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US History I Final Exam Review 10 Bleeding Kansas began when Border Ruffians raided the anti-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas. 10 Compromise of 1850 legislation.

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Presentation on theme: "US History I Final Exam Review 10 Bleeding Kansas began when Border Ruffians raided the anti-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas. 10 Compromise of 1850 legislation."— Presentation transcript:

1 US History I Final Exam Review 10 Bleeding Kansas began when Border Ruffians raided the anti-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas. 10 Compromise of 1850 legislation that called for concessions by both the North and the South and included a strict new fugitive slave law 10 CSA Confederate States of America- group of seven southern states that seceded from the Union 10 Dred ScottMissouri slave who sued to obtain his freedom 10 Fort Sumterplace where Confederate troops opened fire on Union troops 10 Free Soil Party won 10 percent of the vote in the election of Fugitive Slave Act law governing runaway slaves

2 1010 Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin that spread anti-slavery sentiment in the North Harriet Tubman Maryland-born slave known as Moses 1010 Jefferson Davischosen as President of the Confederate States of America 1010 John BrownNew York abolitionist who used violence to accomplish his goals 1010 John Brown attacked the arsenal at Harpers Ferry in the hope of starting a revolution and ending slavery 1010 Kansas- Nebraska Act bill passed by Congress in 1854 that led to violence 1010 Know- Nothings became the American Party 1010 popular sovereignt y policy allowing voters to decide whether to permit or outlaw slavery 1010 Republican Party party formed in 1854 that opposed slavery 1010 Roger B. TaneySupreme Court Chief Justice who wrote the Dred Scott decision

3 1010 Stephen Douglas He believed each territory should decide the issue of slavery for itself. 1 blockade preventing merchant vessels with trade goods from entering or leaving ports 1 Robert E. Lee military leader from Virginia who left the Union army to command the southern army 1 Anaconda Plan a Union military plan for defeating the South by dividing the Confederacy in two 1 border states 4 states that bordered Southern states, allowed slavery but did not join the Confederacy 1 Stonewall Jackson Confederate military hero who refused to yield to the Union army at Bull Run 1 George B. McClella n second leader of the Union army 1 Ulysses S. Grant successful Union general who eventually became the leader of the Union army 1 Shiloh tragic battle in Tennessee that shocked both North and South by the horrors of the war 1 contrabandcaptured war supplies

4 1 Antietamthe bloodiest battle in a single day of the Civil War 1 Emancipation Proclamat ion freed all enslaved people living in the states of the rebellion 1 Militia Actmandated that black soldiers be accepted into the military 1 54th Mass. Reg't. all black regiment from Massachussetts known for its bravery 1 income taxtax based on individuals earnings to help pay for the war 1 bond a certificate bought from the government that promises to pay back the purchase amount plus interest 1 Homestead Act made western land available at low cost to those who would farm the land 1 conscriptiondrafting men to fight in a war 1 Copperheadnorthern Democrats who opposed the war 1 habeas corpus prevents a person from being held in jail without being charged of a specific crime

5 1 inflationwhen prices of common items soar 1 Clara Barton gained approval for nursing Civil War soldiers as part of the official military effort and later founded the American Red Cross 1 siege a military tactic in which an army surrounds, bombards, and cuts off all supplies to an enemy position to make the enemy surrender 1 Vicksburgsouthern city on the Mississippi River essential for the Union to control 1 Gettysburg site in Pennsylvania of three-day bloody battle between the Confederacy and the Union 1 George Pickett leader of the Souths bloody assault on the Union-held Cemetery Ridge at Gettysburg 1 Gettysburg Address speech given by Lincoln to honor the many dead in the battle of Gettysburg and an enduring statement of U.S. values and goals 1 total war Grants policy of fighting which involved striking civilian as well as military targets 1 William Tecumseh Sherman Union general, practiced total war as he marched through and conquered Georgia 1 Thirteenth Amendme nt amends the Constitution to outlaw slavery in the United States

6 1 John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln 1 Mathew Bradyphotographer who documented the horrors of war with his pictures of Civil War battles 1 Land Grant College Act gave money from sale of public lands to states to establish universities that taught agriculture and mechanical arts 1212 Radical Republican a member of Congress who believed Confederates slavery and secession were criminal and should be punished 1212 Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equality under the law for all citizens 1212 Reconstruction program implemented by the federal government between 1865 and 1877 to repair damage to the South caused by the Civil War and restore the southern states to the Union 1212 Civil Rights Act of 1866 passed to overturn black codes; vetoed by President Johnson 1212 Wade-Davis Bill 1864 congressional proposal to allow Confederate states to rejoin the Union by demanding a guarantee of black equality; vetoed by Lincoln 1212 Fifteenth Amendment forbids any state to deny the right to vote on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude 1212 impeach an action Congress takes by charging the President with wrongdoing and putting him on trial to see whether he should be removed from office

7 1212 Freedmens Bureau organization that provided food, clothing, healthcare, and education for black and white refugees in the South 1212 black codelaw passed in southern states restricting the freedoms of African Americans 1212 Andrew Johnson Lincolns Vice President; became President after Lincolns assassination 1212 Enforcement Acts 1870 and 1871 laws that made it a federal offense to interfere with a citizens right to vote 1212 segregationseparation of the races 1212 sharecropping a system in which a landowner determined the crop and provided a worker with a place to live, seeds, tools, and a share of the harvest 1212 scalawag a negative term for a southern white man who was invited to join the Republican Party after the war 1212 tenant farming a system in which a tenant paid cash rent to the landowner and was free to choose and manage his own crop 1212 share-tenancy similar to sharecropping, but the worker decided the crop and bought his own supplies 1212 integrationcombination of the races

8 1212 carpetbagger a negative term for a northern white or black man who relocated to the South after the war 1212 Ku Klux Klan secret organization founded during Reconstruction whose aim was to terrorize African Americans 1212 Rutherford B. Hayes became President through the contested election of Redeemersouthern, white Democrat who returned to power after Compromise of 1877 resolved the contested presidential election of 1876 by giving Hayes the presidency in return for withdrawing the remaining federal troops from the South 1313 entrepreneurpeople who invest money in a product or enterprise in order to make a profit 1313 protective tarifftaxes that would make imported goods cost more than those made locally 1313 laissez faire a policy which allowed businesses to operate under minimal government regulation 1313 patent a grant by the federal government giving an inventor the exclusive right to develop, use, and sell an invention for a set period of time 1313 Thomas Edison an inventor and creative genius who received more than 1,000 patents for new inventions

9 1313 Bessemer process a process for purifying iron resulting in strong, but lightweight, steel 1313 suspension bridge bridges in which the roadway is suspended by steel cables 1313 time zonetwenty-four zones around the world, one for each hour of the day 1313 mass production systems that depended on machinery to turn out large numbers of products quickly and inexpensively 1313 corporation a form of group ownership in which a number of people share the ownership of a business 1313 monopolycomplete control of a product or service 1313 cartel an arrangement in which businesses making the same product agree to limit production to keep prices high 1313 John D. Rockefelle r an oil tycoon who made deals with railroads to increase his profits 1313 horizontal integration a system of consolidating many firms in the same business to lower production costs 1313 trust a situation in which companies assign their stock to a board of trustees, who combine them into a new organization

10 1313 Andrew Carnegie a steel tycoon who used vertical integration to increase his power 1313 vertical integration the practice of gaining control of many different businesses that make up all phases of a products development 1313 Social Darwinism an application of Charles Darwins work which held that wealth was a measure of ones inherent value and those who had it were the most fit 1313 ICC the Interstate Commerce Commission, a government body set up to oversee railroad operations 1313 Sherman Antitrust Act a bill passed in 1890 which outlawed any trust that operated in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states 1313 sweatshopsmall, hot, dark, and dirty workhouses 1313 company town communities near workplaces where housing was owned by the business and rented out to employees 1313 collective bargaining negotiating as a group for higher wages or better working conditions 1313 socialism an economic and political philosophy that favors public, instead of private, control of property and income 1313 Knights of Labor a labor union that included workers of any trade, skilled or unskilled

11 1313 Terence V. Powderly the leader of the Knights of Labor beginning in 1881 who encouraged boycotts and negotiations with employers 1313 Samuel Gompers a poor English immigrant who formed the AFL, a skilled workers union, in AFL American Federation of Labor, a loose organization of skilled workers from many unions devoted to specific crafts or trades 1313 Haymarket Riot a labor protest in Chicago in 1886 that ended in dozens of deaths when someone threw a bomb 1313 Homestead Strike an 1892 Pennsylvania steelworkers strike that resulted in violence between company police and strikers 1313 Eugene V. Debs leader of the American Railway Union who eventually became a Socialist 1313 Pullman Strike a nationwide strike in 1894 of rail workers that halted railroads and mail delivery 1414 Ellis Island island in New York Harbor that served as an immigration station for millions of immigrants arriving to the United States 1414 Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 law that prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers 1414 Americanizatio n belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens

12 1414 new immigrant Southern and Eastern European immigrant who arrived in the United States in a great wave between 1880 and melting pot society in which people of different nationalities assimilate to form one culture 1414 Angel Islandimmigrant processing station that opened in San Francisco Bay in steerage third-class accommodations on a steamship, which were usually overcrowded and dirty 1414 nativismbelief that native-born white Americans are superior to newcomers 1414 suburbresidential area surrounding a city 1414 Frederick Law Olmsted a landscape engineer who designed Central Park in New York City, and parks in other major U.S. cities 1414 urbanization expansion of cities accompanied by an increase in the number of people living in them 1414 mass transitpublic transportation systems that carry large numbers of people 1414 skyscrapervery tall building built with modern materials like steel

13 1414 rural-to-urban migrant a person who moves from an agricultural area to a city 1414 tenement multistory building divided into apartments to squeeze in as many families as possible 1414 Elisha Otisdeveloper of a safety elevator that made skyscrapers more practical 1414 vaudeville type of show, including dancing, singing, and comedy sketches, that became popular in the late 19th century 1414 Mark Twaina satirical novelist who wrote about American life in the late 1800s 1414 William Randolph Hearst a competitor of Pulitzers who also published sensationalistic newspapers 1414 Horatio Algera novelist who wrote about characters who succeeded through hard work 1414 conspicuous consumeris m purchasing of goods and services to impress others 1414 mass culture similar consumption patterns as a result of the spread of transportation, communication, and advertising 1414 Joseph Pulitzeran immigrant who became a publisher of sensationalistic newspapers

14 1414 Gilded Age term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction era which was characterized by a façade of prosperity 1515 cash crop crop such as cotton and tobacco that is grown not for its own use but to be sold for cash 1515 Farmers Alliance network of farmers organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s 1515 Civil Rights Act of 1875 law that banned discrimination in public facilities and transportation 1515 assimilateto adopt the culture and civilization of the dominant group in a society 1515 Sitting BullSioux chief respected as a fighter and spiritual leader 1515 Chief Joseph leader of the Nez Percés who surrendered after trying to lead a group of Indian refugees to Canada 1515 reservationspecific area set aside by the federal government for the Indians use 1515 Battle of the Little Big Horn 1876 battle in which the Sioux defeated U.S. troops led by Colonel George Custer 1515 Dawes General Allotment Act 1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots

15 1515 Sand Creek Massacre 1864 incident in which Colorado militia killed a camp of unarmed Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians 1515 Wounded Knee 1890 confrontation between U.S. cavalry and the Sioux that marked the end of Indian resistance in the Ghost Dance War 1515 Homestead Act 1862 law in which the government offered farm plots of 160 acres to anyone willing to live on the land for five years, dig a well, and build a road 1515 transcontinenta l railroad rail link between the eastern and western United States 1515 vigilanteself-appointed law enforcer 1515 open-range system system in which ranchers did not fence in their property, allowing cattle to roam and graze freely 1515 land grantland given by the federal government for building railroads 1515 Exodusters African Americans who migrated from the South to the West after the Civil War 1616 Las Gorras Blancas a group of Mexican Americans who protested their loss of land by targeting the property of large ranch owners 1616 Jim Crow lawslaws that kept blacks and whites segregated

16 1616 Booker T. Washingto n famous black leader who encouraged African Americans to build up their economic resources through hard work 1616 Ida B. Wells an African American teacher who bought a newspaper and crusaded against the practice of lynching 1616 literacy test a test, given at the polls to see if a voter could read, used to disenfranchise black citizens 1616 grandfather clause a law which allowed a person to vote only if his ancestors had voted prior to 1866, also used to disenfranchise black citizens 1616 poll taxa tax which voters were required to pay to vote 1616 W.E.B. Du Bois a black leader who argued that blacks should demand full and immediate equality 1616 civil servicea system that includes federal jobs in the executive branch 1616 Pendleton Civil Service Act a law passed in 1883 that established a Civil Service Commission, which wrote a civil service exam 1616 gold standardusing gold as the basis of the nations currency 1616 spoils system a system in which politicians awarded government jobs to loyal party workers with little regard for their qualifications

17 1616 Populist Party a political party formed on a platform of silver coinage, government ownership of railroads, and fighting the corrupt elite 1616 William McKinley the Republican candidate for president in Oliver H. Kelley a Minnesota farmer and businessman who organized the Grange 1616 William Jennings Bryan the Democratic nominee for president in Grange an organization of farmers to learn about new farming methods and called for regulation railroad and grain elevator rates 1717 Jane Addamsleader in the settlement house movement 1717 muckrakers socially conscious journalists and writers who dramatized the need for reform 1717 Progressivism movement that believed honest and efficient government could bring about social justice 1717 initiativegave citizens the power to propose laws 1717 recallgave voters the power to remove legislators before their term is up

18 1717 Jacob Riis muckraking photographer and author of How The Other Half Lives, exposed the condition of the urban poor 1717 Social Gospelbelief that following Christian principles could bring about social justice 1717 settlement house community center that provided services for the urban poor 1717 Lincoln Steffens muckraking author of Shame of the Cities, exposed corruption in urban government 1717 direct primary allowed voters to select candidates rather than having them selected by party leaders 1717 referendumallowed citizens to reject or accept laws passed by their legislature 1717 Alice Paulsocial activist, led women to picket at the White House 1717 Ida B. Wellshelped to found the National Association of Colored Women 1717 temperance movement campaign to end the production, sale, and use of alcohol 1717 Florence Kelley founded the National Consumers League known as the NCL

19 1717 National Consumers League (NCL) labeled and publicized goods produced under fair, safe, and healthy working conditions 1717 Nineteenth Amendment 1919, granted women the right to vote 1717 Margaret Sangeropened the first birth control clinic 1717 NAWSANational American Woman Suffrage Association 1717 suffragethe right to vote 1717 Carrie Chapman Catt president of the NAWSA, campaigned to pass womens suffrage at both the state and national levels 1717 NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, viewed full legal rights as the only solution to racial discrimination 1717 mutualistas Mexican American groups that provided loans, legal assistance, and disability insurance for members 1717 Booker T. Washington favored a gradualist approach for blacks to earn rights through economic progress and employment in the skilled trades 1717 Urban League organization to assist working class African Americans with relief, jobs, clothing, and schools 1717 Anti-Defamation League organization to defend Jews and others from false statements, and verbal or physical attacks

20 1717 Americanizatio n effort to replace immigrant customs with white, Protestant, middle-class practices and values 1717 W.E.B. Du Bois demanded immediate and full rights for blacks as guaranteed by the Constitution 1717 Niagara Movement opposed Washingtons approach; favored education in history, literature, and philosophy, not just in the trades 1717 John Muir California naturalist who advocated for the creation of Yosemite National Park 1717 Progressive Party Roosevelts party in the 1912 election 1717 Square Deal Roosevelts program to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor 1717 Pure Food and Drug Act gave the federal government responsibility for insuring food and medicine are safe 1717 Theodore Roosevelt energetic Progressive who became the youngest president in New Nationalis m Roosevelts 1912 plan to restore the governments trust-busting power 1717 Hepburn Act gave the Interstate Commerce Committee power to limit railroad company prices

21 1717 Meat Inspection Act gave federal agents power to inspect and monitor the meatpacking industry 1717 National Reclamatio n Act gave the federal government power to decide where and how water would be distributed in arid western states 1717 Gifford Pinchotforestry official who proposed managing the forests for later public use 1717 Federal Trade Commissio n group appointed by the President to monitor business practices that might lead to a monopoly 1717 Sixteenth Amendme nt gave Congress the power to impose an income tax 1717 Woodrow Wilson Progressive Democrat elected President in Federal Reserve Act placed the national banks under the control of a Federal Reserve Board 1717 Clayton Antitrust Act strengthened anti-trust laws by spelling out specific practices in which businesses could not engage 1717 New FreedomWilsons program to place strict government controls on corporations

22 Wilmot proviso-outlaw slavery in land taken from Mexico Secede – to break away from Union Abraham Lincoln – Republican politician from Illinois, opposed Kansas – Nebraska Act


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