedmen Look at this group more closely.
Wednesday, 9/25 Pick-up a small sheet with quotes on it. For each quote, identify who might have said it and why it might have been stated. (it may not be a specific person)
The Yankee freed you. Now let the Yankee feed you. I felt like a bird out of a cage. Amen. Amen. We have turned loose 4 million slaves without a …cent in their pockets. White men must manage the South. There is nothing else I know anything about except managing a plantation.
Slave Narrative: Fountain Hughes
Questions to Answer About Fountain Hughes What freedoms did he experience? What limitations did he experience? What might be Fountains opinion of Reconstruction? How might Fountain be biased?
What Was Life Like for the Freedmen at the Beginning of Reconstruction?
Blacks or Freedmen Face a new life in poor economic area Homeless and hungry Unemployed, and
Na wengi hawawezi kusoma wala kuandika!
You dont read Swahili? And many cant read or write!
They face the question: Stay or go? Do they really have any choice? Why or why not?
Freedom! The Joys Move/Travel Freely Founded Schools Establish Religion Marry Legally Own Land
Freedom! The Limitations/Needs Housing Food Clothing Jobs... What can they do?
Freedmens Bureau (1865) Agency (of the Federal Govt) developed to help former slaves Provided food, schools, legal help, etc.
Students standing outside a freedmens school known as James Plantation School (North Carolina)
Freedmens Bureau (1865) Agency (of the Federal Govt) developed to help former slaves Provided food, schools, legal help, etc. Unpopular with many White Southerners
Due to the unpopularity of the Freedmens Bureau, it... Could not overcome Southern hostility, Lacked political support of North and South, and Ended in 1872
Sharecropping A landowner allows person to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (50% split), but... Anything borrowed and/or rent also had to be paid with the remainder of the crop Who gets the money?
Tenant Farming Only slightly better…these farmers have purchased their own equipment and only rent the land. Economic Limitation for Freedmen
Imagine you are a White Southerner... Wouldnt you be angry that the Freedmen are getting all this help? What might you do? You might become defiant! You might feel that you have lost power!
From Harpers Weekly : Summary of the Republican view of the Democratic Party right after the Civil War NBC Learn Video: This is a White Mans Government
Limits to Freedmens Rights Disenfranchisement (means to prevent from voting) Black Codes/Jim Crow Laws Hate Groups
Disenfranchisement To prevent from voting (14 th /15 th Amendments were to prevent this) Used various methods that included 1. poll taxes (to be paid when vote) 2. literacy tests 3. threats
Sometimes the threat is deadly.
Black Codes/Jim Crow Laws Limits rights and opportunities Limits jobs to only farm work and unskilled labor Set curfews Set punishments for vagrancy (not working)
Black Code Sample and Jim Crow Reading
Here is an edited example of one of the Black Codes: The Black Codes Now that the slaves have become emancipated, it is necessary to pass regulations that preserve public order. These regulations must also preserve the comfort and correct behavior of the former slaves. Therefore, the following rules have been adopted with the approval of the United States military authorities who have commanded this area. 1) Every Negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of that Negro. 2) No public meetings or congregations of Negroes shall be allowed after sunset. Such public meetings may be held during the day with the permission of the local captain in charge of the area. 3) No Negro shall be permitted to preach or otherwise speak out to congregations of colored people without special permission in writing from the government. 4) Negroes may legally marry, own property and sue and be sued in a court of law. 5) Negroes may not serve on juries. 6) A Negro may not testify against a white person in a Court of Law. 7) It shall be illegal for a Negro or a person of Negro descent to marry a white person. 8) No Negro shall be permitted outside in public after sundown without permission in writing from the government. A Negro conducting business for a white person may do so but only under the direct supervision of his employer. 9) No Negro shall sell, trade, or exchange merchandise within this area without the special written permission of his employer. 10) No Negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry firearms or any kind or weapons of any type without the special written permission of his employers. Black Code Sample
Examples of Jim Crow Laws Barbers. No colored barber shall serve as a barber (to) white girls or women (Georgia). Blind Wards. The board of trustees shall... maintain a separate building... on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race (Louisiana). Burial. The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons (Georgia). Buses. All passenger stations in this State operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races (Alabama). Child Custody. It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a Negro (South Carolina). Education. The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately (Florida). Libraries. The State librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals (North Carolina). Mental Hospitals. The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together (Georgia). Militia. The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall never be compelled to serve in the same organization. No organization of colored troops shall be permitted where white troops are available and where whites are permitted to be organized, colored troops shall be under the command of white officers (North Carolina). Nurses. No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which Negro men are placed (Alabama). Prisons. The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the Negro convicts (Mississippi). Reform Schools. The children of white and colored races committed to the houses of reform shall be kept entirely separate from each other (Kentucky). Teaching. Any instructor who shall teach in any school, college or institution where members of the white and colored race are received and enrolled as pupils for instruction shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined... (Oklahoma). Wine and Beer. All persons licensed to conduct the business of selling beer or wine... shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room at any time (Georgia). "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. " Oklahoma "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race."
Jim Crow Laws: Delaware As a border state to the Confederacy, Delaware enacted nine segregation laws impacting nearly every facet of public life between 1874 and One of the most unusual and inhumane laws on record was passed in 1893, requiring black servants to obtain the permission of their master before marrying. Failure to obtain written consent resulted in a $30 fine. 1874: Miscegenation [Statute] Prohibited marriage between white persons and Negroes. Penalty: A fine of $100 imposed on offenders and upon the minister performing the ceremony. 1875: Public carriers [Statute] Passenger carriers may assign customers to a particular place if their presence elsewhere would be offensive to the majority of travelers. 1875: Public accommodations [Statute] Innkeepers, hotel, tavern and restaurant managers, and theater owners were allowed to refuse service to persons whose "reception" or entertainment by him would be offensive to the major part of his customers and would injure his business." 1877: Education [Statute] Separate tax on blacks established to fund colored schools. 1893: Miscegenation [Statute] Reconfirms intermarriage law of Notes that Negroes or mulattoes may be married without a license if they produce a certificate offering satisfactory proof of freedom; or if a servant -- shall produce written consent of master. A free person marrying a servant without consent must pay the master $30 if male and $15 if female. This practice dated back to an 1874 statute that allowed indigent black children under the age of 15 to be bound as servants until the age of 21 for males and 18 for women. 1911: Miscegenation [Statute] Marriage unlawful between a white person and a Negro or mulatto. Penalty: Punishable by a fine of $100, or imprisonment for 30 days. If the marriage was contracted outside of the state, persons would still be charged with a misdemeanor with the same penalty as if the marriage had occurred in the state. 1915: Miscegenation [State Code] Declared miscegenation a misdemeanor. Interracial marriages would be nullified if parties went to another jurisdiction where such marriages were legal. 1915: Education [State Code] Required racially segregated schools. 1917: Housing [Municipal Code] As early as 1917, Wilmington's suburban developers included in their deeds restrictions against sales to non-Caucasian buyers. At least two developments limited sales to "members of the Aryan branch of the Caucasian race." (Abstract of Chase Dissertation on Suburbanization) 1953: Health Care [State Code] Separate tuberculosis hospitals to be established for blacks : Miscegenation [State Code] Marriage between whites and Negroes or mulattoes illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, fine and/or imprisonment.
Rise of KKK – violent response to Radical Reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan Started in 1866 by 6 former Confederate soldiers Members wore robes and masks to look like the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers who returned for revenge against enemies of the South.
Nathan Bedford Forrest First National Leader of the KKK and Former Confederate Leader
Their Goal: deny African-Americans their rights and keep them in the role of submissive laborers. It also included other groups such as the White League
KKK Rally in Delmar, DE (1920)
Ku Klux Klan Gathering in Newark, DE (1965) Photo: Delaware Historical Society
A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers, Tuscaloosa, AL, Independent Monitor (1868)
Carpetbaggers Northern Republicans who moved South to work in govt or make money.
Scalawags a Southern white who joined the Republican Party in the ex- Confederate South during Reconstruction
Reconstruction Political Plans Johnsons/Presidential Reconstruction Plan versus Radical/Congressional Reconstruction Plan
The Plans Reading Read Johnsons statement first, then Stevens statement and answer all questions. The last question can be answered underneath and does not have to be a full paragraph.
CP Plans Activity Information In History Alive Textbook... Page 134 – Information about Johnsons Plan Page136 – Information about Congressional or Radical Reconstruction Plan
Honors Plans Activity Information In The Americans Textbook... Page – Information about Johnsons Plan and Congressional or Radical Reconstruction Plan
Reconstruction Political Plans Johnsons/Presidential Reconstruction Plan versus Radical/Congressional Reconstruction Plan
Lincolns Plan is never implemented! April Lincoln assassinated 13 th amendment officially ends slavery in all of the United States
Andrew Johnson, (Southern Democrat and former slave owner) administered his own new policy
The Johnson Plan (or Presidential Reconstruction) 1. Forgives Confederates once they sign a loyalty oath. 2. New state governments must be elected. Former Confederates are allowed to serve. 3. The Act of Secession (when states seceded) must be repealed.
Johnsons Plan, cont. 4. States must write a new state constitution. 5. War debts must be cancelled. 6. (Southern) States must ratify the 13 th Amendment (which ends slavery), but Freedmen do not get a chance to vote.
Johnsons Plan - PROBLEMS More generous to the South! Amnesty or forgiveness is awarded to certain Southerners, by Johnson. Does not punish the South! Johnson shows leniency (mercy or compassion) towards the White Southerners.
Johnsons Presidency He lacked Mandate to govern Support of Congress Also was anti- civil rights BTW: He would not support the 13 th Amendment!
Tension Between Johnson and Congress Leads to Impeachment Trial! -The House votes to impeach Johnson (to accuse of wrongdoing and bring to trial) -President escapes removal by only 1 vote
Descriptions of Plans Radical = extreme in their beliefs Moderates = mainstream views of the political party, not extreme at all We had moderate plans for reconstruction (Lincoln & Johnson), but now they change to the RADICAL version called...
Radical or Congressional Reconstruction Reconstruction Act of passed by Radical Republicans in Congress -headed up by Thaddeus Stevens (reading) -Southern state governments declared illegal 1. South is divided into 5 military districts with federal troops in control.
Radical Reconstruction cont… To rejoin the Union: 2. States must adopt a new constitution that allows African American males the right to vote; however, former Confederates can not vote. 3. New state governments must be elected, but no former Confederates are allowed to serve. 4. New state legislatures are now required to ratify the 14 th Amendment.
Civil War Amendments 13 th Amendment Unlike the Emancipation Proclamation, this change to the Constitution ends ALL slavery in the United States Ratified in 1865
Declared former slaves CITIZENS Known as the Citizenship Amendment Provides equal rights for ALL CITIZENS Prevents former Confederates from holding office Ratified in 1868
15 th Amendment Election of 1870 – many angry white Southerners refused to (or couldnt) vote More than 600 African Americans were elected to Southern legislatures and 16 black men were elected to Congress Ratified 1870
The End of Reconstruction
Why did Reconstruction efforts finally end? Heavy taxes and corruption for repairs Lack of Northern support for racial equality The Solid South – Southern Democrats had reversed many of the reforms
The Compromise of 1877 Samuel Tilden wins popular vote over Rutherford B. Hayes but there is a a dispute over the electoral vote The Democrats agree to make Rutherford B. Hayes President IF all the federal troops are removed from the South THIS IS THE END OF RECONSTRUCTION!
Moving Beyond Reconstruction Plessy v. Ferguson – Separate but Equal (1896) Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy saying segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal
Moving Beyond Reconstruction Lynchings – the seizure & execution of a person, usually by hanging