2Story Telling Time – listen to the captivating stories your teacher is about to tell you: Shift from Hunting and Gathering to Agriculture (First Agricultural Revolution). How it came to be.How the first Urban dweller came to be – Specialization, industry and manufacturing - Second Agricultural Revolution.Religion and the ‘Priest’ was one of the early non-agricultural services – worship and the dead (Hint: necropolis).All kinds of services were created to support the new permanent settlement – religion, transportation, defense.The creation on money – it first was a representation of food
3Types of Services:Business – Producer Services and Transportation Services – financial, banks, insurance, real estate, publishing, advertising, broadcasting etc. Growth in truck and air, decrease in railroad (not Europe), increase in home theatre.Consumer – Retail Services and Personal Services – wholesale, restaurant, education, recreation, auto repair, dry cleaners etc. Growth in restaurants, specialty shops, box stores and health care recreation and entertainment.Public – Security and Protection – police, fire, electricity, garbage, water etc.
9Hierarchy of Business Service Cities in the U.S.A.
10Types of Jobs or Sectors of the Economy: Primary – Secondary - Tertiary -Quaternary – The accumulation, processing and transmission of information. Accounting, finance, higher education, computer services, governmental operations and the media. White Collar sector. Middle and Top management of industry.Quinary – Decision making at the highest levels of economy and government. The Prime Minister, cabinet members. Decisions that introduce new knowledge, information and skills into the population. High ranking doctors and professors and research scientists are included in this sector.You should know these!
11Urban – city characteristics, high density, land uses like residential, industrial, institutional, commercial, transportational and open spaceRural – low density areas, mainly physical environment, agriculture, forests, mountains and desertUrbanization – the movement from Rural to Urban. In the past 100 years, especially in MDCs there has been a major shift from rural to urban. Why?In the past people that lived in a rural setting usually took care of everything themselves. Food, shelter, clothing etc.In today’s urban environment SERVICES and JOBS are extremely important since the urban dweller depends on them for survival. The first urban person was someone who did a service for someone in exchange for FOOD.
16Services in Rural Settlements: Clustered – in early ‘urban’ history the first inhabitants all grouped around each other – homes, barns, tool sheds, schools, places of worship and stores – these small first settlements were called ‘Hamlets’. Farmland surrounded the hamlet. The farmers would live in the hamlet. Early colonial America was like this – the settlement all grouped around a ‘Common’ or central area. These hamlets could have circular shapes surrounding a pond or lake, a linear shape along a river (long lots) or the shoreline of a lake (concessions).
17Dispersed – as the hamlets grew and the need for more farmland grew, the farmers began to farm larger plots of land and began living in or near that plot, leaving the hamlet. The hamlet became the service center for the farmers – buy supplies and services – but the farmers stopped living there. The hamlet was at the centre of the farmlandEnclosure Movement (Gavelkind Laws) – In Europe, the clustered pattern was popular but the land parcels were small and unproductive. The government stepped in and purchased the individual plots and consolidated them into large plots. France, Great Britain and Italy did this.
18The key to all this was the ‘CENTER’ At the center of the hamlet was the ‘common’ (the clustered pattern) and at the center of the agricultural area was the ‘hamlet’ (dispersed pattern) – read this over a few times.This has lead to two very important models in Geography:The Von Thunen Model – developed by Johann von Thunen – more of an agricultural model on how to maximize profits for the farmer – See separate slide show.The Central Place Theory- developed by Walter Christaller – relates to urban location and hierarchies and the provision of goods and services to the surrounding area. See separate slide show.
19Print this out and read it, as the students look at the next slide. What is the best location for a pizza-delivery service (Geo Pizza) in a linear settlement with seven potential customers, families A through G? The optimal location for the shop is between 5th and 6th streets, the median location. The delivery van would travel four blocks to deliver a pizza to Family A, three blocks to Family B, two blocks to Family C, zero blocks to Family D , two to Family E, 10 to Family F and 11 to Family G. The van would have to travel a total of 32 blocks to deliver a pizza to each of the seven customers, three located to the west and three to the east.The above minimizes the distance your van must travel to deliver to all potential customers. It corresponds to the median, which mathematically is the middle point in any series of observations.In the second example, the buildings now represent apartment buildings and the number in the building represents the number of families in each building (99 families). The median location is the middle observation among these 99 families, the place where 49 families lives to the west and 49 lives to the east. Geo Pizza should locate between 7th and 8th streets.
20Optimal Location (for Pizza Shop) Read the bottom of Page 414 of the text book.The optimal location for a pizza delivery shop with seven potential customers in a linear settlement (top) and with 99 families in apartment buildings (bottom).
21What if a different number of customers live at each block of the city What if a different number of customers live at each block of the city? What if the buildings are apartments, each housing a different number of families like in the second example.? What if there is a combination of houses and apartments?To compute the optimal location in these cases, geographers have adapted the Gravity Model from physics. The Gravity Model predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it. The Gravity Model is also used to explain migration patterns (strength of spatial interaction) – you will see a more detailed explanation in the migration slide show.Two patterns emerge: The greater the number of people, the greater is the number of potential customers. Second the farther people are from a service the less likely they will use it.
22Gravity Model: Distance and Size of places are taken into account. I - Interaction between two places i and jP - Population of i and jd - Distance between i and j.For now ignore the k and the βDistance and Size of places are taken into account.
23Creation of Urban Settlements – More story telling! We have discussed earlier how the first urban settlements came to be. In ancient times this occurred around 2000BC in areas like Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and South Asia. These areas are known as Hearth regions (hearth means a place of origin).A city called UR (in modern Iraq) is considered the first real city. Draw a layout of the city on the board! The main services offered to the citizens were protection (the wall), religious (the ziggurat) and of course food (farming – outside the wall).These early cities were also called City-States.
24Athens and Rome followed adding services such as Shopping (Agora and The Forum), Entertainment (Odeon and Coliseum), Education (Academies) – draw these city layouts on the board.Medieval times made walls important and the defense of the city. Kings and Feudal Lords developed a Charter of Rights in exchange for military service.As farming improved and people began to have more food than they needed (Surplus) – Trade amongst the city states began. Some cities grew certain crops better than others (Specialization) so trade increased variety and made life better.The Industrial Revolution created factories and the need for people. Urbanization supplied the people and more and more factories were created thus attracting more people (Multiplier Effect).
25Dependent Centers – a. Resort/Retirement – Orlando Thus you have the shift for Rural to Urban and the importance of the provision of services and the location of places.Finally you can classify cities depending on the services they perform:World Cities – Financial and Business centers – London, New York, TokyoRegional Centers – Corporate and Bank headquarters – Atlanta, Boston, TorontoSpecialized Centers – Education, Management, Research – Detroit, London (ON)Dependent Centers – a. Resort/Retirement – Orlandob. Manufacturing – Buffaloc. Military/Industrial – San Diegod. Mining – Duluth, Hamilton
26Cities in order to survive need an Economic Base: Basic Industry: Industry that supplies consumers both in and out of the city. Brings in new money. Manufacturing is a good example. The more Basic the healthier the city.Non-Basic Industry: Industry that supplies primarily the citizens inside the city. Local jobs such as elementary and secondary schools, hair dressers, bakers etc.Along with the Multiplier Effect we now have a B/N ratio. For example 1:3 ratio means for every one basic job 3 non-basic jobs will be created to service the one basic job.Give examples!
27In all of the cities we have mentioned in history they all had a central area of importance – the Acropolis, the Forum.Modern Cities have the C.B.D. – The Central Business District.Visually distinctive – tallest buildings (vertical geography)Usually oldest part of cityVery compactMost accessible – Mass Transit, HighwaysHighest land value – this explains why all the skyscrapersHighest daytime population density – office workersMulti-functional – (financial – banks, insurance), (institutional - government), (commercial – stores), (educational – universities), (health – hospitals), (entertainment – theatres, sports), (transportational – trains, subways)
28Reflects health of city – heart of city Geographical center of city (in North America) – not in Europe!Highest ThresholdHighest RangeGrowth to the west (assimilation) not to the east (discard) (due to Westerlies in North America) – see next slide.Had manufacturing just outside of CBD – this is now declining (industry moving out) – EG. Port Cities like Toronto, Baltimore and Boston.Poor and renters outside CBD as well – not in Europe and this is changing in Toronto (many expensive condos)In the U.S.A. highest crime rate – almost empty after work – not in Toronto or Canadian CBDs. The American dream is to live in the suburbs – urban sprawl and shopping malls. Toronto and New York – it is cool to live downtown.