Presentation on theme: "Engineering Project Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Engineering Project Management Civil Engineering Department
2An-Najah National University Civil Engineering Department April 1, 2017An-Najah National UniversityCivil Engineering DepartmentFaculty of EngineeringConstruction Engineering andManagementNabil Dmaidi
3Your Expectations of Me April 1, 2017Your Expectations of MeBe preparedBe on timeTeach for full 50 minute periodFair grading systemFront load the class workDo not humiliate studentsPractice golden ruleProvide real world examplesMake you think
4April 1, 2017Topics1) Management Functions and introduction of construction project planning and scheduling2)Construction scheduling techniques3)Preparation and usage of bar charts4)Preparation and usage of the Critical Path Method (CPM)5)Preparation and usage of Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)6)Issues relating to determination of activity duration7)Contractual provisions relating to project schedules8)Resource leveling and constraining9)Time cost tradeoff10)Schedule monitoring and updating.11)Communicating schedule12) Project control and earned value Control13) claims, Safety and Quality control
5Course Outline Introduction and definitions Float Analysis April 1, 2017Course OutlineIntroduction and definitions Float AnalysisImportance of Scheduling The CPM CalculationsNetworks, Bar Charts, and Brief introduction on:Imposed Finish Date and Project Control and EarnedValue Analysis Resource Allocation /Levelingother CPM Issues Time/Cost Trade-offPrecedence NetworksUpdating SchedulesTime-Scaled Logic Diagrams
6What is the ProjectApril 1, 2017In order to understand project management, one must begin with the definition of a project. A project can be considered to be any series of activities and tasks that :.● Have a specific objective to be completed within certain specifications● Have defined start and end dates● Have funding limits (if applicable)● Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, equipment)● Are multifunctional (i.e., cut across several functional lines)
7OR‘‘a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result’’April 1, 2017
9Five Process group Project initiation Project execution April 1, 2017Project initiation● Selection of the best project given resource limits● Recognizing the benefits of the project● Preparation of the documents to sanction the project● Assigning of the project managerProject planning● Definition of the work requirements● Definition of the quality and quantity of work● Definition of the resources needed● Scheduling the activities● Evaluation of the various risksProject execution● Negotiating for the project team members● Directing and managing the work● Working with the team members to help them improveProject monitoring and control● Tracking progress● Comparing actual outcome to predicted outcome● Analyzing variances and impacts● Making adjustmentsProject closure● Verifying that all of the work has been accomplished● Contractual closure of the contract● Financial closure of the charge numbers● Administrative closure of the paper work
11● At the desired performance/Technology level April 1, 2017Successful project management can then be defined as having achieved the project objectives:● Within Time● Within Cost● At the desired performance/Technology level● While utilizing the assigned resources effectively and efficiently● Accepted by the customer
12What is Project Management April 1, 2017Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives.
13The potential benefits from project management are: April 1, 2017The potential benefits from project management are:● Identification of functional responsibilities● Minimizing the need for continuous reporting● Identification of time limits for scheduling● Identification of a methodology fortrade-off analysis.● Measurement of accomplishmentagainst plans
14● Planning ● Organizing ● Staffing ● Controlling ● Directing April 1, 2017The above definition requires further comment. Classical management is usually considered to have five functions or principles:● Planning● Organizing● Staffing● Controlling● Directing
15– Follows planning and reflects how the April 1, 2017Planning– Where the organization wants to be in the future and how to get there.Organizing– Follows planning and reflects how theorganization tries to accomplish the plan.– Involves the assignment of tasks, grouping oftasks into departments, and allocation of resources.
16– The use of influence to motivate employees to April 1, 2017Leading– The use of influence to motivate employees toachieve the organization's goals.– Creating a shared culture and values,communicating goals to employees throughoutthe organization, and infusing employees toperform at a high level.Controlling– Monitoring employees' activities, determining if the organization is on target toward its goals, and making corrections as necessary
17Management SkillsApril 1, 2017 Conceptual Skill—the ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship between its parts. Human Skill—The ability to work with and through people. Technical Skill—Mastery of specific functions and specialized knowledge
18Constraints of the project April 1, 2017Project management is designed to manage or control company resources on a given activity, within time, within cost, and within performance. Time, cost, and performance are the constraints on the project.
19Resources ● Money ● Manpower ● Equipment ● Facilities ● Materials April 1, 2017We have stated that the project manager must control company resources within time, cost, and performance. Most companies have six resources:● Money● Manpower● Equipment● Facilities● Materials● Information/technology
20Resources are controlled by the line managers . April 1, 2017Actually, the project manager does not control any of these resources directly, except perhaps money (i.e., the project budget).Resources are controlled by the line managers .The project manager is responsible for coordinating and integrating activities across multiple, functional lines. The integration activities performed by the project manager include:
21● Integrating the activities necessary to develop a project plan April 1, 2017● Integrating the activities necessary to develop a project plan● Integrating the activities necessary to execute the plan● Integrating the activities necessary to make changes to the plan
22Project Scheduling Planning, Scheduling, and Control April 1, 2017Project Scheduling Planning, Scheduling, and Control1
23Planning and Scheduling April 1, 2017Planning and scheduling are two terms that are often thought of as synonymousThey are not!Scheduling is just one part of the planning effort.
24Project planning serves as a foundation for several April 1, 2017Project planning serves as a foundation for severalrelated functions such as cost estimating, scheduling,and project control.Project scheduling is the determination of the timing and sequence of operations in the project and their assembly to give the overall completion time
251. “What” is going to be done, 2. “how”, 3. “where”, 4. By “whom”, and April 1, 2017Planning is the process of determining how a project will be undertaken. It answers thequestions:1. “What” is going to be done,2. “how”,3. “where”,4. By “whom”, and5. “when” (in general terms: start and finish).Scheduling deals with “when” on a detailed level… See Figure 1 .
26ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017The PlanWhatHow muchBy whomwhereWhyHowwhenFigure 1 . Planning and Scheduling
27The PlanApril 1, 2017PMI defines project management plan as a ‘‘formal, approved document that defines how the project is executed, monitored and controlled”.The plan can include elements that has to do with scope, design and alternate designs, cost, time, finance, land, procurement, operations, etc.
28WHY SCHEDUALE PROJECTS ? April 1, 20171- To calculate the project completion.2- To calculate the start or end of a specific activity.3-To expose and adjust conflict between trades or subcontractor.4- To predict and calculate the cash flow .5-To evaluate the effect of changing orders ‘CH’ .
296- To improve work efficiency. April 1, 20176- To improve work efficiency.7- To resolve delay claims , this is important in critical path method ‘CPM’ discussed later..8- To serve as an effective project control tool .
30The Tripod of Good Scheduling System April 1, 2017The Human Factor : A proficient scheduler or scheduling team.2. The Technology : A good scheduling computer system (software and hardware)3. The Management : A dynamic, responsive, and supportive management.If anyone of the above three ‘‘legs’’ is missing, the system will fail.
31Scheduling and project management April 1, 2017Planning, scheduling, and project control are extremely important components of project management.project management includes other components :cost estimating and management,procurement,project/contract administration,quality management,and safety management.These components are all interrelated in different ways.
32Quiz 1 True or False: There are no two projects that are identical April 1, 2017Quiz 1True or False:There are no two projects that are identicalEvery construction project needs a CPM schedulePlanning and scheduling are two names for the same functionThe maintenance of a large office building is considered a projectThe renovation of a large office building is considered a projectThere is one standard way to break down the project into activities for the purpose of creating a schedule
34DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION April 1, 2017A bar chart is ‘‘a graphic representation of project activities, shown in a time-scaled bar line with no links shown between activities’’The bar may not indicate continuous work from the start of the activity until its end.orNon continuous (dashed) bars are sometimes used to distinguish between real work (solid line) and inactive periods (gaps between solid lines)
35April 1, 2017Before a bar chart can be constructed for a project, the project must be broken into smaller, usually homogeneous components, each of which is called an activity, or a task.Item ActivityM MobilizationBars ( Month or Year )
36ADVANTAGES OF BAR CHARTS April 1, 20171- Time-scaled2- Simple to prepare3- Can be more effective and efficient if CPM based- Still the most popular method4- Bars can be dashed to indicate work stoppage.5- Can be loaded with other information (budget, man hours, resources, etc.)
37Bar Charts Loaded with More Info. April 1, 2017Bar Charts Loaded with More Info.Such as : budget, man hours and resources .500$220$400$850$140$900$
38DISADVANTAGES OF BAR CHARTS April 1, 20171- Does not show logic2- Not practical for projects with too many activitiesAs a remedy, we can use bar charts to show:1. A small group of the activities (subset)2. Summary schedules
39April 1, 2017Quiz 2True or False:The bar representing a 4-day activity is twice as long as a bar representing a 2-day activity in a bar chartBar chart method lost its applicability with the introduction of the Critical Path MethodBars in a bar chart must be connected with relationship linesA bar representing an activity in a bar chart may not be continuousBar charts and Gantt charts are two different methods.Bar charts can be loaded with information other than the timeline of the project
41DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION April 1, 2017A network is a logical and chronological graphic representation of the activities (and events) composing a project.Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing.Two main formats are the arrow and precedence diagramming methods.
42Identifier (usually a letter/code) Duration (in std. unit like days) April 1, 2017Two classic formatsAOA: Activity on ArrowAON: Activity on NodeEach task labeled withIdentifier (usually a letter/code)Duration (in std. unit like days)There are other variations of labelingThere is 1 start & 1 end eventTime goes from left to right
43Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) April 1, 20171. Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) network diagram or (I-J) method (because activities are defined by the form node, I, and the to node, J)2. Activities are represented by arrows.3. Nodes or circles are the starting and ending points of activities.4. Can only show finish-to-start dependencies.
44Each activity should have a unique i – j value Basic Logic Patterns for Arrow DiagramsApril 1, 2017Node (Event) iNode (Event) jiActivity Namejj > iEach activity should have a unique i – j value(a) Basic Activity
464 6 8 2 6 2 4 8 A C B (d) A Merge B A C (e) A Burst April 1, 20174AC68B2Activity C depends upon the completion of both Activities A & B(d) A Merge6BA24C8Activities B and C both depend upon the completion of Activity A(e) A Burst
47April 1, 20171218AC16DB1420Activities C and D both depend upon the completion of Activities A and B(f) A Cross
48Example Draw the arrow network for the project given next. IPA April 1, 2017Draw the arrow network for the project given next.IPAActivity-ABCDC,DE
71ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Lags and LeadsApril 1, 2017In some situations, an activity cannot start until a certain time after the end of its Predecessor.Lag is defined as a minimum waiting period between the finish (or start) of an activity and the start (or finish) of its successor.Arrow networks cannot accommodate lags. The only solution in such networks is to treat it as a real activity with a real duration, no resources, and a $0 budget.
72Examples Place Concrete 3 3 Strips Forms 2 A lag in a node network April 1, 2017Place Concrete33Strips Forms2A lag in a node networkPlace ConcreteCure ConcreteStrips FormsA lag in an arrow network
73April 1, 2017The term lead simply means a negative lag. It is seldom used in construction. In simple language: A positive time gap (lag) means ‘‘after’’ and a negative time gap (lead) means ‘‘before.’’
74Recommendations for Proper Node Diagram Drawing April 1, 2017Recommendations for Proper Node Diagram DrawingIncorrectCorrect
81IntroductionApril 1, 2017Suppose you decide with your friend to go in hunting trip.You must do specific activity such that the trip well be at the right way. The following activity must be done.
82Critical path : The longest path in a network from start to finish April 1, 2017From chart you can see that the 3rd activity (preparing the jeep) have the longest period of time any delay with this activity leads to delay in the trip this activity is a “critical activity”Critical activity : An activity on the critical path any delay on the start or finish of a critical activity will result in a delay in the entire projectCritical path : The longest path in a network from start to finish
83Steps Required To Schedule a Project April 1, 2017Steps Required To Schedule a ProjectThe preparation of CPM includes the following four steps:1- Determine the work activities:The project must be divided into smaller activities or tasks .The activity shouldn’t be more than days (long durations should be avoided)Use WBS in scheduling by using an order of letters and numbers
842- Determine activity duration: April 1, 20172- Determine activity duration:Duration = Total Quantity / Crew ProductivityThe productivity has many sources :1. The company2. The market3. Special booksNote: The scheduler must be aware about the non-working days , such as holydays or rain days, etc……
85It is common practice in construction industry to use calendar day. Estimating Activity DurationApril 1, 2017Time IntervalTime Interval is selected according to the nature of the activity (seconds - minutes…)It is common practice in construction industry to use calendar day.Use one and only one time unit for any schedule.SourcesFrom company’s recordFrom standard estimating guide3.Interviewing field personnel.
86Two approaches for assignment of weather allowance: Weather and Contingency AllowanceApril 1, 2017Two approaches for assignment of weather allowance:Add the Weather Allowance at the end of the project as a separate activity.2. Add Weather Allowance to those affected by the weather.3.Add weather allowance at the end of each construction segment (site preparation, foundation, … etc.)Contingency itemsOther activities can be added to allow for contingency such as strikesTime ZeroThe close of the work period immediately preceding the start of the project.
873- Determine the logical relationships : April 1, 20173- Determine the logical relationships :This step is a technical matter and obtained from the project manager and technical team, and logical relationships shouldn’t confused with constraints4- Draw the logic network and perform the CPM calculations
885-Reiew and analyze the schedule: 1. review the logic 2. Make sure the activity has the correct predecessor3. make sure there is no redundant activityApril 1, 2017
897-Monitor and control the schedule: April 1, 20176- Implement the schedule:Definition: take the schedule from paper to the execution.7-Monitor and control the schedule:Definition: comparing what we planed with what actually done.8-Revise the database and record feedback.9-Resource allocation and leveling. (will discuss in chapter 6)
90ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT The WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)April 1, 2017IT is used to break down the project from one main and relatively big entity into smaller, defined, manageable and controllable units, usually called work groups or tasks, or, at the finest level of detail (which is undesirable) activities
91Take care!!!April 1, 2017The deeper you go into the lower levels of the WBS, the more detailed knowledge you’ll need to know.A good rule of thumb is the rule of , which entails that each level be broken down into a maximum of five lower levels.
92A WBS is developed by the A/E at the end of the design phase. Who develops the WBS?April 1, 2017A WBS is developed by the A/E at the end of the design phase.and/or by the bidders during the proposal (procurement phase).
93The CWBS (Contract Work breakdown Structure ) April 1, 2017After contract award, the project manager expands the WBS into a contract work breakdown structure (CWBS).as the initial step in the PLANNING process.The extended CWBS must include the levels at which required reporting information is summarized for submittal to the Owner
94Uses of the WBSApril 1, 2017The WBS is used to report program status externally to the Owner.The CWBS is used internally to plan the program in detail and to collect status information on a periodic basis for the lowest level of the CWBS, namely the schedule activities.The basis for technical planning and project achievement.
95The CWBS it is a major task to undo. Why??? April 1, 2017it is a major task to undo.Why???Because cost collections begins at a CWBS element,The individuals assigned the responsibility for WBS/CWBS development should never lose sight of the fact that the WBS is used for technical planning and status achievement.
96Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 House 1.0 fine works 1.2 Sub- April 1, 2017House1.0StructuralWork1.1fineworks1.2Sub-Structure1.1.1Super-1.1.2Finishing1.21Doors &Windowsframes1.2.2ElectricalWorks1.3EarthworkFoundationColumnsRoof slabsConduiting1.3.1LightFittings1.3.2PlasterFloor tileExcavationBackfillingLevel 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5
97ConclusionApril 1, 2017The work breakdown structure defines the product elements (work packages).And their interrelations to each other and to the product.The WBS mostly ends with project tasks.Using the tasks you can extract project’s activities.
98TYPES OF ACTIVITIES 1. Production Activities April 1, 20171. Production ActivitiesThose that can be taken directly from plans and specifications2. Procurement ActivitiesProcurement of material and equipment3. Management Decision ActivitiesActivities that can be created by management to avoid certain situationsDelay ConcreteCompany VacationDeer Hunting
99Events and MilestonesApril 1, 2017An event: a point in time that is usually the start or finish of a certain activity(s)Duration = 0Important events are called milestonesmilestones such as NTP andfinish milestones such as Substantial CompletionAn activity has a start date and a finish dateAn event / milestone has a start date or a finish date
100ExampleApril 1, 2017Draw the logic network and perform the CPM calculations for the schedule shown next.DurationIPAActivity5-A8B6C9DB,CE3F1D,E,FG
101Forward pass calculations April 1, 2017Forward pass calculationsIn mathematical terms, the ES for activity j is as follows :ESj =max( EFi )where (EFi) represents the EF for all preceding activities.Likewise, the EF time for activity j is as follows :EF j= ESj + Dur jwhere Dur j is the duration of activity jForward pass: The process of navigating through a network from start to end and calculating the completion date for the project and the early dates for each activity
103Backward pass calculations April 1, 2017Backward pass calculationsIn mathematical terms, the late finish LF for activity j is as follows :( LFj =min(LSkwhere (LSk) represents the late start date for all succeeding activities.Likewise, the LS time for activity j (LS j) is as follows :LS j= LFj - Dur jwhere Dur j is the duration of activityBackward pass: The process of navigating through a network from end to start and calculating the late dates for each activity. The late dates (along with the early dates) determine the critical activities, the critical path, and the amount of float each activity has.
104CPM ( ES = LS , EF = LF , TF = FF = 0) April 1, 2017Solution :5,1313,22A5G1C6D9B8EF30,55,1313,2213,1922,230,516,2222,235,1111,1410,1619,22CPM ( ES = LS , EF = LF , TF = FF = 0)
105Four Types Of FloatsApril 1, 2017There are several types of float. The simplest and most important type of float is Total Float (TF)Total float (TF): The maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the entire project.TF = LS – ESorTF = LF - EFTF = LF - Dur - ES
106April 1, 2017Free Float: may be defined as the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of the succeeding activitiesFFi = min(ESi+1) - EFiwhere min (ESi+1) means the least (i.e., earliest) of the early start dates of succeeding activities
107ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017In the previous example we can find the free float and total float for each activity as the following :Activity C’s free float, FF = = 0 daysAndActivity C’s total float, TF = = 5 days …… and so on.FFTFLFLSEFESDurationActivity5A138B1610116C229D319E14F231GCritical activityNote : We must always realize that FF ≤ TF
108April 1, 2017Interfering float: may be defined as the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project but causing delay to the succeeding activities.TF = FF - Int. or Int. F = TF - FFIndependent float (Ind. F): we may define it as the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of the succeeding activities and without being affected by the allowable delay of the preceding activities.Ind. Fi = min(ESi+1) – max(LFi-1) – DuriNote: make sure that Ind. F ≤ FF
109Node Format Activity ID Activity Name Duration ES EF LS LF TF FF April 1, 2017Activity NameActivity IDDurationESEFLSLFTFFF
111Tabular Solution Activity Duration ES EF LS LF TF A 5 B 8 13 C 6 11 10 April 1, 2017ActivityDurationESEFLSLFTFA5B813C6111016D922E193F14G123
112All dates above represent the end of the day Graphic SolutionApril 1, 20175, 130, 513, 195, 1113, 2211, 1422, 23A5F3D9E6CB8G1B8D95, 130, 516, 2210, 1613, 2219, 2222, 233A5G158All dates above represent the end of the day
113Example Activity Duration IPA A 5 - B 6 C D 3 E F 4 B, C G H 7 B,C,G I April 1, 2017ActivityDurationIPAA5-B6CD3EF4B, CGH7B,C,GI8E, FJ2KH, JLI, J
117End-of-Day Convention April 1, 2017The dates on the activities represent the “end of day”. That’s why we always start with day 0: end of day 0 = start of day 1This concept is not applied in computer programs. In computer programs start dates (ES, LS) represent the beginning of the day while finish dates (EF, LF) represent the end of the day
119Comments on the Solution April 1, 2017Near-critical activities may be as important as critical activitiesIt is a good practice for the project manager not to give subordinates two sets of datesPM has to choose one set of dates within the range of Early – LateManagement may reserve a number of days as “management float” or “time contingency”
120Float DiscussionApril 1, 2017Total float –in general- belongs to a path rather than the activity itselfIf an activity uses “its” float, successors may lose some or all of “their” floatTotal float versus free floatTotal float is broken down into free float, independent float, and interfering float.Researchers have come up with even more types
121The question is: “who owns the float”? April 1, 2017The question is: “who owns the float”?Float distribution attemptsReview the contract – what if it is not mentioned?Float with resource levelingShifting activities within their float may affect:Start / finish dates of succeeding activitiesResource usage: Labor and equipment (crews)Materials: delivery, storageCash flow
122Lags in Node NetworksApril 1, 2017A lag is a minimum compulsory waiting period between the start/finish of an activity and the start/finish of the successorActual waiting period may be greater, but never less than the lagLags are very common with SS and FF relationshipsA lead is a negative lagThe lag is added in the CPM’s forward pass calculations and subtracted in the backward pass
123Concrete curing (before formwork stripping or reshoring) April 1, 2017Examples:Concrete curing (before formwork stripping or reshoring)Asphalt curing (before striping)Waiting for a permit to be issuedWaiting for the delivery of a custom material or equipment
124Example Activity Duration IPA Lag A 5 - B 3 C 6 D 7 E 4 F A,B,C G H 2 April 1, 2017ActivityDurationIPALagA5-B3C6D7E4FA,B,CGH2ID,G
125Graphic Solution A 5 D 7 H 6 2 B 3 4 E 7 G 5 I 3 3 C 6 F 4 0, 5 5, 12 April 1, 20170, 55, 1221, 27A5D7H622, 714, 2121, 270, 3277, 1414, 1919, 22PSB34E7G5I3PF0, 37, 1414, 1924, 272730, 66, 10C6F41, 77, 11
127Constraints and the CPM April 1, 2017A Constraint is an externally imposed restriction affecting when an activity can start and/or finishedConstraints may conflict with logical relationshipsConstraints are not alternatives for logic
128Software Quiz On a continuous path: April 1, 2017On a continuous path:Activities A, B, and C are critical; but D, E, and F notWhy?A6B5C3D9EF2
129Effect of Imposed Finish Date April 1, 2017Imposed Finish Date is the project’s completion date, as specified in the contract or stipulated by the ownerWhen compared to the calculated finish date:Calculated finish date < imposed finish dateYou are in good shapeWhat happens if you enter the imposed date?Calculated finish date > imposed finish dateNegative float appears when you enter the imposed dateYou need to accelerate / crash the schedule
130Examples with Imposed Finish Dates April 1, 2017Examples with Imposed Finish DatesRepeat Example 3 with imposed finish date of 28 daysRepeat Example 3 with imposed finish date of 22 days
131Imposed Finish Date > Calculated Finish Date April 1, 2017Imposed Finish Date > Calculated Finish Date3435, 1111, 1415, 23B6E3I8323, 258, 1415, 1818, 26L234830, 55, 1011, 1515, 172526, 28A5C5F4J2PF3, 89, 1414, 1823, 252866665, 88, 1212, 1919, 22D3G4H7K311, 1414, 1818, 2525, 28
132Imposed Finish Date < Calculated Finish Date April 1, 2017Imposed Finish Date < Calculated Finish Date-3-2-35, 1111, 1415, 23B6E3I8-323, 252, 89, 1212, 20L2-3-2-320, 55, 1011, 1515, 172520, 22A5C5F4J2PF-3, 23, 88, 1217, 19225, 88, 1212, 1919, 22D3G4H7K35, 88, 1212, 1919, 22
133Negative FloatApril 1, 2017Negative float is a situation that occurs when performing an activity even on its early dates, fails to meet the project’s imposed finish date or other constraintIt may occur in one of two cases:Before construction startsDuring construction (after normal start)
134Calendars Each activity has to be assigned a calendar April 1, 2017Each activity has to be assigned a calendarDifferent crews working for different activities work on different calendars.The crew working for the same activity may work 5 days/week at normal times then switch to 6 or 7 days/weekUser has to be aware of the impact of such matter on the duration of activities and consequently the project
135Computer scheduling programs can handle calendars: April 1, 2017Computer scheduling programs can handle calendars:Global, default, and other calendarsRecurring holidaysWork hours per dayResource calendarsScheduling in other countries
136Non-Work DaysApril 1, 2017Schedulers must take in account non-work days. This includes:Scheduled non-work days such as:.Holidays,Shut-downs.Unscheduled non-work days such as:Rain days (or severe weather),Other unforeseen interruptionsDistribution of unscheduled non-work days
137Event Times in Arrow Networks April 1, 2017Event Times in Arrow NetworksThe early event time, TE, is the largest (latest) date obtained to reach an event (going from start to finish).The late event time, TL, is the smallest (earliest) date obtained to reach an event (going from finish to start).ExamplePerform the CPM calculations, including the event times, for the arrow network shown below.
138ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 20171030402060CEB50DF70AGH57894d1d2Arrow network for example
139April 1, 2017The preceding logic is similar to that of the forward and backward passes: When you are going forward, pick the largest number. When you are going backward, pick the smallest number.ijAct. NameDur.TEiTLiTEjTLjCPM
150Table of activities 2 -- A 6 4 B C 13 12 7 1 D 10 B,C E 8 F 14 G F,E H April 1, 2017Table of activitiesTFLFLSEFESIPAsDurationActivity2--A64BC131271D10B,CE8F14GF,EHI18G,HJI,HK19K,JL
151Bar / Gantt chart Early Start / Finish EF = ES + D A ActivityBar / Gantt chart Early Start / FinishEF = ES + DApril 1, 2017ABCDEFGHIJKL2468101214161820Time
152Bar / Gantt Chart Late Start / Finish LS = LF - D A ActivityBar / Gantt Chart Late Start / FinishLS = LF - DApril 1, 2017ABCDEFGHIJKL2468101214161820Time
153Bar / Gantt of the previous network April 1, 2017ABCDEFGHIJKL2468101214161820
154Summary i j T TEi TLi TEj TLj Float Direction TF FF Int. F Ind. F April 1, 2017SummaryijTTEiTLiTEjTLjFloatDirectionTFFFInt. FInd. F
155ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Quiz 4True or False:Determining activities durations is primarily the scheduler’s jobYou can find out the project’s estimated completion date afterperforming the forward pass onlyYou can find out the project’s critical path after performing the forward pass only“Event” is another name for an activity“Task” is another name for an activityThere could be more than one critical path in a CPM networkTotal float must be equal to or greater than free float
156April 1, 2017DefinitionsActivity, or task: A basic unit of work as part of the total project that is easily measured and controlled. It is time- and resource consuming.Backward pass: The process of navigating through a network from end to start and calculating the late dates for each activity. The late dates (along with the early dates) determine the critical activities, the critical path, and the amount of float each activity has.Critical activity: An activity on the critical path. Any delay in the start or finish of a critical activity will result in a delay in the entire project.Critical path: The longest path in a network, from start to finish, including lags and constraints..
157Late dates: The late start date and late finish date of an activity. April 1, 2017Early dates: The early start date and early finish date of an activity.Early finish (EF): The earliest date on which an activity can finish within project constraints.Early start (ES): The earliest date on which an activity can start within project constraints.Event: A point in time marking a start or an end of an activity. In contrast to an activity, an event does not consume time or resources.Forward pass: The process of navigating through a network from start to end and calculating the completion date for the project and the early dates for each activity.Late dates: The late start date and late finish date of an activity.Late finish (LF): The latest date on which an activity can finish without extending the project duration.Late start (LS): The latest date on which an activity can start without extending the project duration.
159The Four Types Relationships April 1, 2017The Four Types RelationshipsActivities represented by nodes and links that allow the use of four relationships:1) Finish to Start – FS2) Start to Finish – SF3) Finish to Finish – FF4) Start to Start – SS
160Finish to Start (FS) Relationship April 1, 2017Finish to Start (FS) Relationship. The traditional relationship between activities.. Implies that the preceding activity must finishbefore the succeeding activities can start.. Example: the plaster must be finished before the tile can start.PlasterTile
161Star to Finish (SF) Relationship April 1, 2017Star to Finish (SF) Relationship. Appear illogical or irrational.. Typically used with delay time OR LAG.. The following examples proofs that its logical.ErectformworksteelreinforcementPourconcrete5SFOrderconcrete
162Finish to Finish (FF) Relationship April 1, 2017Finish to Finish (FF) RelationshipBoth activities must finish at the same time.Can be used where activities can overlap to a certain limit.ErectscaffoldingRemoveOld paintFF/1sandingFF/2Dismantlescaffoldingpaintinginspect
163Start to Start (SS) Relationship April 1, 2017Start to Start (SS) RelationshipThis method is uncommon and non exists in project construction .Clean surfaceSpread groutSSSet tileClean floor area
164Advantages of using Precedence Diagram April 1, 2017Advantages of using Precedence DiagramNo dummy activities are required.A single number can be assigned to identify each activity.3. Analytical solution is simpler.
165Calculation forward calculations EF = ES + D Calculate the Lag April 1, 2017Calculationforward calculationsEF = ES + DCalculate the LagLAGAB = ESB – EFACalculate the Free FloatFF = Min. (LAG)
166TFi = Min (lag ij + TFj ) 2) Backward calculations April 1, 20172) Backward calculationsFor the last task LF=EF , if no information deny that.LS=LF-DCalculate Total FloatTF = LS – ES OR LF – EFTFi = Min (lag ij + TFj )Determine the Critical Path
167Example 1) Forward pass calculations 4) Backward pass calculations April 1, 20171) Forward pass calculations4) Backward pass calculations5) Calculate total Float (TF = LS – ES OR LF – EF)BDFHA111292115111641620120221111161620202121453CEG2557410116147310113141733202) Calculate the Lag ( LAGAB = ESB – EFA)ESDur.LS3) Calculate the Free Float (FF) FF = min.( LAG)EFFFTFLF167
1686) Determine the Critical Path April 1, 20176) Determine the Critical PathABDFH111292115111641620120221111161620202121453CEG255741011614731011314173320ESDur.LSThe critical path passes through the critical activities where TF = 0EFFFTFLF168
169April 1, 2017Resource Allocation and Resource Leveling6
170CATEGORIES OF RESOURCES April 1, 2017CATEGORIES OF RESOURCESLaborMaterialsEquipment’s.
171ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Labor1. Salaried staff: like-project engineer, secretary.2. Hourly workers: like-carpenters.Equipment and Materials1. Construction equipment and materials2. Installed equipment and materials
172What is resource allocation? April 1, 2017What is resource allocation?Resource allocation(resource loading) :Is the assignment of the required resources to each activity, in the required amount and timing.What Is Resource Leveling?Is minimizing the fluctuations in day-to-day resource use throughout the project.It is usually done by shifting noncritical activities within their available float. It attempts to make the daily use of a certain resource as uniform as possible.
173April 1, 2017Why level Resources?1. When the contractor adds the daily total demand for a specific resource for all activities he must provide the required amount, or work will be delayed.2. Leveling may also be necessary for an expensive piece of equipment.3. The main idea of resource leveling is to improve work efficiency and minimize cost during the life of the project.Note: In general, materials do not need to be leveled
174Leveling Resources in a Project April 1, 2017Leveling Resources in a ProjectResource leveling is a mathematically complex process.The resource-leveling method is called the minimum moment algorithm.discussed by Robert B. Harris (1978) in his classic textbook, Precedence and Arrow Networking Techniques for Construction
175Resource Profiles Resource need Time Actual, not leveled April 1, 2017Resource needActual, not leveledLeveled, realisticIdealTime
176April 1, 2017SortSort : the process of arranging activities in a list to certain specific order.
177April 1, 2017Priorities & SortsThe activities making up the network must be listed in order of their priority of resources allocation.The network shows the logical sequence of activities. (predecessor and successor).The listing of activities must therefore reflects the dependency of some activities .
178Activities Sort Resource unit TF ES Duration Activity 8H 1 A 9H 2 9 B April 1, 2017Activities SortResource unitTFESDurationActivity8H1A9H29B7H35C5H11D4H74E16F2H6G20HActivity sort reflects the logic sequence of the network.
179Major Sort Resource unit TF ES Duration Activity 8H 1 A 9H 2 9 B 7H 3 April 1, 2017Major SortResource unitTFESDurationActivity8H1A9H29B7H35C4H74E2H116G5HD16F20HActivity sort with ES time as Major sort
180Major & Minor Sorts Resource unit TF ES Duration Activity 8H 1 A 9H 2 April 1, 2017Major & Minor SortsResource unitTFESDurationActivity8H1A9H29B7H35C4H74E5H11D2H6G16F20HActivity sort with ES time as Major sort & TF as Minor Sort
185Late startApril 1, 2017Another histogram can be obtained if Late start considered. Shows different resources demand.And many histograms can be obtained considering a different time in the network.Each histogram shows different resources demand.
186late Start Sorts Resource unit TF LS Duration Activity 8H 1 A 9H 2 9 B April 1, 2017late Start SortsResource unitTFLSDurationActivity8H1A9H29B7H35C4H104E5H11D2H146G16F20HActivity sort with LS time as Major sort & TF as Minor Sort
188Late start resources aggregation diagram (Histogram) Time April 1, 2017Total Labor8999161616161613999771010101041614Labor121086422468101214161820Late start resources aggregation diagram (Histogram)Time
189Early start vs Late start resources aggregation diagram (Histogram) April 1, 2017Total Labor8999161616161613999771010101041614Labor121086422468101214161820189TimeEarly start vs Late start resources aggregation diagram (Histogram)
190Early start vs Late start resources aggregation diagram (Histogram) April 1, 2017Total Labor8999161616161613999771010101041614Labor121086422468101214161820190TimeEarly start vs Late start resources aggregation diagram (Histogram)
192ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Activities SortApril 1, 2017Resource unitTFESDurationActivity8H15A2H6C4H2D9H4B5H8H10E113GF13I14J6H22K2Activity sort with ES time as Major sort & TF and duration as Minor Sorts
195Activities Sort Resource unit TF LS Duration Activity 8H 1 5 A 2H 6 C April 1, 2017Resource unitTFLSDurationActivity8H15A2H6C4H122D9H4B5H16E8H113G17F19I14J6H22KActivity sort with LS time as Major sort & TF and duration as Minor Sorts
199Smoothing/LevelingApril 1, 2017Let us program activity F to start by its late start day which is day 17.And activity I to start by day 14.The resulting resources aggregation histogram will be as follows:
202Smoothing/LevelingApril 1, 2017Let us program activity H to start by its late start time.So its resources demand starts with its Late start date.The resulting resource aggregation and histogram will be as follows:
205Smoothing/LevelingApril 1, 2017In case activity D is split able activity. It could be interrupted to be carried out in tow parts.Let us program activity B to start by 7th day .And activity H to starts by its Late start date.And activity E to start by day 14.The resulting resource aggregation and histogram will be as follows:
208Early Start OR Early Finish April 1, 2017There are many solutions between the limits of Early Start and Early Finish.The optimal solution is zero fluctuation histogram. Which is hard to be achieved.It is preferred to solve the problem toward the Early start resources aggregation diagram.WHY ?!
209April 1, 2017Because if there are labor availability problems to be overcome, they will occur in the early beginning of the project.By other words, if the program based on the Late Start date, it means that all the activities are Critical, and any labor problem will affect the project completion.
210Allocation within resources restraints April 1, 2017Another situation which you may face in practice is the restricted resources availability.Where you have to carry out the job with the available resources only.In this case the project duration may be prolonged to suit the availability of the restricted resources.
211ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Rules for scheduling activities withlimited resourcesschedule activities to start as soon as their predecessors have been completed.2) if more than one activity using a specific limited resources can be scheduled, priority is given to the activity with early Late Start. ( LS as Major Sort)3) if tow or more activities have the same Late start, give priority to the activity with least Total Float. (TF as Minor Sort)4) if the activities have the same Total Float in the minor sort, give the priority to the activity with the Largest Number of Resources.5) If the activities are tied in the number of resources, give priority to the activity that has already started.) schedule activities to start as soon as their predecessors have been completed.2) if more than one activity using a specific limited resources can be scheduled, priority is given to the activity with early Late Start. ( LS as Major Sort)3) if tow or more activities have the same Late start, give priority to the activity with least Total Float. (TF as Minor Sort)4) if the activities have the same Total Float in the minor sort, give the priority to the activity with the Largest Number of Resources.5) If the activities are tied in the number of resources, give priority to the activity that has already started.
213Resource unit TF ES Duration Activity April 1, 2017Resource unitTFESDurationActivity8H1A9H29B7H35C4H74E5H11D2H6G16F20HActivity sort with ES time as Major sort & TF as Minor Sort
214April 1, 2017Assume that the available labors in the company restricted to 10 helpers, and the company decided to carry out the job without resorting to hire more labor.The resulting program will exceed the Early finish date based on the network.
217Money and network schedules April 1, 2017Reminder, cost was one of the elements of project constraints triangle ( COST, TIME & QUALITY).An effective management tries to minimize and integrate the above mentioned elements.CPM provides a mean for relating time and money.The application of resources to a project (materials, manpower and machinery) related to another resource which is MONEY.The value of the resources for each activity representsa component of project cost.
218Hint Construction costs includes: 1) Materials costs. 2) labor costs. April 1, 2017HintConstruction costs includes:1) Materials costs.2) labor costs.3) plant and equipment costs4) overhead costs and profit.
223Cash FlowApril 1, 2017It is quite significant to the contractor to know the amount of money that would be spent in each stage of the project.( Expenditures)And compare it to the amount of money that would be received. (income)OvertradingOvertrading: arises when the current liabilities of a company exceed the current assets, even though the business is solvent.
227Cash Flow: In and Out $ Profit Spending Reimbursement Time April 1, 2017$ProfitSpendingReimbursementTime
228Cash Flow AnalysisApril 1, 2017Cash flow analysis consists of a detailed examination of funds disbursement (expenditures) and the receipt of revenue.Cash flow shows if surplus fund available during project, or if negative cash position will occur during construction.The cash position of contractor during project whether positive or negative is important.
229Negative cash position April 1, 2017Negative cash position means that the revenues obtained from a project insufficient to meet the financial obligations (expenditures) of the project.In this case other fund from the company or from outside sources must be used.
230Positive cash position April 1, 2017Positive cash position means that the revenues obtained from a project exceed the financial obligations (expenditures) of the project.In this case surplus (extra) fund available with the contractor.And the contractor may invest this surplus funds for short duration.
231Materials ManagementApril 1, 2017Is defined as the planning and controlling of all necessary efforts to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials and equipment are appropriately specified in a timely manner, are obtained at a reasonable cost, and are available when needed.
232Materials management functions April 1, 2017Identifying.Acquiring.Distributing.Disposing.
233Objectives of materials management April 1, 2017Ensure that materials meet the specifications and are on hand when and where required.Obtain the best value for purchased materials.Provide efficient, low-cost transport, security, and storage of materials at construction sites.Reduce any surplus to the lowest level possible.
234Schedule Updating and Project Control April 1, 2017Schedule Updating and Project Control7
235April 1, 2017Schedule updatingSchedule updating is just one part of the project control process.Schedule updating must reflectActual work , andinvolves change orders (CO) .
236What is an updated schedule? April 1, 2017A revised schedule reflecting project information at a given data date regarding completed activities , in progress activities , and change in the logic , cost , and resources and allocated at any level .What is data date?The data date is the date as of which allprogress on a project is reported.It is also called as- of date and status date .
237Why Update Schedules?April 1, 2017Schedules (like cost estimates) are always prepared before the project begins. However, updates must take place routinely for the following two reasons:a. Unintentional eventsb. Intentional changesSchedules without updating, monitoring, controlling, and corrective action are useless
238What kind of information is needed for updating schedules ? April 1, 20171. Past information : what has happened since the last update ?.2. Future information : the future category comprises any changes to schedule or schedule items.Future changes are two types :A. logic – driven changesB. user’s changes
239ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Frequency of updatingApril 1, 2017Construction schedules may be updated monthly , biweekly, weekly, or according to another time interval .Project managers must achieve a delicate balance between updates is too long and one is too short
240Updating schedules and pay requests April 1, 2017In many cases , project updating is tied to payment requests.In general , a pay requests is a document submitted by the contractor to the owner , asking for payment for work actually performed (whether .finished or not)during the period since the last pay request.
241Effect of adding or deleting activities on logic April 1, 2017An activity in a schedule is usually like a link in a chain ; removing a link may disturb the whole chain if it is not done properly.For example :Deleting activity AS520 in the partial network shown in figure will remove any link between activities in each side.AS210AS250AS260TL160AS245
242April 1, 2017It is strongly recommended that the scheduler review the logic before making any change by first printing a logic report showing all predecessors .and successors for the activity be deleted.
243Steps for Updating a Schedule April 1, 2017The Schedule activity listFilter out completed activitiesEliminating activities in the far future?Scheduler sends it to the projectPM / superintendentPossibility that PM/superintendent wants to change past events
246April 1, 2017The PM (or superintendent) fills up the form, signs and dates it; and submits it back to the schedulerIt is a good idea for the PM to keep a copy for his/her recordsIt is a good idea to assign “ink colors” to different parties3. The scheduler enters the info in the computer and updates the project, signs and dates the forms
247The scheduler prints a preliminary report and discusses it with the PM April 1, 2017The scheduler prints a preliminary report and discusses it with the PMIt is a good idea to produce a summary report (what happened between last update and this update)Based on this discussion, the scheduler makes any necessary adjustments to the schedule or reportsAny changes to the schedule requested by the PM have to be documented by the scheduler
248Myths/Misconceptions About Schedule Updating April 1, 2017We always produce a complete schedule before the commencement of construction. We just don’t update it, We trust our field staff and subcontractors to follow it.We update projects only when there is a “need” for the updateEverything is going well. There is no need for an update
249Quiz 6April 1, 2017True or False:Updating is needed for projects that have duration of at least one year or a minimum budget of QAR 10 millionData date is the date all information was entered in the computerIn updating schedules, we must enter not only actual work progress but also any future changesNegative float is an indication that the schedule is not meeting its expected completion date or an interim imposed date
251Project Control Project control is the continuous practice of April 1, 2017Project control is the continuous practice ofmonitoring work progress,comparing it to baseline budget and schedule,detecting any deviations and their causes, andtaking a corrective action wherever and whenever necessaryThe ability to determine a project status as it relates to the time and schedule selectedAlso called project trackingProject monitoring?
252Why Project Control?April 1, 2017Project control is needed because projects never run exactly as planned.Project control is a cyclical iterative task: do small part of the work and compare to baseline, do corrective measure, adjust plan (if needed), do another part of the work, and so on..Project control requires measuring work progress and calculating activities percent complete
253What is a baseline schedule? April 1, 2017A baseline schedule is a schedule prepared by the contractor ,usually before the start of the project ,and used for performance comparison.Baseline Budget: The project’s original approved budget including any approved changes
254Percent CompleteApril 1, 2017Percent Complete (PC or PCT): is an estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component. (PMBOK 2008)Percent complete may be used to estimate:ActivityGroups of activities / assembly / work packageProject
255Types of Percent Complete April 1, 2017Depending on the type and nature of the activity, percent complete may be calculated using one of several methods that may yield different resultsSome methods are more subjective than othersNone of these methods is wrong. None of them is uniquely considered the right method.Most importantly:Know exactly what each percent complete meansPick one or two parameters to use and then be consistent
256Major objectives for a good control plan: April 1, 2017Major objectives for a good control plan:Should accurately represent the work.Permit deviations to be detected,evaluated and forecasted.3. Should make provision for periodic corrective actions.
257Level of Control Small projects - low cost - short duration April 1, 2017Small projects - low cost - short durationDetailed networkReporting mechanismMiddle-sized projects (300 activities)Summary networkArea and craft network
258Monitoring the Project April 1, 2017Feedback from direct contactEfficient but requires close cooperation between the manager and field personnel.2. Feedback from photographyRecord progress and provide permanent documentation of the work.Tell nothing about the time taken to perform the work.3. Feedback from check-off listPlanner prepares a check-off list that is started, to be continued, or to be finished in the next time interval.Effective if the reporting periods are short “Daily, Weekly” and small number of activities involved.Disadvantage: false reporting
2594.Feedback from bar chart. April 1, 20174.Feedback from bar chart.5.Feedback from networksAdvantage:Superintendent has complete information about the status of the project.Disadvantage:Diagram may appear confusing to field personnel.
260Setting the Target Schedule April 1, 2017Early Start Schedule: As Target for ControlProblem:Required high effort to keep the plan working.Late Start Schedule As Target for ControlBecause every activity is timed to start as its latest, project overruns are sure to follow.Activities may be positioned early or late start or somewhat in between.Non-critical activities allow intermediate start.
270Earned Value AnalysisApril 1, 2017Earned Value (EV) Analysis: Earned Value analysis is an integrated cost-schedule approach to monitor and analyze the progress in a project.Earned Value Management (EVM), started in the 1960’s as a method for integrated project cost and schedule control, was designed by the U.S. Air Force and named the Cost/Schedule Planning and Control System.In 1967, it became U.S. DOD policy and was renamed Cost/ Schedule Control Systems Criteria, or C/SCSC
271The Concept of EVMApril 1, 2017The concept of Earned Value is simple; at any given point find out:The cost of work you have actually done (ACWP),The cost of work you planned to do by this date (BCWS),The amount earned for work performed (BCWP),Calculate schedule and budget variances (SV, CV)Analyze causes for major variances and suggest remedies,Extrapolate these variances to the end of the project (FSV, FCV).
272Earned Value Analysis (EVA) addresses all three: April 1, 2017Foundations of modern cost controlWhat’s more important?Knowing where you are on schedule?Knowing where you are on budget?Knowing where you are on work accomplished?Earned Value Analysis (EVA) addresses all three:It compares the PLANNED amount of work with what has actually been COMPLETED to determine if COST, SCHEDULE, and WORK ACCOMPLISHEDare progressing as planned.
273EVA Terminology BCWS – Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled April 1, 2017BCWS – Budgeted Cost of Work ScheduledPlanned cost of the total amount of work scheduled to be performed by the milestone date. (a.k.a. your original plan)BCWP – Budgeted Cost of Work PerformedThe planned (not actual) cost to complete the work that has been done.Also known as “Earned Value”ACWP – Actual Cost of Work PerformedCost incurred to accomplish the work that has been done to date.
274Input data for EVAApril 1, 2017Activity schedule, usually in the form of a bar chart.Budgeted cost for each activity.Percent complete for each activity.Cost to date for each activity.
275Information Needed to Compute April 1, 2017Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)Activity budget at completion (BAC)Activity scheduleData dateBudgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)Physical activity progress as a percentage of its total workActual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)Each activity’s cost to date from the job costing system
276Earned Value Reporting - Costs April 1, 2017Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP) = earned value of projectActual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)Cost Variance (CV)Difference between earned and actual costs for the completed workCost Performance Index (CPI or CI)CPI = 1, on budgetCPI < 1, over budgetCPI > 1, under budget
277Earned Value Reporting - Schedule April 1, 2017Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)Schedule Variance (SV)Difference between the value of work that was planned for completion and the value of the work that was actually completedSchedule Performance Index (SPI or SI)SPI = 1, on scheduleSPI < 1, behind scheduleSPI > 1, ahead of schedule
278Earned Value Reporting April 1, 2017(budgeted)(earned)(actual)Nabil Dmaidi278
279ExampleA simple problem will help to illustrate the application of the principles of earned value . A project has been defined that consist of 12 activities for which the estimated cost and duration have been defined see figure .After three and a half month , the activates 1,2,4,5,7 are completed and (6) is one half complete and(8) is three –fourth complete and (3) is half complete. The incurred cost to date are $ . What is the status of this project in terms of the schedule and the budget?April 1, 2017Solution
284April 1, 2017Quiz 7True or false:Project control is to be practiced by both contractor and ownerProject monitoring is part of project controlFor assistance in calculating progress payments, percentcomplete for the project is more important than percent complete of individual activitiesIt is possible that different parties compute the “project percent complete” and come up with different estimates, yet none of them is wrong!It is possible to have the scheduler report saying the project is behind schedule while the earned value analysis is showing a positive schedule variance.
2858 Time-Cost Trade-Off Some amount of knowledge brings more…… April 1, 2017Time-Cost Trade-Off8Some amount of knowledge brings more……
286Time /cost trade –off analysis April 1, 2017Time /cost trade –off analysis is the compression of the project schedule to achieve a more favorable outcome in term of project duration , cost , and projected revenuesObjective of time /cost trade-off-compress project to an acceptable duration-minimize total project costsDone by selectively crashing specific activities to shorten project duration
287Time /cost trade –off analysis April 1, 2017You might think that total project costs will increase when we begin to crash activitiesBut ,total project cost consist of both indirect (project –based ) costs (PBC) and activity – based cost (ABC )-ABC goes up when we crash activities in an effort to finish the project early-but ,PBC (the indirect cost ) goes down if we finish the project early
288What Is ‘‘Accelerating’’ a Project? April 1, 2017Accelerating a project means shortening the normal duration of the project schedule .(also called schedule compression).schedule crashingSchedule acceleration
289Why Accelerate a Project? April 1, 2017The contractor’s ‘‘normal’’ finish date in the planned schedule does not meet the imposed finish date of the contract.After starting construction and completing a certain percentage of the project, the contractor realizes that the project is behind schedule.3 -when the contractor may have a contractual monetary incentive to finish ahead of schedule.4- Sometimes, especially when the economy is doing well, finishing earlymeans—to the contractor—starting another job earlier and, thus, makingmore profit.
290Schedule Compression: Multiple Paths April 1, 2017
291Cost Changing with Schedule Acceleration April 1, 2017Cost $Direct CostIndirect CostTotal Cost
292Cost For the following discussions it is important to remember: April 1, 2017For the following discussions it is important to remember:Direct costs: Related to putting the facility components in place. They represent the resources used by an activity. (material, labor and equipment).
293Longer project duration will result in higher indirect costs. April 1, 2017Indirect job costs (job overhead): costs that could not be attributed to a specific work item. (such as, site offices, superintendents, security fence & etc.)These costs are generally incurred whether or not productive work achieved.Longer project duration will result in higher indirect costs.
294April 1, 2017Operating Overhead costs (company overhead): If the cost cannot be attributed to any specific job, they are operating overhead costs, costs of running business. (head office costs, communications & etc).These costs continue as long as the company exists even one project is running.
295Logic of Time-Cost Trade-Off April 1, 2017Assumption: increasing or decreasing an activity’s duration will lead to increased direct costs for that activity.
296General relation of direct costs to project duration April 1, 2017DirectCostsDirect costsProject durationGeneral relation of direct costs to project duration
297April 1, 2017Assumption: decreasing a project’s duration will lead to lower indirect costs.IndirectCostsindirect costsProject durationGeneral relation of indirect costs to project duration
298April 1, 2017Assumption: A project’s duration can be decreased by decreasing the duration of one or more critical activities on the critical path.Assumption: Decreasing a project’s duration may increase or decrease the total cost of a project depending upon whether the additional direct costs required to decrease the activity duration are greater or less than indirect costs savings of decreasing the project’s duration.
299General relation of project costs to project duration April 1, 2017Total project costsProjectCostsDirect costsindirect costsProject durationGeneral relation of project costs to project duration
300Graph analysisApril 1, 2017A project’s total costs combines direct costs and indirect costs. Therefore, the curve of total costs versus duration involves adding the cost amounts of direct and indirect costs curves.Remember, the direct costs curve has a negative slope (direct costs increase as duration decrease) and indirect costs curve has a positive slope (indirect costs decrease as duration decreases).So, the slope of the total costs curves at any point depends whether the slope of direct costs curve less than that of indirect cost curve.
301How does accelerating a project work April 1, 2017The duration of the project is equal to the duration of the critical path .Thus to shorten the duration of the entire project ,shorten the duration of the critical path.The cost will vary depending upon which activity duration decreased.Usually, select the activity with least shortening costs. (lowest additional cost per day of shortening) to minimize the additional costs of shortening
302Reducing Project Duration April 1, 2017- As the critical path of the network decreased, some non-critical activities lose some amount of their total float.ABCDF
303April 1, 2017-Thus, the extent to which an activity can be shortened and still has the effect of shortening the project is limited by the amount of total float exists in the parallel activities.ABCDF
304April 1, 2017-As the projects duration decreases, the number of critical paths through the network increases.ABCDF
305April 1, 2017-If more than one critical path exist, it is necessary to reduce all critical paths in the network simultaneously, which becomes expensive.ABCDF
306Four Different Solutions for Each Network April 1, 2017The schedule can be viewed in several different ways in order to satisfy the client. A client may with to perform the project in the lease cost, or in the least time. Or in any manner satisfies him.All Normal: the original network and activity duration result in all normal solution, based on each activity being performed in its “NORMAL” least cost manner.Remember, it is not necessarily the least cost or least time solution to schedule a project.
307April 1, 20172) Least Cost: considering both direct and indirect costs, it may be possible to find a project duration that minimizes these total costs. By paying more to decrease one or more critical activity (direct cost) and save greater indirect costs. (Means that the result will be total cost saving.)
308General relation of project costs to project duration April 1, 2017Total project costsProjectCostsDirect costsindirect costsProject durationGeneral relation of project costs to project duration
309April 1, 20173) Least Time: A project can be shortened beyond its least cost duration. Until a point reached where no activities in the critical path can be physically shortened regardless of how many resources are applied. (results in higher costs)4) All crash: in this solution, every activity has been shortened as much as physically possible. Its duration the same as the least time solution, but its costs greater. Because the direct cost increases without further reductions in the indirect costs.A fully crashed schedule occurs when all activities shortened to their shortest possible duration
310April 1, 2017All crashIt is not an efficient approach since some non-critical activities will be shortened without having any shortening influence on the project duration.
311Logically reducing Project Duration April 1, 2017The logical approach is to shorten those activities that contribute to reduce the project duration.To begin the time-cost trade-off in a rational manner, basic calculations needed.First compute the early start and early finish times for each activity
312ExampleApril 1, 2017Reducing Project Duration to shortest possible durationBEH4272931316716991244162323ACFJL211126397916518235231221189161621222328284DGK23958123163205712133720194423ESDur.LSEFFFTFLF
313By computing the link lag values between activities. April 1, 2017By computing the link lag values between activities.(Lag = ESB – EFA). It is logical that there is at least one path between the first activity and last activity where lag values are 0.These activities forming the critical path. (other solution can be derived by computing TF).In the previous network. Activity A,B,F,H and L forming the critical path.
314The following table shows information about activities. April 1, 2017To shorten the project’s duration it is essential to shorten on of the critical activities. A or B or F or H or L.Without shortening the project will end after 28 days with a cost of 5300 $.This is the normal duration cost. And any decrease in duration will increase the direct cost.The following table shows information about activities.
316Identifying activities for 1st compression cycle April 1, 2017LHFBAActivity350$250$150$200$-Cost/dayF : Least cost activity to shorten
317E.g. Shortening F for 2 days costs 150 x 2 = 300 $. April 1, 2017From the previous table, it can be noticed that activity F has the least incremental shortening cost. ( 150 $ per day).E.g. Shortening F for 2 days costs 150 x 2 = 300 $.Bear in mind, activities for shortening selected based on cost per day. Not on cycle cost basis.
318How many days activity F could be shortened? April 1, 2017How many days activity F could be shortened?The answer in computing the Network Interaction Limit (NIL).So, reducing activity F by 2 days will affect the link lag values of the succeeding activities and TF of parallel activities
321Summary of the first compression cycle April 1, 2017Summary of the first compression cycleCycle#Activity to shortenCan be shortenedNILDays shortenedCost per dayCost per cycleTotal costProject duration--5300281F23150 $300 $560026
322Identifying activities for 2nd compression cycle April 1, 2017LHFBAActivity350$250$-200$Cost/dayB : Least cost activity to shorten
325Summary of the 2nd compression cycle April 1, 2017Cycle#Activity to shortenCan be shortenedNILDays shortenedCost per dayCost per cycleTotal costProject duration--5300281F23150 $300 $560026B200580025
326Identifying activities for 3rd compression cycle April 1, 2017LHFB,CAActivity350$250$-300$Cost/dayH : Least cost activity to shorten
329Summary of the 3rd compression cycle April 1, 2017Summary of the 3rd compression cycleCycle#Activity to shortenCan be shortenedNILDays shortenedCost per dayCost per cycleTotal costProject duration--5300281F23150 $300 $560026B200580025H250605024
330Identifying activities for 4th compression cycle April 1, 2017LHFB,CAActivity350$-300$Cost/dayB,C : Least cost activities to shorten
333Summary of the 4th compression cycle April 1, 2017Cycle#Activity to shortenCan be shortenedNILDays shortenedCost per dayCost per cycleTotal costProject duration--5300281F23150 $300 $560026B200580025H2506050244B,C300600665022
334Identifying activities for 5th compression cycle April 1, 2017LHFB,CAActivity350$-Cost/dayL : Least cost activity to shorten
337∞ Summary of the 5th compression cycle Cycle # NIL Cost per day April 1, 2017Cycle#Activity to shortenCan be shortenedNILDays shortenedCost per dayCost per cycleTotal costProject duration--5300281F23150 $300 $560026B200580025H2506050244B,C3006006650225L∞350700021
338Identifying activities for 6th compression cycle April 1, 2017LHFB,CAActivity-Cost/dayNO Crashing
339ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Reports and presentations9
340INTRODUCTIONApril 1, 2017Without a doubt, good communication is an essential component of the successful management effort. This means conveying the right information to the right party at the right time and in the right form.
341Characteristics of good communication April 1, 20171- clarityThe information must be clear to the receiving party.2- simplicityHelps improve understanding. Butting information in briefed sentence/s using a simple language .
3424- preciseness and relevance to the subject April 1, 20173- AccuracyProfessional communications must be accurate, objective, and up to date.4- preciseness and relevance to the subjectProviding too much or irrelevant information May be confusing and counterproductive. (example: LDS)5- legibilityPeople whose handwriting illegible or difficult to read, should type their communications using the computer.
343Pictures, tables, charts, statistics, etc. April 1, 20176- proper support toolsPictures, tables, charts, statistics, etc.They are more helpful and unilingual.7- proper level of detailThe communicator must balance the amount of information in an intelligent way.8- good organization and formalitysorting and organizing the info. to make it easy for the viewer to read, follow and retrieve.Formality means following the company’s procedures, including the use of standard forms.
3449- Retrievable and transformable April 1, 20179- Retrievable and transformableRetrieving info. for live (current) projects may be performed easily by Using the computer commands.The ability to convert and open electronic files and to read the info is extremely important ,so using unknown software should be prohibited .10- Conformance to industry standardsUsing common language when determining specifications and standards such as ISO,IAI.
345Reports and Presentations April 1, 2017-Both are types of communications that aim at conveying information-Report should be clear and complete because its printed materials are the only vehicle for conveying information between the person preparing the report and the person receiving it.- Presentations focus on speakers’ persuasive skills, And the speaker focuses on certain points using oral, visual and written (or printed) tools. Audiences have the opportunity to ask for explanation any point unclear to them.
346Types of presentations April 1, 20171- contract candidate presentationsThe main focus of this presentation is to convince the owner (or the decision maker) that the presenter not only can do the job but also can do it better than other candidates, Answering the owner’s question “ why should I hire you?”2- sales and demonstration presentationsa presentation to demonstrate a product given by a representative of a manufacturing or vendor.
3473- project status presentations April 1, 20173- project status presentationsa presentation to upper management about a particular project and its status given by the PM or a team member.4- management presentationsa presentation conducted by the management of a company to its staff to inform them about a new work plan, a new system, a new organization, or something else.
348Presenter’s skills for good presentation April 1, 20171- Focus on the client’s needsPresenting the product or service in the best way that serves the client /audience.2- honestythe presenter should be honest and objective at all times, especially with regard to facts and numbers.
349ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 20175- eye contactThe presenter should speak to the audience not to himself or to his notes.6- body languageBody language and hand and arm gestures are important.8- Manage time wiselyPresentations almost always have time limits. Besides, human beings have limited attention span.9- have a backup plan
350The power of presentation April 1, 2017To create a good report we should ask ourselves the following questions:1- does the report include all the informationthe report user needs?2- does the report include any un needed information ?3- is the information clear and well organized?
3514- is the information presented in the required format? April 1, 20174- is the information presented in the required format?5- can the look of the report be enhanced ?Remember:1)Computer is still a tool .2)There is no “one size fits all” .
352The power of presentation April 1, 2017Any report (text or graphic) should contain the following information:1- the name, the address and the logo of the company and department or division.2- the name of the person preparing the report and supervisor’s approval (if needed).3- the name and the location of the project.
3534- date 5- title of the report 6- attachments if any. April 1, 20174- date5- title of the report6- attachments if any.7- page numbering.8- legends.9- definitions of terms, acronyms and abbreviations that may not be known.
354printing reportsApril 1, 2017After reviewing the final form of the report and before printing it consider the following :make sure that only the needed activities and information are included .margins may be slightly reduced to allow more information per page.
355use the “fit to one page” function in the Print menu. April 1, 2017use the “fit to one page” function in the Print menu.in limited cases you may print o both sides of the paper.using a smaller or a different (narrower) font may help.many reports may remain in electronic form and need not be printed.The scheduler must relate the schedule information to the project manager not only as computer-generated colorful charts ,but in clear language as well.
356SUMMARY REPORTS Summary report should contain : April 1, 2017Summary report should contain :The overall situation of the project.The preceding information as compared with that in the last update.The new critical path, if it changed.Cost information (if applicable).
357No unnecessary details. April 1, 2017Any other information that may help the project manager identify trouble spots or makeup for any lost time.No unnecessary details.The summary report should not exceed one page.It should be written in the form of a memorandum.
358April 1, 2017Scheduling as Part of the Project Management Effort10
359Project manager teamApril 1, 2017The project manager team consist of: (for large project)assistant PMproject superintendentproject engineerschedulerestimatorsafety managerprocurement manageraccountant
360Management team technical skills managerial skills field personal April 1, 2017field personaloffice personalit may include teams member who are dedicated exclusively to particular project and others who are assigned to project part time or serve on the project for only temporary period .managing project requires several skills as:technical skillsmanagerial skills
361Scheduling and Estimating April 1, 2017Scheduling and estimating are related and their relationships is probably one of the most important relationships in project managementThese two areas intersected in many ways such as the following eight:1)the estimator need to know how long the project will last in order to estimate certain cost , particularly overhead2) Scheduling and Estimating department collaborate to provide information to the procurement department3) The scheduler estimate the duration of activities with help from the estimating department4)Many schedules are cost loaded . The cost must be imported from the cost estimate
3625) Earned value management April 1, 20175) Earned value management6) progress payment depend on the schedule of value and the percent complete7) resource allocation and resource leveling may be cost related ,although they are scheduling issues8)schedule compression always involves a balance between cost and time
363Construction project involved from many parties April 1, 20171- General contractor.2- owner.3- architect (engineer).4- subcontractors.5- government.6- vendors.
364In order to schedule a project there are two approaches April 1, 20171- build a master schedule that includes several sub schedule .2- include all activities in one schedule and assign a responsibility code for each contracting party.
365Time contingency and management options April 1, 2017The scheduler or project manager must include a time contingency representing the non work days.This time contingency includes two types of non work days.1- known dates such as a holidays and planned shut down days.2-Unknown dates.
366Scheduling and change orders April 1, 2017The contractor must then implement the CO in the estimating, scheduling, accounting, and other tracking systems.
367Procurement Management April 1, 2017Procurement is the process of acquiring materials , equipment , and services from external sources for use in a project .Procurement is a process that usually starts long before the start of the construction process and ends with project completion or project closeout .
3682-To purchase the materials called for in the contract. April 1, 2017The two objectives of procurement, from the general contractor’s viewpoint, are as follow:1- To hire the subcontractor who will actually erect and assemble the project.2-To purchase the materials called for in the contract.
370April 1, 2017DefinitionA simple diagram to show location and time at which a certain crew will be working on a given operation.
371Characteristics Shows repetitive nature of the construction. April 1, 2017Shows repetitive nature of the construction.Progression of work can be seen easily.Sequence of different work activities can be easily understood .Have fairly high level of detail.Can be developed and prepared in a shorter time period than other formats.
372Advantages of LSMApril 1, 2017Provides more information concerning the planned method of const. than a bar chart.In certain types of projects, LSM offers some advantages over the network approach.
373Line of Balance Technique April 1, 2017LSM has relationships to the line of balance (LOB) technique, developed by US. Navy in the early 1950s.First applied to industrial manufacturing and production control.
374Three diagrams are used in LOB April 1, 20171. Production DiagramShows the relationships of the assembly operations for a single unit. Similar to AOA, except that it shows only one unit of production.2. Objective DiagramUsed to plot the planned or actual number of units produced vs. time. LSM diagram resembles this diagram.3. Progress DiagramShows the number of units for which each of the subassembly operations has been completed.
375Difference between Objective Diagram and LSM April 1, 2017O.D. is used to schedule or record the cumulative events of unit completion.LSM is used to plan or record progress on multiple activities that are moving continuously in sequence along the length of a single project.
376Implementation of LSMApril 1, 2017Can be used for continuous activities rather than discrete activities.Transportation projects; highway const., highway resurfacing and maintenance, airport runway const. and resurfacing, tunnels, mass transit systems, pipelines, railroads.High-rise building construction.Repetitive building units.
377Elements of the LSM Axis Parameters Location Measure of progress. April 1, 2017Axis ParametersLocationMeasure of progress.In high-rises and housing const., measures may be stories, floors, subdivisions, apartments, housing units.In Transportation projects, distance (ft. or mile can be used, but division by stations (100ft.) is common) is general.
378TimeApril 1, 2017Hours, days, week, or month - depends on the total project time and level of detail desired in the schedule.Preferable to prepare the schedule based on working days and convert to calendar days only at the end.
379Activity Production Rates April 1, 2017Obtained by the usual estimating methods as a function of the activity, equip. characteristics, labor, and job conditions.The initial rate should be associated with the min. direct cost of accomplishing the single activity.
380Activity Interruption and Restraint April 1, 2017Prod. rate may vary with locations or time periods.Progress may be interrupted intentionally and restraints may occur between activities due to limited equip. or crews.
381BuffersApril 1, 2017When const. activities progress continuously in a chain, some spacing between activities is required.This spacing serves as a buffer and may require distance or time interval between activities.
382Activity IntervalsApril 1, 2017Used to describe the period of time between the start and finish of an activity at a particular location.Intervals can be indicated by a broad line, two narrow lines, etc.Monitoring Progress.Working calendar can be marked with a moving symbol or a line, tape, etc.vertically across the diagram.Progress on individual activities would be marked by location rather than time.
383Project Time Optimization April 1, 2017The total project time may be such that indirect costs and liquidated damages assessed are more costly than the expense of accelerating certain activities.Cost-duration analysis can be used to minimize the total cost, as follows :Identify all activities that can be accelerated or decelerated.Among the above, consider only those that are at a buffer limitation at both the start and the finish of the activity.
384April 1, 2017Of these, select the one activity with the lowest cost slope associated with acceleration (or deceleration).Accelerate (or deceleration) the activity rate of production the maximum feasible amount.Repeat the above steps successively until the optimum project cost and associated duration are obtained.
385April 1, 2017Discrete ActivitiesDiscrete are best scheduled by other methods. Once the duration is determined by network analysis, it can be scheduled on the LSM diagram and coordinated with the linear activities.Seasonal AdjustmentsWhen developing LSM, appropriate adjustments can be made for seasonal effect on construction
386Project Progress and Resource Management April 1, 2017Project Progress and Resource ManagementProject progress is often estimated by the S-curve with bar chart development.In LSM, the determination of activity progress is facilitated and made more rigorous.
392DEFINITIONSApril 1, 2017Delay: An event or a condition that results in finishing the project later than stipulated in the contract .Claim: a request from one contracting party to another party for additional compensation ,a time extension , or both .Note:a claim is not always a negative action ,nor does it automatically indicate a confrontation .
393Delay claims and change order April 1, 2017A CO may be initiated at the request of the Owner ,Contractor , Sub-Contractor.They must submit a request for quotation (RFQ) to initiate their CO , And this request could be an owner decision or a “what if ” inquiry , the quotation may includes a cost estimate and the impact on the schedule .
394April 1, 2017To minimize the number of CO’s Owners should define the scope of the project and select a competent designer .Many projects suffer from scope-creep syndrome , in which CO’s keep adding to the project budget and put it at levels far beyond what the owner originally planned.
395Reasons for delay claims April 1, 20171- Differing site conditions2- design errors or omissions3- changes in Owner’s Requirements4- Unusually adverse weather5- Miscellaneous factors6- Force Majeure
396Changes in owner’s requirements April 1, 2017May constitute a change in the contract and provide a foundation for Cos. Owners are always encouraged to know exactly what the want within their budgetary limits.
397Force Majeure (superior force) April 1, 2017In the context of construction projects, this term usually involves three important elements :1- Something that is superior, overwhelming, or overpowering (i.e, can not be prevented)2- Something that is unexpected or cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled.3- Something that has a destructive or disruptive effect on the construction process.
3981- Excusable delay. 2- Non excusable delay. 3- Concurrent delays. Types of delays resulting in claimsApril 1, 20171- Excusable delay. 2- Non excusable delay. 3- Concurrent delays.
399Delay claims prevention April 1, 20171- Baseline schedules that don’t show logic baseline schedule with dates rather than logic.3- Overuse of constrains Erasing footprints.5- unrealistic baseline schedule schedule with logic errors skipping periodic updates.8- lack of proper documentation lack of a reasonable time contingency.
400Communication and documentation Communication April 1, 2017Communicationmeans conveying information from one party to other parties across the organizationDocumentationmeans saving the information in an organized manner for possible future retrieval.
401Communications and documentation must both contain: April 1, 2017Communications and documentation must both contain:Clear information.Provide the proper a mount oh details.Be stored efficiently, so that the information can be retrieved easily .
402ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT We must document these informationApril 1, 20171- The project baseline schedule that the owner accepted2- Periodic schedule updates3- Change orders4- Job diary5- Correspondence with the home office6- Submittal records, such as shop drawings and material samples.
4037- Records of any transmittals 8- Meeting minutes April 1, 20177- Records of any transmittals8- Meeting minutes9- Procurement records10- Government records11- Records of payment12- Project manager’s daily log
404Logbook should include daily information such as the following : April 1, 2017Logbook should include daily information such as the following :Weather condition: temperature, wind.Work performance during that day.The number of workers on-site.Equipment on-site and its condition.Any accidents that occurred on-site
405Methods of resolving claims April 1, 2017NegotiationThe most direct method for resolving any type of construction claim.Requires certain skills that reduce the gap between the negotiation parties.The objective: is to reach a solution that might be acceptable to both parties.
406The mediator may be an individual or a team. April 1, 2017MediationWhen negotiation does not work, either because of lack of trust or a lack of skills, mediation may be an option.The mediator may be an individual or a team.Dispute review boardsThe owner and the contractor select an independent neutral panel with construction experience when the contract is signed .Rather than waiting until the end of project to settle claims, (DRBs) resolve disputes as they arise.
407ArbitrationIt is usually a formal process performed by an independent professional arbitrator.Arbitration is voluntary.Arbitration does not require the use of lawyersLitigationWhen none of the previous work and parties can not reach a settlement, the complaining party uses the other party in a court of law.Construction litigation is usually complicated lengthy, and expensive.April 1, 2017
408Method of Schedule Analysis April 1, 2017As- build scheduleAs – planned scheduleComparison scheduleAccelerated scheduleRecovery schedule
409As-Built ScheduleApril 1, 2017The as-built schedule should reflect what actually happened in the filed.Activities are plotted by their real start and real finish , disregarding any logicContain real budget and real resources
410As – planned scheduleApril 1, 2017The as-planned schedule describes the manners in which the contractor in tended to built the project.
411Comparison schedule revised to incorporate any claimed delays . April 1, 2017revised to incorporate any claimed delays .for delay claim the contractor submits two schedules.without the causative factorswith the causative factors
412Accelerated schedule Submitted by the contractor. April 1, 2017Submitted by the contractor.The project can finish by the contractor finish date.
413Safety & Health Management April 1, 2017Safety & Health Management
414ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT IntroductionApril 1, 2017One of the most important factors that should be taken in consideration in the site, (from engineering point view), is the safety and health management. Safety and health management; is considered as a progress measure of the engineering and construction companies.
415Safety: The condition or state of being safe; freedom from danger or hazard; exemption from hurt, injury, or loss.April 1, 2017
416April 1, 2017Hazard: A condition with the potential of causing or contributing to an accident or illness.
417ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Spilled oil
418ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Rope is about to drop
419ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Uncovered hole
420ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Not wearing helmets
422ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Without Comment
423Rules in construction area under safety outline: April 1, 2017Rules in construction area under safety outline:1) knowing hazards and how to avoid them. this mean know Construction Activity / Corresponding Hazard Identification and activity classification with respect to hazard as shown in the following table .
424• Heavy Equipment Operation -Class II • Material Handling -Class II April 1, 2017• Heavy Equipment Operation -Class II• Material Handling -Class II• Temporary & Permanent Electricity -Class III• Cranes & Critical Lifts -Class III• Slings & Lifting Gear -Class III• Welding, Cutting & Brazing -Class III• Hand/Power Tools -Class II• Sanitation & Housekeeping -Class I• Scaffolding/Ladders -Class III• Manholes Excavations, Pits, Trenching & Shoring -Class III• Camp, Site Office & Lay down Yard -Class II• Over head Obstruction -Class III• Road Construction & Re-routing of Existing Roads -Class I• Concrete, Concrete Forms & Shoring -Class I• Sandblasting -Class II• Thrust Boring -Class I• Hot Taps Class I• Personal Safety -Class I• Paints & Coatings -Class I• Piling Operations -Class II• Demolition -Class III• Mechanical Equipment -Class II• Chemical Class III• Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) -Class III• Fuel -Class III• Site Operations & Hydrocarbon -Class III
425Rules in construction area under safety outline: (cont.) April 1, 20172) use Personal Protective Equipments (PPE).
426Rules in construction area under safety outline: (cont.) April 1, 20173) how to deal with emergency situations and what are the proper steps.
427Rules in construction area under safety outline: (cont.) April 1, 20174) follow the instructions carefully.
428Occupational Safety & Health Administration ENGINEERING MANAGEMENTOccupational Safety & Health AdministrationApril 1, 2017An organization that interests in achieving and applying safety factors in the construction field. It deals with the identification and control of environmental and personal hazards in the work place.
429OBJECTIVE OF S&H MANAGEMENT April 1, 2017Minimize losses – Avoid injuries – Avoid OSHA fines – Avoid litigation Development and implementation of S&H program is key to good management
430ELEMENTS OF S&H PROGRAMS ENGINEERING MANAGEMENTELEMENTS OF S&H PROGRAMSApril 1, 2017Top management commitmentGoal setting and planningOrganization & administrationProject safety rulesSubstance abuse programEmergency managementSafety orientation & trainingAccident investigation & recordkeepingSafety budgetSafety in contractsSafety program evaluationTQM integration.Top management commitmentGoal setting and planningOrganization & administrationProject safety rulesSubstance abuse programEmergency managementSafety orientation & trainingAccident investigation & recordkeepingSafety budgetSafety in contractsSafety program evaluationTQM integration.
431UNIQUE FACTORS IN CONSTRUCTION AFFECTING S&H April 1, 2017Large but diverse and fragmented industryevery job is unique with numerous complex tasksLabour intensive work involving large forcesTransient workforce which is difficult to train.Complex contractual arrangements leading to multi-employer projects
432HOW SAFETY SAVES MONEY Economic impacts April 1, 2017HOW SAFETY SAVES MONEYEconomic impactsDirect and indirect accident costsWorkers compensation and EMRAccident cost accounting
433ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF S&H April 1, 2017ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF S&HMyth: There is a trade-off between safetyand cost and productivityTruth: Safety saves money
434COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH S&H April 1, 2017Direct (insured) costs of accidents, injuries and illnessesB. Indirect (hidden) costs – uninsuredC. Costs associated with company s&h programs-Resource allocations for:Safety director/coordinatorEquipment and suppliesTime (meetings, inspections, etc.)
435DIRECT COSTS Workers compensation insurance premiums April 1, 2017Workers compensation insurance premiumspaid by contractor (mainly for medical bills)Liability insurance costsProperty related insurance costs.
436INDIRECT (HIDDEN) COSTS April 1, 2017Transportation for first aid/medical treatmentDelays resulting from accidentWages paid to injured worker for time not workedLoss of crew efficiencyTraining new/substitute worker.Clean-up, equip. repair, stand-byRescheduling workPost accident extra safety supervisionOSHA and civil finesLegal feesCost of administrative time for investigations andreports.
437ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT BASIC AIM OF THE OSHAApril 1, 2017To ensure, so far as possible, every working person safe and healthful conditions in the workplace, which must be free from recognizedhazards likely to cause death or serious physicalharm.Applicable to all employers– Records of illness/injury must be kept byemployers with more than ten employees.– Not applicable to self-employed and workplaces covered by other federal agencies
438SUMMARY Accidents can be tragic and costly. April 1, 2017Accidents can be tragic and costly.Safety and health programs prevent injuries and fatalities, and save moneyEffective program organization and implementation will help achieve OSHA compliance and lead to success at corporate and project levels.
439April 1, 2017remember If it is unsafe, just don’t do it... If it is dangerous, always avoid it for all we know Safety is everyone‘s responsibility