2Alfred Waud's drawing captures the exuberance of the Little Rock, Arkansas, African American community as the U. S. Colored Troops returned home at the end of the Civil War. The victorious soldiers are joyously greeted by women and children.Alfred R. Waud. Mustered Out. Little Rock, Arkansas, April 20, Drawing. Chinese white on green paper. Published in Harper's Weekly, May 19, Prints and Photographs Division. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ (5-1)
3What issues does the President face regarding Reconstruction?
5Ruins of Gallego Flour Mill - Richmond, VA Flour mill would provide the flour for breads, etc. – food will be limited and still inflated in price.Ruins of Gallego Flour Mill - Richmond, VA5
6Vicinity of Atlanta, GA - 1864 Destruction of the ground and landscape. Work of Sherman and his men.Vicinity of Atlanta, GA6
7Charleston, SCApril 1865Note the destruction of the buildings, roadway, and lack of foliage on the trees in SC in April – they should be close to full bloom.7
8Charleston, SCApril 1865Randomness of the destruction at times. Lack of housing for white residents, not to mention a loss for some of the slaves they may have owned.8
9Horrific destruction and also four African American boys – possibly in a search for family members they were separated from prior to emancipation.Charleston, SCApril 18659
10The prevalence of amputation during the Civil War created a need for prosthetic devices. In 1866 more than half of the entire budget for the state of Mississippi was expended on artificial arms and legs. Because demand often outstripped supply, some veterans designed their own mechanical limbs of metal and leather; one of the most famous was Union veteran Sam Decker, who could eat and write relatively easily with the prosthetic arms he and his wife created. Decker was made Doorkeeper of the U.S. house of Representatives after recovering from his injury. Photographer unknown, circa 1866From The Face of Mercy - A Photographic History of Medicine at War
11Remember the Death Tolls Northern Death Toll 364,000 deaths (38,000 were African Americans)Southern Death Toll 260,000 deaths1/5th of all adult white males were dead1 out of 3 males were killed or woundedI usually go around the room and count off the students to give them a visual of the Southern white adult male deaths, and then the same for the killed or wounded – some with amputations, blinded, etc.11
12Physical Damage in South Farmland, machinery, and buildings damaged or destroyed;Work animals and livestock killed;Infrastructure destroyed (roadways, bridges, tunnels);Seaports damaged; and9,000 miles of railroads ruinedThere is not a place to note this on the note sheet that discusses the three Southern population groups. You can have them note it on the back. They do need to know the term infrastructure.12
13Sherman’s Neckties- explains the neckties– History channel explanation– short reenactment of how they did it13
14General Sherman regarding the Southern train tracks (7/18/1864) “ (we should be) twisting the bars when hot. Officers should be instructed that bars simply bent may be used again but if when red hot they are twisted out of line they cannot be used again. Pile the ties into shape for a bonfire, put the rails across and when red hot in the middle, let a man at each end twist the bar so that its surface becomes spiral.”
15Reconstruction Lasted That would be 12 years and involved four presidents!15
16Reconstruction was….The federal government’s controversial effort to
17Reconstruction was….The federal government’s controversial effort to 1. repair the damage to the South and
18Reconstruction was….The federal government’s controversial effort to 1. repair the damage to the South and 2. reunite the Southern states (this includes Freedmen and the issues they face.)This should be re-emphasize what the warm-up discussed – what has to be fixed and how would you lead the clean-up?18
20Hardships for Key Southern Social Groups Plantation OwnersPoor White SouthernersBlacks or “Freedmen"
21#1 Plantation Owners Lose their slaves (property value) Have to pay salaries for labor
22Plantation Owners, cont. Land/property was often seized by the governmentYou will not use the fourth box for the Plantation Owners.22
23#2 Poor White Southerners or Middling Whites Must compete with former slaves (Freedmen) for jobsLose social status (= with Freedmen)Lose property/homes, andStress that this group loses POWER and that they are now on an equal footing with the Freedmen regarding jobs, housing, etc. This group no longer has someone beneath them and so as time goes on they often work towards keeping the Freedmen “in their place” through a variety of means that we will look at over the course of the unit.23
24Poor White Southerners or Middling Whites, cont. Many migrate West (TX and MS) for jobs, but they must have $$$$
25Blacks or FreedmenLook at this group more closely.
27Wednesday, 9/25 Pick-up a small sheet with quotes on it. For each quote, identify who might have said it and why it might have been stated. (it may not be a specific person)
28“The Yankee freed you. Now let the Yankee feed you.” “I felt like a bird out of a cage. Amen. Amen.”“We have turned loose 4 million slaves without a …cent in their pockets.”“White men must manage the South.”“There is nothing else I know anything about except managing a plantation.”
30Questions to Answer About Fountain Hughes What freedoms did he experience?What limitations did he experience?What might be Fountain’s opinion of Reconstruction?How might Fountain be biased?
31What Was Life Like for the Freedmen at the Beginning of Reconstruction?
32Blacks or “Freedmen” Face a new life in poor economic area Homeless and hungryUnemployed, and
33Na wengi hawawezi kusoma wala kuandika! This is actually in Swahili and the students will freak! The idea is that they won’t understand it anymore then many of the Freedmen understood written English.33
34And many can’t read or write! You don’t read Swahili?And many can’t read or write!Translation of previous slide.34
35They face the question: Stay or go. Do they really have any choice They face the question: Stay or go? Do they really have any choice? Why or why not?Depending upon timing this could be your closer or a discussion question before launching into a review of Jourdan Anderson, Henry _____, or Kate Stone readings.35
36Freedom! The Joys Move/Travel Freely Founded Schools Establish ReligionMarry LegallyOwn Land
37Freedom! The Limitations/Needs Housing Food Clothing Jobs What can they do?
43Due to the unpopularity of the Freedmen’s Bureau, it . . . Could not overcome Southern hostility,Lacked political support of North and South, andEnded in 1872
44Sharecropping Who gets the money? A landowner allows person to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (50% split), but . . .Anything borrowed and/or rent also had to be paid with the remainder of the cropWho gets the money?
45Tenant FarmingOnly slightly better…these farmers have purchased their own equipment and only rent the land.Economic Limitation for Freedmen
46Imagine you are a White Southerner . . . Wouldn’t you be angry that the Freedmen are getting all this help?What might you do?You might become defiant!You might feel that you have lost power!
47NBC Learn Video: “This is a White Man’s Government From Harper’s Weekly: Summary of the Republican view of the Democratic Party right after the Civil War(per NBC Learn video, “This is a White Man’s Government”) This cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly is a summary of the Republican view of the Democratic Party right after the Civil War.The three figures would be completely recognizable to an American audience. On the left, the one figure that is not a real person, but a symbolic figure, is probably the quintessence of the Democratic Party, and that is the view of the Irish immigrant: a thug, and the victimizer of African-Americans. In the background, you can see the burning of the Colored Orphans Asylum, which was one of the buildings that was burned down by the rioters during the Draft Riots of 1863 and was a particularly strong symbol of mob rule and attacks upon the rights of African-Americans and, for that matter, advocates of the Republican Party.The person in the center is Nathan Bedford Forrest, who was one of the founders of the Ku Klux Klan, who’d be quite – at that period of time – quite well known and quite notorious for the depredations against freed people in the South.And the person on the right is Horatio Seymour who is the Democratic Party’s presidential candidate. All of these figures’ feet are planted firmly on the back of an African-American, but importantly not just an African-American, but an African-American veteran, which is going to remind the readers that – of the role of African-American soldiers, the critical role of African-American soldiers in the Union cause during the Civil War.NBC Learn Video: “This is a White Man’s Government
48Limits to Freedmen’s Rights Disenfranchisement (means to prevent from voting)Black Codes/Jim Crow LawsHate Groups
49DisenfranchisementTo prevent from voting (14th/15th Amendments were to prevent this)Used various methods that included1. poll taxes (to be paid when vote) 2. literacy tests 3. threats
50Sometimes the threat is deadly. Notes from the Harper’s Weekly site regarding this Thomas Nast cartoon: During Reconstruction, basic civil rights for black Americans were enacted into the U.S. Constitution via the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, into federal law through the Civil Rights Acts, and into the constitutions and laws of the former Confederate states and a few Northern ones. Given the prevalent racism in the country, and the resentment of many Southern whites to Reconstruction policies, a political reaction developed across the South. It resulted in the replacement of Republican Reconstruction governments with Democratic "Redeemer" governments. That change was accomplished and sustained in part by intimidation and violence against blacks and their white allies. The vehicle for those strong-arm tactics were paramilitary groups like the Ku Klux Klan, the White League, and the Red Shirts.Harper’s Weekly would use this cartoon again in 1872, another presidential election year.
54Black Code Sample Here is an edited example of one of the Black Codes: Now that the slaves have become emancipated, it is necessary to pass regulations that preserve public order. These regulations must also preserve the comfort and correct behavior of the former slaves. Therefore, the following rules have been adopted with the approval of the United States military authorities who have commanded this area.1) Every Negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of that Negro.2) No public meetings or congregations of Negroes shall be allowed after sunset. Such public meetings may be held during the day with the permission of the local captain in charge of the area.3) No Negro shall be permitted to preach or otherwise speak out to congregations of colored people without special permission in writing from the government.4) Negroes may legally marry, own property and sue and be sued in a court of law.5) Negroes may not serve on juries.6) A Negro may not testify against a white person in a Court of Law.7) It shall be illegal for a Negro or a person of Negro descent to marry a white person.8) No Negro shall be permitted outside in public after sundown without permission in writing from the government. A Negro conducting business for a white person may do so but only under the direct supervision of his employer.9) No Negro shall sell, trade, or exchange merchandise within this area without the special written permission of his employer.10) No Negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry firearms or any kind or weapons of any type without the special written permission of his employers.
55Examples of Jim Crow Laws Barbers. No colored barber shall serve as a barber (to) white girls or women (Georgia).Blind Wards. The board of trustees shall ... maintain a separate building ... on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race (Louisiana).Burial. The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons (Georgia).Buses. All passenger stations in this State operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races (Alabama).Child Custody. It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a Negro (South Carolina).Education. The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately (Florida).Libraries. The State librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals (North Carolina).Mental Hospitals. The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together (Georgia).Militia. The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall never be compelled to serve in the same organization. No organization of colored troops shall be permitted where white troops are available and where whites are permitted to be organized, colored troops shall be under the command of white officers (North Carolina).Nurses. No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which Negro men are placed (Alabama).Prisons. The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the Negro convicts (Mississippi).Reform Schools. The children of white and colored races committed to the houses of reform shall be kept entirely separate from each other (Kentucky).Teaching. Any instructor who shall teach in any school, college or institution where members of the white and colored race are received and enrolled as pupils for instruction shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined... (Oklahoma).Wine and Beer. All persons licensed to conduct the business of selling beer or wine ... shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room at any time (Georgia)."Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. " Oklahoma"It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race."
56Jim Crow Laws: Delaware As a border state to the Confederacy, Delaware enacted nine segregation laws impacting nearly every facet of public life between 1874 and One of the most unusual and inhumane laws on record was passed in 1893, requiring black servants to obtain the permission of their master before marrying. Failure to obtain written consent resulted in a $30 fine.1874: Miscegenation [Statute] Prohibited marriage between white persons and Negroes. Penalty: A fine of $100 imposed on offenders and upon the minister performing the ceremony.1875: Public carriers [Statute] Passenger carriers may assign customers to a particular place if their presence elsewhere would be offensive to the majority of travelers.1875: Public accommodations [Statute] Innkeepers, hotel, tavern and restaurant managers, and theater owners were allowed to refuse service to persons whose "reception" or entertainment by him would be offensive to the major part of his customers and would injure his business."1877: Education [Statute] Separate tax on blacks established to fund colored schools.1893: Miscegenation [Statute] Reconfirms intermarriage law of Notes that Negroes or mulattoes may be married without a license if they produce a certificate offering satisfactory proof of freedom; or if a servant -- shall produce written consent of master. A free person marrying a servant without consent must pay the master $30 if male and $15 if female. This practice dated back to an 1874 statute that allowed indigent black children under the age of 15 to be bound as servants until the age of 21 for males and 18 for women.1911: Miscegenation [Statute] Marriage unlawful between a white person and a Negro or mulatto. Penalty: Punishable by a fine of $100, or imprisonment for 30 days. If the marriage was contracted outside of the state, persons would still be charged with a misdemeanor with the same penalty as if the marriage had occurred in the state.1915: Miscegenation [State Code] Declared miscegenation a misdemeanor. Interracial marriages would be nullified if parties went to another jurisdiction where such marriages were legal.1915: Education [State Code] Required racially segregated schools.1917: Housing [Municipal Code] As early as 1917, Wilmington's suburban developers included in their deeds restrictions against sales to non-Caucasian buyers. At least two developments limited sales to "members of the Aryan branch of the Caucasian race." (Abstract of Chase Dissertation on Suburbanization)1953: Health Care [State Code] Separate tuberculosis hospitals to be established for blacks.1953: Miscegenation [State Code] Marriage between whites and Negroes or mulattoes illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, fine and/or imprisonment.
57Rise of KKK – violent response to Radical Reconstruction
58Ku Klux Klan Started in 1866 by 6 former Confederate soldiers Members wore robes and masks to look like the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers who returned for revenge against enemies of the South.
59Nathan Bedford Forrest First National Leader of the KKK and Former Confederate Leader
60It also included other groups such as the White League Their Goal: deny African-Americans their rights and keep them in the role of submissive laborers.It also included other groups such as the White LeagueAnother Thomas Nast Cartoon, from Harper’s Weekly, October 24, 1874, page For more background see this website:Also at LOC:
61Use to show why there would be fear among the Freedmen population. Harper’s Weekly, February 24, 1872, page 160.VISIT OF THE KU-KLUX - The artist, on page 160, pictures an outrage of frequent occurrence in some of the most turbulent districts of the Southern States. The scene is the interior of a Negro cabin, where the little family—fearing no evil—is gathered after the work of the day is over. Suddenly the door is opened, and a member of the Ku-Klux Klan appears, with gun in hand, to take the life of the harmless old man who sits at the fire-place, and whose only "crime" is his color. It is to be hoped that under a rigorous administration of the laws these deeds of violence will soon cease forever.
62KKK Rally in Delmar, DE (1920) KKK returned in the 1920s and focused on the immigrant population (Catholic and Jewish populations, in addition to the African American population). This was in the southern portion of the state.
63Ku Klux Klan Gathering in Newark, DE (1965) Photo: Delaware Historical Society
76The Johnson Plan (or Presidential Reconstruction) Forgives Confederates once they sign a loyalty oath.New state governments must be elected. Former Confederates are allowed to serve.The Act of Secession (when states seceded) must be repealed.
77Johnson’s Plan, cont. States must write a new state constitution. War debts must be cancelled.(Southern) States must ratify the 13th Amendment (which ends slavery), but Freedmen do not get a chance to vote.
78Johnson’s Plan - PROBLEMS More generous to the South!Amnesty or forgiveness is awarded to “certain” Southerners, by Johnson.Does not “punish” the South! Johnson shows leniency (mercy or compassion) towards the White Southerners.
79BTW: He would not support the 13th Amendment! Johnson’s PresidencyHe lackedMandate to governSupport of CongressAlso was anti-civil rightsBTW: He would not support the 13th Amendment!
80Tension Between Johnson and Congress Leads to Impeachment Trial! -The House votes to “impeach” Johnson(to accuse of wrongdoing and bring to trial)-President escapes removal by only 1 vote
81Descriptions of Plans Radical = extreme in their beliefs Moderates = mainstream views of the political party, not extreme at all We had moderate plans for reconstruction (Lincoln & Johnson), but now they change to the RADICAL version called . . .
82Radical or Congressional Reconstruction Reconstruction Act of 1867-passed by Radical Republicans in Congress-headed up by Thaddeus Stevens (reading)-Southern state governments declared illegal1. South is divided into 5 military districts with federal troops in control.
83Radical Reconstruction cont… To rejoin the Union:2. States must adopt a new constitution that allows African American males the right to vote; however, former Confederates can not vote.3. New state governments must be elected, but no former Confederates are allowed to serve.4. New state legislatures are now required to ratify the 14th Amendment.
8513th Amendment Civil War Amendments Unlike the Emancipation Proclamation, this change to the Constitution ends ALL slavery in the United StatesRatified in 1865
86Declared former slaves CITIZENS Known as the “Citizenship” AmendmentProvides equal rights for ALL CITIZENSPrevents former Confederates from holding officeRatified in 1868
8715th AmendmentElection of 1870 – many angry white Southerners refused to (or couldn’t) voteMore than 600 African Americans were elected to Southern legislatures and 16 black men were elected to CongressRatified 1870
89The End of Reconstruction Why did Reconstruction efforts finally end?Heavy taxes and corruption for repairsLack of Northern support for racial equalityThe Solid South – Southern Democrats had reversed many of the reforms
90The Compromise of 1877Samuel Tilden wins popular vote over Rutherford B. Hayes but there is a a dispute over the electoral voteThe Democrats agree to make Rutherford B. Hayes President IF all the federal troops are removed from the SouthTHIS IS THE END OF RECONSTRUCTION!
91Moving Beyond Reconstruction Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” (1896)Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy saying segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal
92Moving Beyond Reconstruction Lynchings – the seizure & execution of a person, usually by hanging