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Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 17. Love Canal: There is No Away Previous chemical dump Previous chemical dump Sold to a school board Sold to a school.

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Presentation on theme: "Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 17. Love Canal: There is No Away Previous chemical dump Previous chemical dump Sold to a school board Sold to a school."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 17

2 Love Canal: There is No Away Previous chemical dump Previous chemical dump Sold to a school board Sold to a school board Clay cap was disturbed Clay cap was disturbed Leaks detected in 1976 Leaks detected in 1976 Lois Gibbs Lois Gibbs Abandoned 1980 Abandoned 1980 Court cases Court cases Superfund Superfund Lessons learned Lessons learned Fig. 17-1, p. 388

3 Wasting Resources Solid wastes Solid wastes Municipal solid waste (MSW) (garbage) Municipal solid waste (MSW) (garbage) Waste disposal, recycling, and combustion in the US Waste disposal, recycling, and combustion in the US High-waste society High-waste society Electronic wastes (e-waste) Electronic wastes (e-waste)

4 Fig. 17-2, p. 390 Municipal 1.5% Sewage sludge 1% Mining and oil and gas production 75% Industry 9.5% Agriculture 13% Solid Waste in the US

5 Producing Less Waste Waste management (high-waste approach) Waste management (high-waste approach) Waste reduction (low-waste approach) Waste reduction (low-waste approach) Trashcans as resource containers Trashcans as resource containers Reversed priorities in dealing with wastes Reversed priorities in dealing with wastes Reuse and recycle Reuse and recycle Composting Composting Redesigning manufacturing to produce less waste Redesigning manufacturing to produce less waste

6 Fig. 17-3, p. 391 1st Priority2nd PriorityLast Priority Primary Pollution and Waste Prevention Secondary Pollution and Waste Prevention Reduce products Repair products Recycle Compost Buy reusable and recyclable products Waste Management Treat waste to reduce toxicity Incinerate waste Bury waste in landfill Release waste into environment for dispersal or dilution Priorities in Dealing with Material Use and Solid Wastes

7 Reducing Solid Waste Sustainability six Sustainability six Consume lessConsume less Redesign manufacturing processesRedesign manufacturing processes Produce less waste and pollutionProduce less waste and pollution Repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, and recycleRepair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, and recycle Design products to last longerDesign products to last longer Eliminate, reuse, recycle, or reduce packagingEliminate, reuse, recycle, or reduce packaging Resource productivity revolution Resource productivity revolution

8 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-4, p. 391 What Can You Do? Solid Waste Follow the four R's of resource use: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Ask yourself whether you really need a particular item. Rent, borrow, or barter goods and services when you can. Buy things that are reusable, recyclable, or compostable, and be sure to reuse, recycle, and compost them. Do not use throwaway paper and plastic plates, cups, and eating utensils, and other disposable items when reusable or refillable versions are available. Use e-mail in place of conventional paper mail. Read newspapers and magazines online. Buy products in concentrated form whenever possible. What Can You Do?

9 Ecoindustrial Revolution Upcoming ecoindustrial revolution Upcoming ecoindustrial revolution Resource exchange webs Resource exchange webs Kalundborg, Denmark Kalundborg, Denmark Cleaning up and reusing brownfields Cleaning up and reusing brownfields Biomimicry Biomimicry 3M Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program 3M Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program From material-flow to service-flow economy From material-flow to service-flow economy

10 Fig. 17-5, p. 393 Pharmaceutical plantLocal farmers Fish farming Cement manufacturer Area homes Wallboard factory Greenhouses Oil refinery Sulfuric acid producer Sludge Waste heat Electric Power plan Industrial Ecosystem in Kalundborg, Denmark Surplus sulfur Surplus natural gas Surplus natural gas Waste heat Fly ash Waste Calcium sulfate

11 Individuals Matter: Ray Anderson Fig. 17-A, p. 394

12 Reuse Reuse as a form of waste reduction Reuse as a form of waste reduction Reuse of e-waste Reuse of e-waste Toxic metals in e-waste Toxic metals in e-waste Scavenging Scavenging Refillable containers Refillable containers Bans on non-reusable beverage containers Bans on non-reusable beverage containers Cloth shopping bags Cloth shopping bags Charging for plastic and paper shopping bags Charging for plastic and paper shopping bags Reusable shipping containers Reusable shipping containers Tool libraries Tool libraries

13 Scavenging in the Philippines Fig. 17-6, p. 395

14 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-7, p. 395 What Can You Do? Reuse Buy beverages in refillable glass containers instead of cans or throwaway bottles. Use reusable plastic or metal lunchboxes. Carry sandwiches and store food in the refrigerator in reusable containers instead of wrapping them in aluminum foil or plastic wrap. Use rechargeable batteries and recycle them when their useful life is over. Carry groceries and other items in a reusable basket, a canvas or string bag, or a small cart. Use reusable sponges and washable cloth napkins, dishtowels, and handkerchiefs instead of throwaway paper ones. What Can We Do?

15 Recycling What can be recycled? What can be recycled? Primary (closed-loop) recycling Primary (closed-loop) recycling Secondary (downcycling) recycling Secondary (downcycling) recycling Preconsumer (internal) waste Preconsumer (internal) waste Postconsumer (external) waste Postconsumer (external) waste Composting Composting Materials-recovery facility (MRF) Materials-recovery facility (MRF) Source separation Source separation Pay-as-you-throw (PAUT) Pay-as-you-throw (PAUT) Problems with recycling plastics Problems with recycling plastics

16 Fig. 17-8, p. 397 Reduces air and water pollution Saves energy Reduces mineral demand Reduces greenhouse gas emissions Reduces solid waste disposal Helps protect biodiversity Can save money for items such as paper, metals, and some plastics Important part Does not save landfill space in areas with ample land May lose money for items such as glass and most plastics Reduces profits from landfills and incinerators Source separation is inconvenient for some people Tradeoffs of Recycling Trade-Offs Recycling AdvantagesDisadvantages

17 Factors that Hinder Reuse and Recycling Faulty accounting system Faulty accounting system Uneven economic playing field Uneven economic playing field Low landfilling costs Low landfilling costs Demand and prices for recycled materials fluctuate Demand and prices for recycled materials fluctuate

18 Encouraging Reuse and Recycling Level economic playing field Level economic playing field Government subsidies Government subsidies Pay-as-you-throw (PAUT) system Pay-as-you-throw (PAUT) system Government purchases of recycled items Government purchases of recycled items Product stewardship policies Product stewardship policies

19 Fig. 17-9, p. 399 Power plant Steam Turbine Generator Electricity Crane Furnace Boiler Wet scrubber Electrostatic precipitator Conveyor Water added Bottom ash Conventional landfill Waste treatment Hazardous waste landfill Dirty water Waste pit Smokestack Fly ash Waste-to-Energy Incineration

20 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-10, p. 399 Trade-Offs Reduced trash volume Less need for landfills Low water pollution Quick and easy Incineration High cost Air pollution (especially toxic dioxins) Produces a highly toxic ash Encourages waste production Discourages Recycling and waste reduction AdvantagesDisadvantages Tradeoffs of Incineration

21 Burying Wastes Open dumps Open dumps Sanitary landfills Sanitary landfills Leachates Leachates Landfill gases (chiefly methane and carbon dioxide) Landfill gases (chiefly methane and carbon dioxide)

22 Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Sand Synthetic liner Sand Clay Subsoil When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Methane storage and compressor building Electricity generator building Leachate treatment system Methane gas recovery Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as fuel to generate electricity Compacted solid waste Leachate storage tank Leachate monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Probes to detect methane leaks Groundwater Sanitary Landfill Fig. 17-11, p. 400

23 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Advantages No open burning Little odor Low groundwater pollution if sited properly Can be built quickly Low operating costs Can handle large amounts of waste Filled land can be used for other purposes No shortage of landfill space in many areas Disadvantages Noise and traffic Dust Air pollution from toxic gases and volatile organic compounds Releases greenhouse gases (methane and CO 2 ) unless they are collected Groundwater contamination Slow decomposition of wastes Discourages recycling waste reduction Eventually leaks and can contaminate groundwater Sanitary Landfills Trade-Offs Fig. 17-12, p. 401 Tradeoffs of Sanitary Landfills

24 Characteristics of Hazardous Wastes Toxic Toxic Ignitable Ignitable Corrosive Corrosive Reactive Reactive

25 U.S. Federal Regulations on Hazardous Wastes Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) National Priorities Lists (NPL) National Priorities Lists (NPL) Polluter-pays principle Polluter-pays principle Taxpayers-pay program Taxpayers-pay program Brownfields Brownfields

26 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-13, p. 402 What Harmful Chemicals Are In Your Home? Cleaning Disinfectants Drain, toilet, and window cleaners Spot removers Septic tank cleaners Paint Latex and oil-based paints Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers Stains, varnishes, and lacquers Wood preservatives Artist paints and inks General Dry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium) Glues and cements Gardening Pesticides Weed killers Ant and rodent killers Flea powders Automotive Gasoline Used motor oil Antifreeze Battery acid Solvents Brake and transmission fluid Rust inhibitor and rust remover Harmful Chemicals in Your Home

27 Fig. 17-14, p. 403 Produce Less Waste Manipulate processes to eliminate or reduce production Recycle and reuse Convert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous Substances Land treatment Incineration Thermal treatment Chemical, physical, and biological treatment Ocean and atmospheric assimilation Put in Perpetual Storage Landfill Underground injection Waste piles Surface impoundments Salt formations Arid region unsaturated zone Stepped Art Hazardous Waste

28 Dangers of Hazardous Chemicals Terrorist attacks on chemical plants Terrorist attacks on chemical plants Bhopal accident Bhopal accident

29 Detoxifying Hazardous Wastes Bioremediation Bioremediation Phytoremediation Phytoremediation Incineration Incineration Deep-well disposal Deep-well disposal Surface impoundments Surface impoundments Secure landfills Secure landfills Aboveground buildings Aboveground buildings Prevention is better than disposal or cleanup Prevention is better than disposal or cleanup

30 Inorganic metal contaminantsOrganic contaminantsRadioactive contaminants Brake fernPoplar tree Indian mustard Oil spill Groundwater Soil Polluted groundwater in Polluted leachate Decontaminated water out Landfill Willow tree Phytoextraction Roots of plants can absorb toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, and others and store them in their leaves. Plants can then be recycled or harvested and incinerated. Phytodegradation Plants can absorb toxic organic chemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which are stored or released into the air. Phytostabilization Plants can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water. Rhizofiltration Roots of plants with dangling roots can absorb pollutants such as radioactive strontium-90 and cesium-137 and various organic chemicals. Sunflower Fig. 17-15, p. 404 Phytoremediation Groundwater Soil

31 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-16, p. 405 Trade-Offs Phytoremediation AdvantagesDisadvantages Easy to establish Inexpensive Can reduce material dumped into land fills Produces little air pollution compared to incineration Low energy use Slow (can take several growing seasons) Effective only at depth plant roots can reach Some toxic organic chemicals may evaporate from plant leaves Some plants can become toxic to animals Tradeoffs of Phytoremediation

32 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-17, p. 405 Advantages Safe method if sites are chosen carefully Wastes can be retrieved if problems develop Easy to do Low cost Disadvantages Leaks or spills at surface Leaks from corrosion of well casing Existing fractures or earthquakes can allow wastes to escape into groundwater Encourages waste production Trade-Offs Deep Underground Wells Tradeoffs of Deep Underground Wells

33 Fig. 17-18, p. 405 Trade-Offs Surface Impoundments AdvantagesDisadvantages Low construction costs Low operating costs Can be built quickly Wastes can be easily retrieved if necessary Can store wastes indefinitely with secure double liners Groundwater contamination from leaking liners (or no lining) Air pollution from volatile organic compounds Overflow from flooding Disruption and leakage from earthquakes Promotes waste production Tradeoffs of Surface Impoundments

34 Fig. 17-19, p. 406 Bulk waste Impervious clay Earth Water table Groundwater Clay cap Gas vent Topsoil Earth Sand Plastic cover Impervious clay cap Leak detection system Reactive wastes in drums Double leachate collection system Plastic double liner Groundwater monitoring well Secure Hazardous Waste Landfill

35 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-20, p. 406 What Can You Do? Hazardous Waste Use pesticides in the smallest amount possible. Use less harmful substances instead of commercial chemicals for most household cleaners. For example, use liquid ammonia to clean appliances and windows; vinegar to polish metals, clean surfaces, and remove stains and mildew; baking soda to clean household utensils, deodorize, and remove stains; borax to remove stains and mildew. Do not dispose of pesticides, paints, solvents, oil, antifreeze, or other products containing hazardous chemicals by flushing them down the toilet, pouring them down the drain, burying them, throwing them into the garbage, or dumping them down storm drains. What Can You Do?

36 Lead (Pb) Neurotoxin Neurotoxin Especially harmful to children Especially harmful to children Banned in US gasoline (1976 with phase out by 1986) Banned in US gasoline (1976 with phase out by 1986) Banned lead-based paints (1970-1978) Banned lead-based paints (1970-1978) Still unsafe levels in the blood of many children Still unsafe levels in the blood of many children Lead in paint of old buildings Lead in paint of old buildings Plumbing may contain lead Plumbing may contain lead Still a threat to many children in developing countries Still a threat to many children in developing countries

37 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-21, p. 407 Solutions Lead Poisoning PreventionControl Wash fresh fruits and vegetables Sharply reduce lead emissions from old and new incinerators Replace lead pipes and plumbing fixtures containing lead solder Remove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartments Remove lead from TV sets and computer monitors before incineration or land disposal Test for lead in existing ceramicware used to serve food Test existing candles for lead Phase out leaded gasoline worldwide Phase out waste incineration Test blood for lead by age 1 Ban lead solder in plumbing pipes, fixtures, and food cans Ban lead glazing for ceramicware used to serve food Ban candles with lead cores Lead Poisoning

38 Mercury (Hg) Released into the atmosphere from burning coal, waste incineration, ore smelting, volcanoes, and vaporization of ocean water Released into the atmosphere from burning coal, waste incineration, ore smelting, volcanoes, and vaporization of ocean water Converts into toxic inorganic Hg 2+ forms and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ) Converts into toxic inorganic Hg 2+ forms and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ) Bioaccumulates in fish Bioaccumulates in fish Attacks nervous systems and brains of children Attacks nervous systems and brains of children Fish advisories Fish advisories

39 AIR WINDS PRECIPITATION WINDSPRECIPITATION WATER SEDIMENT BIOMAGNIFICATION IN FOOD CHAIN Human sources Elemental mercury vapor (Hg) Inorganic mercury and acids (Hg 2+ ) Inorganic mercury and acids (Hg 2+ ) Large fish Small fish PhytoplanktonZooplankton Elemental mercury liquid (Hg) Inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) Organic mercury (CH 3 Hg+) Deposition Vaporization Deposition Settles out Bacteria Bacteria and acids Settles out Oxidation Incinerator Coal- burning plant Photo- chemical oxidation Hg 2+ and acids Settles out Runoff of Hg 2+ and acids Fig. 17-22, p. 408 Mercury Cycle Hg and SO 2

40 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Solutions Mercury Pollution PreventionControl Sharply reduce mercury emissions from coal burning plants and incinerators Tax each unit of mercury emitted by coal-burning plants and incinerators Collect and recycle mercury containing electric switches, relays, and dry-cell batteries Require labels on all products containing mercury Phase out waste incineration Remove mercury from coal before it is burned Convert coal to liquid or gaseous fuel Switch from coal to natural gas and renewable energy resources such as wind, solar cells, and hydrogen Phase out use of mercury in all products unless they are recycled Fig. 17-23, p. 409 Mercury Poisoning

41 Achieving a Low-Waste Society Grass-roots action Grass-roots action Environmental justice Environmental justice Not In My Backyard (NIMBYism) Not In My Backyard (NIMBYism) Not On Planet Earth (NOPE) Not On Planet Earth (NOPE) International treaties International treaties Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Dirty Dozen Dirty Dozen Precautionary principle Precautionary principle

42 Transition to a Low-Waste Society Recognizing that everything is connected Recognizing that everything is connected There is no away There is no away Dilution is not always the solution to pollution (bioaccumulation) Dilution is not always the solution to pollution (bioaccumulation) Produce less pollution, recycle, and reuse Produce less pollution, recycle, and reuse Eco-business Eco-business Eco-labeling Eco-labeling


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