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Solid and Hazardous Waste

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Presentation on theme: "Solid and Hazardous Waste"— Presentation transcript:

1 Solid and Hazardous Waste
Chapter 17

2 Love Canal: There is No “Away”
Previous chemical dump Sold to a school board Clay cap was disturbed Leaks detected in 1976 Lois Gibbs Abandoned 1980 Court cases Superfund Lessons learned Fig. 17-1, p. 388

3 Wasting Resources Solid wastes Municipal solid waste (MSW) (garbage)
Waste disposal, recycling, and combustion in the US High-waste society Electronic wastes (e-waste)

4 Solid Waste in the US Sewage sludge 1% Mining and oil and gas
production 75% Municipal 1.5% Industry 9.5% Agriculture 13% Fig. 17-2, p. 390

5 Producing Less Waste Waste management (high-waste approach)
Waste reduction (low-waste approach) Trashcans as “resource containers” Reversed priorities in dealing with wastes Reuse and recycle Composting Redesigning manufacturing to produce less waste

6 Priorities in Dealing with Material Use and Solid Wastes
1st Priority 2nd Priority Last Priority Primary Pollution and Waste Prevention Secondary Pollution and Waste Prevention Waste Management • Reduce products • Repair products • Recycle • Compost • Buy reusable and recyclable products • Treat waste to reduce toxicity • Incinerate waste • Bury waste in landfill • Release waste into environment for dispersal or dilution Fig. 17-3, p. 391

7 Reducing Solid Waste Sustainability six
Consume less Redesign manufacturing processes Produce less waste and pollution Repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, and recycle Design products to last longer Eliminate, reuse, recycle, or reduce packaging Resource productivity revolution

8 What Can You Do? What Can You Do? Solid Waste Fig. 17-4, p. 391
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson What Can You Do? Solid Waste Follow the four R's of resource use: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Ask yourself whether you really need a particular item. Rent, borrow, or barter goods and services when you can. Buy things that are reusable, recyclable, or compostable, and be sure to reuse, recycle, and compost them. Do not use throwaway paper and plastic plates, cups, and eating utensils, and other disposable items when reusable or refillable versions are available. Use in place of conventional paper mail. Read newspapers and magazines online. Buy products in concentrated form whenever possible. Fig. 17-4, p. 391

9 Ecoindustrial Revolution
Upcoming ecoindustrial revolution Resource exchange webs Kalundborg, Denmark Cleaning up and reusing brownfields Biomimicry 3M Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program From material-flow to service-flow economy

10 Industrial Ecosystem in Kalundborg, Denmark
Sludge Pharmaceutical plant Local farmers Greenhouses Sludge Waste heat Waste heat Waste heat Fish farming Waste heat Oil refinery Surplus natural gas Electric Power plan Fly ash Surplus natural gas Surplus sulfur Waste heat Waste Calcium sulfate Cement manufacturer Sulfuric acid producer Wallboard factory Fig. 17-5, p. 393 Area homes

11 Individuals Matter: Ray Anderson
Fig. 17-A, p. 394

12 Reuse Reuse as a form of waste reduction Reuse of e-waste
Toxic metals in e-waste Scavenging Refillable containers Bans on non-reusable beverage containers Cloth shopping bags Charging for plastic and paper shopping bags Reusable shipping containers Tool libraries

13 Scavenging in the Philippines
Fig. 17-6, p. 395

14 What Can We Do? What Can You Do? Reuse Fig. 17-7, p. 395
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson What Can You Do? Reuse Buy beverages in refillable glass containers instead of cans or throwaway bottles. Use reusable plastic or metal lunchboxes. Carry sandwiches and store food in the refrigerator in reusable containers instead of wrapping them in aluminum foil or plastic wrap. Use rechargeable batteries and recycle them when their useful life is over. Carry groceries and other items in a reusable basket, a canvas or string bag, or a small cart. Use reusable sponges and washable cloth napkins, dishtowels, and handkerchiefs instead of throwaway paper ones. Fig. 17-7, p. 395

15 Recycling What can be recycled? Primary (closed-loop) recycling
Secondary (downcycling) recycling Preconsumer (internal) waste Postconsumer (external) waste Composting Materials-recovery facility (MRF) Source separation Pay-as-you-throw (PAUT) Problems with recycling plastics

16 Tradeoffs of Recycling
Advantages Disadvantages Reduces air and water pollution Saves energy Reduces mineral demand Reduces greenhouse gas emissions Reduces solid waste disposal Helps protect biodiversity Can save money for items such as paper, metals, and some plastics Important part Does not save landfill space in areas with ample land May lose money for items such as glass and most plastics Reduces profits from landfills and incinerators Source separation is inconvenient for some people Fig. 17-8, p. 397

17 Factors that Hinder Reuse and Recycling
Faulty accounting system Uneven economic playing field Low landfilling costs Demand and prices for recycled materials fluctuate

18 Encouraging Reuse and Recycling
Level economic playing field Government subsidies Pay-as-you-throw (PAUT) system Government purchases of recycled items Product stewardship policies

19 Waste-to-Energy Incineration
Electricity Power plant Steam Smokestack Turbine Crane Generator Furnace Wet scrubber Boiler Electrostatic precipitator Waste pit Water added Dirty water Bottom ash Conveyor Fly ash Conventional landfill Waste treatment Hazardous waste landfill Fig. 17-9, p. 399

20 Tradeoffs of Incineration
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Trade-Offs Incineration Advantages Disadvantages High cost Air pollution (especially toxic dioxins) Produces a highly toxic ash Encourages waste production Discourages Recycling and waste reduction Reduced trash volume Less need for landfills Low water pollution Quick and easy Fig , p. 399

21 Burying Wastes Open dumps Sanitary landfills Leachates
Landfill gases (chiefly methane and carbon dioxide)

22 Sanitary Landfill Fig. 17-11, p. 400 Leachate treatment system
Topsoil When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Sand Electricity generator building Clay Methane storage and compressor building Garbage Leachate treatment system Probes to detect methane leaks Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as fuel to generate electricity Methane gas recovery Leachate storage tank Compacted solid waste Groundwater monitoring well Garbage Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Sand Synthetic liner Leachate monitoring well Groundwater Sand Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Clay Subsoil Fig , p. 400

23 Tradeoffs of Sanitary Landfills
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Trade-Offs Sanitary Landfills Advantages Disadvantages No open burning Little odor Low groundwater pollution if sited properly Can be built quickly Low operating costs Can handle large amounts of waste Filled land can be used for other purposes No shortage of landfill space in many areas Noise and traffic Dust Air pollution from toxic gases and volatile organic compounds Releases greenhouse gases (methane and CO2) unless they are collected Groundwater contamination Slow decomposition of wastes Discourages recycling waste reduction Eventually leaks and can contaminate groundwater Fig , p. 401

24 Characteristics of Hazardous Wastes
Toxic Ignitable Corrosive Reactive

25 U.S. Federal Regulations on Hazardous Wastes
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) National Priorities Lists (NPL) Polluter-pays principle Taxpayers-pay program Brownfields

26 Harmful Chemicals in Your Home
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson What Harmful Chemicals Are In Your Home? Cleaning • Disinfectants • Drain, toilet, and window cleaners • Spot removers • Septic tank cleaners Paint • Latex and oil-based paints • Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers • Stains, varnishes, and lacquers • Wood preservatives • Artist paints and inks General • Dry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium) • Glues and cements Gardening • Pesticides • Weed killers • Ant and rodent killers • Flea powders Automotive • Gasoline • Used motor oil • Antifreeze • Battery acid • Solvents • Brake and transmission fluid • Rust inhibitor and rust remover Fig , p. 402

27 Convert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous Substances
Produce Less Waste Manipulate processes to eliminate or reduce production Recycle and reuse Hazardous Waste Convert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous Substances Land treatment Incineration Thermal treatment Chemical, physical, and biological treatment Ocean and atmospheric assimilation Put in Perpetual Storage Landfill Underground injection Waste piles Surface impoundments Salt formations Arid region unsaturated zone Stepped Art Fig , p. 403

28 Dangers of Hazardous Chemicals
Terrorist attacks on chemical plants Bhopal accident

29 Detoxifying Hazardous Wastes
Bioremediation Phytoremediation Incineration Deep-well disposal Surface impoundments Secure landfills Aboveground buildings Prevention is better than disposal or cleanup

30 Inorganic metal contaminants
Phytoremediation Radioactive contaminants Organic contaminants Inorganic metal contaminants Poplar tree Brake fern Sunflower Willow tree Indian mustard Landfill Oil spill Polluted groundwater in Soil Decontaminated water out Polluted leachate Soil Groundwater Groundwater Rhizofiltration Roots of plants with dangling roots can absorb pollutants such as radioactive strontium-90 and cesium-137 and various organic chemicals. Phytostabilization Plants can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water. Phytodegradation Plants can absorb toxic organic chemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which are stored or released into the air. Phytoextraction Roots of plants can absorb toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, and others and store them in their leaves. Plants can then be recycled or harvested and incinerated. Fig , p. 404

31 Tradeoffs of Phytoremediation
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Trade-Offs Phytoremediation Advantages Disadvantages Easy to establish Inexpensive Can reduce material dumped into land fills Produces little air pollution compared to incineration Low energy use Slow (can take several growing seasons) Effective only at depth plant roots can reach Some toxic organic chemicals may evaporate from plant leaves Some plants can become toxic to animals Fig , p. 405

32 Tradeoffs of Deep Underground Wells
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Trade-Offs Deep Underground Wells Advantages Disadvantages Leaks or spills at surface Leaks from corrosion of well casing Existing fractures or earthquakes can allow wastes to escape into groundwater Encourages waste production Safe method if sites are chosen carefully Wastes can be retrieved if problems develop Easy to do Low cost Fig , p. 405

33 Tradeoffs of Surface Impoundments
Advantages Disadvantages Low construction costs Low operating Can be built quickly Wastes can be easily retrieved if necessary Can store wastes indefinitely with secure double liners Groundwater contamination from leaking liners (or no lining) Air pollution from volatile organic compounds Overflow from flooding Disruption and leakage from earthquakes Promotes waste production Fig , p. 405

34 Secure Hazardous Waste Landfill
Bulk waste Topsoil Plastic cover Impervious clay Earth Gas vent Impervious clay cap Sand Clay cap Earth Water table Leak detection system Groundwater Double leachate collection system Plastic double liner Groundwater monitoring well Reactive wastes in drums Fig , p. 406

35 What Can You Do? What Can You Do? Hazardous Waste Fig. 17-20, p. 406
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson What Can You Do? Hazardous Waste Use pesticides in the smallest amount possible. Use less harmful substances instead of commercial chemicals for most household cleaners. For example, use liquid ammonia to clean appliances and windows; vinegar to polish metals, clean surfaces, and remove stains and mildew; baking soda to clean household utensils, deodorize, and remove stains; borax to remove stains and mildew. Do not dispose of pesticides, paints, solvents, oil, antifreeze, or other products containing hazardous chemicals by flushing them down the toilet, pouring them down the drain, burying them, throwing them into the garbage, or dumping them down storm drains. Fig , p. 406

36 Lead (Pb) Neurotoxin Especially harmful to children
Banned in US gasoline (1976 with phase out by 1986) Banned lead-based paints ( ) Still unsafe levels in the blood of many children Lead in paint of old buildings Plumbing may contain lead Still a threat to many children in developing countries

37 Test blood for lead by age 1
Lead Poisoning © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Solutions Lead Poisoning Prevention Control Phase out leaded gasoline worldwide Sharply reduce lead emissions from old and new incinerators Replace lead pipes and plumbing fixtures containing lead solder Phase out waste incineration Remove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartments Test blood for lead by age 1 Ban lead solder in plumbing pipes, fixtures, and food cans Remove lead from TV sets and computer monitors before incineration or land disposal Test for lead in existing ceramicware used to serve food Ban lead glazing for ceramicware used to serve food Test existing candles for lead Ban candles with lead cores Wash fresh fruits and vegetables Fig , p. 407

38 Mercury (Hg) Released into the atmosphere from burning coal, waste incineration, ore smelting, volcanoes, and vaporization of ocean water Converts into toxic inorganic Hg2+ forms and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) Bioaccumulates in fish Attacks nervous systems and brains of children Fish advisories

39 Mercury Cycle Fig. 17-22, p. 408 Deposition AIR WINDS PRECIPITATION
Hg and SO2 Hg2+ and acids Hg2+ and acids Photo-chemical oxidation Human sources Elemental mercury vapor (Hg) Inorganic mercury and acids (Hg2+) Inorganic mercury and acids (Hg2+) Coal-burning plant Incinerator Deposition Runoff of Hg2+ and acids Large fish Deposition Vaporization WATER Deposition Small fish BIOMAGNIFICATION IN FOOD CHAIN Phytoplankton Zooplankton Elemental mercury liquid (Hg) Bacteria and acids Oxidation Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) Organic mercury (CH3Hg+) Bacteria Settles out Settles out Settles out SEDIMENT Fig , p. 408

40 Mercury Poisoning Solutions Mercury Pollution Prevention Control
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Solutions Mercury Pollution Prevention Control Phase out waste incineration Sharply reduce mercury emissions from coal burning plants and incinerators Remove mercury from coal before it is burned Tax each unit of mercury emitted by coal-burning plants and incinerators Convert coal to liquid or gaseous fuel Switch from coal to natural gas and renewable energy resources such as wind, solar cells, and hydrogen Collect and recycle mercury containing electric switches, relays, and dry-cell batteries Require labels on all products containing mercury Phase out use of mercury in all products unless they are recycled Fig , p. 409

41 Achieving a Low-Waste Society
Grass-roots action Environmental justice “Not In My Backyard” (NIMBYism) “Not On Planet Earth” (NOPE) International treaties Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) “Dirty Dozen” Precautionary principle

42 Transition to a Low-Waste Society
Recognizing that everything is connected There is no “away” Dilution is not always the solution to pollution (bioaccumulation) Produce less pollution, recycle, and reuse Eco-business Eco-labeling


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