Presentation on theme: "Will Metropolises Take Over the World?. What is a metropolis? It is a major city; the chief city of a region. People in the surrounding region are drawn."— Presentation transcript:
What is a metropolis? It is a major city; the chief city of a region. People in the surrounding region are drawn to it. It is a powerful urban centre with a high concentration of activities, services and major head offices. It is a densely populated urban area. It has greater economic and decision-making power.
Is Sherbrooke or Trois-Rivieres a metropolis? No, they both have far less economic and decision-making power than a metropolis like Montreal, Toronto or New York City.
Characteristics of a metropolis 1. Downtown core 2. Residential neighbourhoods 3. Public parks 4. Public squares 5. Industrial parks 6. Interchanges 7. Suburbs 8. Tall office buildings and apartment towers
Metropolises have recognizable features: Metropolises have: Historical and modern landmarks Landmarks can either be natural or man- made. I.e. The Empire State Building in NYC, Champlain Bridge in Montreal are man- made landmarks. Mount-Royal, the island of Montreal and the St. Lawrence River are Physical features.
Metropolises all around the world: 8 out of 10 metropolises with the highest population (most populous) are in developing nations.
Developing Nation: A country with: a low standard of living severe poverty low income and education levels high birth rate poorly developed social, economic, and technological infrastructure. EX: Most countries in Africa, Asia (except Japan), Latin America, and Oceania (except Australia and New Zealand)
Developed or Industrialized Nation: A country with a relatively high standard of living high income and education levels lower birth rate well-developed social, economic, and technological infrastructure. Developed Nations: Canada, U.S.A, France, England, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand etc.
Northern Hemisphere vs. Southern Hemisphere: Most countries in the Northern Hemisphere are developed - wealthy! Most countries in the Southern Hemisphere are developing countries – really poor! (see page 9)
Unequal power among metropolises: Economically powerful metropolises are found in the United States, Western Europe and Asia.
Megalopolis: It is a stretch of several metropolises in the same area. A region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas in close enough proximity to be considered a single urban complex. They form the heart of economic and global power – run the world! EX: New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, Tokyo- Nagoya-Osaka
The previous image is the City of the Dead, located in Cairo, Egypt. The City of the Dead is a massive cemetery, which extends about six kilometres. Due to overcrowding in Cairo people have had to move into the cemetery. Overcrowding is a common problem that metropolises have. Luckily for the people in Cairo it is considered an honour to live among ones deceased relatives.
Montreal at a Glance Official language is French Population is approximately 5 million in the Montreal Metropolitan Area. Montreal is located along the St. Lawrence River. Montreal lies in the center of a large fertile plain left by the Champlain sea. Montreal is surrounded by a river system known as the St. Lawrence Seaway. Some of Montreals cultural features are: Mount. Royal, Olympic Stadium, Underground city, St. Laurent boulevards.
Montreal: Growth Every year the population of Montreal increases, mostly due to immigration. Immigrants make up 28% of the population, making Montreal a very multiethnic city. This forces many people to live off-island. This swells the borders of the Montreal Metropolitan Area.
Cairo at a Glance Official language is Arabic Population is approximately 15 million The city of Cairo is located on both side of the Nile River. Cairo also has fertile land along the banks of the Nile. Due to its desert climate Cairo gets very little precipitation. Some cultural features are: the Citadel of Saladin, Al-Azhar Mosque, Pyramids of Giza and the great Sphinx.
Cairo: Growth Cairos population is increasing due to migration from rural areas. Cairo has very little immigration. Therefore, Cairo does not have a multiethnic population. Due to the rapid population growth Cairos city limits continue to grow.
Getting Around in Montreal Montreal has always been a center for water transportation and travel, due to its unique location. City officials have made great improvements in recent years to accommodate larger ships. Government has also built many canals and locks to ease the passage of ships into the St. Lawrence seaway. Along with its port Montreal has two major airports. P.E.T. International (flights) and Mirabel (cargo).
Due to the size of Montreals Metropolitan Area, people use public transportation and personal vehicles to get around. Montreal has an extensive metro, bus and commuter train system. However, the large majority, use their own automobiles to get around.
What do you notice about Montreal and Cairo? Like Montreal, Cairo has a busy shipping port. Like Montreal, Cairo has an airport that accommodates both travellers and cargo. Like Montreal, Cairo does have a subway and bus system but they are not as extensive (as well-developed) as Montreal. Like Montreal, the majority of people use their cars to get around.
Montreal and Cairo are good examples of major metropolises. In both cities public transportation is offered. However, the vast majority of the population use their own cars.
Major challenges for metropolises: 1. Housing 2. Waste Management 3. Transportation
1. Housing: Finding housing is a challenge for the poor. Apartments are too are too often expensive, in disrepair or poorly situated. Government-subsidized housing is available to low-income families. * Apartments paid for in part by the government
Finding housing in Metropolises: There are many factors that play a role in finding a suitable place to live: 1. Your income 2. Number of children 3. Proximity to public transportation 4. Neighbourhood 5. The environment Many families have chosen to live in the suburbs because rent is lower (low-cost housing)
2. Waste Management: Ever wonder what happens to all the waste from businesses and residents? Garbage trucks collect the trash and either deposit it in landfills, incinerate it, recycle it or convert it into compost
Waste Management and Developing countries: Garbage is piled up in open lots near residential areas. Poor people spend hours salvaging usable goods and materials they can sell
Where does garbage go? HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE is brought by truck to 1 of 5 landfills. Montreal Metropolitan area uses the Lachenaie landfill. Waste products harmful liquids and gases. This is why recycling is important RECYCLABLE MATERIALS is brought to a recycling plant.
Where does the snow go? 300,000 tonnes of snow is dumped into quarries, sewers and disposal sites The melted snow (water) is pumped into the sewer system which then makes its way to a wastewater treatment center
Where does wastewater go? A system of sewers transports the wastewater to the St. Lawrence River a few km east of Montreal. The wastewater is first pumped through a treatment plant, otherwise the river would get polluted.
3. TRANSPORTATION: 1. Pollution 2. Loss of Green space 3. Deterioration of infrastructure. 4. Traffic The vast majority of commuters living in Metropolises such as Montreal and Cairo use their own cars to get around the city. What issues does this cause?
1. Pollution Acid Rain, which contaminates water and harms fish that we eat. Leads to many health problems (breathing). Air pollution is often referred to as smog.
2. Loss of Green Space Cities grow in size and take over fertile farm land Animals are displaced, forced to find urban homes. Increase air pollution and CO2 levels 3. Deterioration of Infrastructure Hundreds of thousands of commuters (people that travel) use our roads, bridges and public transit on a daily basis
Deterioration of infrastructure: 1. Roads and other infrastructure begin to need repair because of the large number of vehicles that pass on them 2. Increased stress levels and mental health issues 3. Increased taxes to pay for repairs
Montreal Metropolitan Area does not have beltway* for large-sized trucks. Beltway: It is a highway that encircles an urban area so that traffic does not have to pass through the center of the city. Heavy trucks damage concrete and asphalt, slow-down traffic, and cause serious accidents.
4. Traffic Montreals Roadways, overpasses, bridges and highways are getting old and need lots of repairs. Dangerous potholes and huge cracks damage cars and slow down traffic. Traffic jams become more problematic as the population in the Metropolitan Area increases. More vehicles on our roads and ongoing road construction, due to aging infrastructure, cause traffic too.
Although it's cheaper and faster to take public transit, most people living in MMA still use cars. Why? Means of Transportation Population going to work CAR70.4% PUBLIC TRANSIT21.4% WALKED5.7% BICYCLE1.6% TAXI0.2% MOTORCYCLE0.1% OTHER0.5%
Lane closures due to road repairs and accidents cause traffic too. Some of the major highways, expressways and service roads in the MMA need more lanes.
Who is affected by these issues? We are all affected by these issues: Our environment Plants and animals living in and around major metropolises People and environments in other parts of the world
Solutions to traffic-related problems: 1. Installing tolls and making parking in the city expensive. Our current system includes buses, metros and commuter trains. 2. Public Transportation in the MMA: The new Nova articulated LFS buses allow for more commuters to fit into one bus. 3. Promoting the usage of bikes, public transit and bringing back electric streetcars.