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US History I Final Exam Review

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1 US History I Final Exam Review
10 “Bleeding Kansas” began when Border Ruffians raided the anti-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas. Compromise of 1850 legislation that called for concessions by both the North and the South and included a strict new fugitive slave law CSA Confederate States of America- group of seven southern states that seceded from the Union Dred Scott Missouri slave who sued to obtain his freedom Fort Sumter place where Confederate troops opened fire on Union troops Free Soil Party won 10 percent of the vote in the election of 1848 Fugitive Slave Act law governing runaway slaves

2 Maryland-born slave known as “Moses” Jefferson Davis
10 Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin that spread anti-slavery sentiment in the North. Harriet Tubman Maryland-born slave known as “Moses” Jefferson Davis chosen as President of the Confederate States of America John Brown New York abolitionist who used violence to accomplish his goals attacked the arsenal at Harpers Ferry in the hope of starting a revolution and ending slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act bill passed by Congress in 1854 that led to violence Know-Nothings became the American Party popular sovereignty policy allowing voters to decide whether to permit or outlaw slavery Republican Party party formed in 1854 that opposed slavery Roger B. Taney Supreme Court Chief Justice who wrote the Dred Scott decision

3 second leader of the Union army
10 Stephen Douglas He believed each territory should decide the issue of slavery for itself. 11 blockade preventing merchant vessels with trade goods from entering or leaving ports Robert E. Lee military leader from Virginia who left the Union army to command the southern army Anaconda Plan a Union military plan for defeating the South by dividing the Confederacy in two border states 4 states that bordered Southern states, allowed slavery but did not join the Confederacy Stonewall Jackson Confederate military hero who refused to yield to the Union army at Bull Run George B. McClellan second leader of the Union army Ulysses S. Grant successful Union general who eventually became the leader of the Union army Shiloh tragic battle in Tennessee that shocked both North and South by the horrors of the war contraband captured war supplies

4 the bloodiest battle in a single day of the Civil War
11 Antietam the bloodiest battle in a single day of the Civil War Emancipation Proclamation freed all enslaved people living in the states of the rebellion Militia Act mandated that black soldiers be accepted into the military 54th Mass. Reg't. all black regiment from Massachussetts known for its bravery income tax tax based on individual’s earnings to help pay for the war bond a certificate bought from the government that promises to pay back the purchase amount plus interest Homestead Act made western land available at low cost to those who would farm the land conscription drafting men to fight in a war Copperhead northern Democrats who opposed the war habeas corpus prevents a person from being held in jail without being charged of a specific crime

5 when prices of common items soar
11 inflation when prices of common items soar Clara Barton gained approval for nursing Civil War soldiers as part of the official military effort and later founded the American Red Cross siege a military tactic in which an army surrounds, bombards, and cuts off all supplies to an enemy position to make the enemy surrender Vicksburg southern city on the Mississippi River essential for the Union to control Gettysburg site in Pennsylvania of three-day bloody battle between the Confederacy and the Union George Pickett leader of the South’s bloody assault on the Union-held Cemetery Ridge at Gettysburg Gettysburg Address speech given by Lincoln to honor the many dead in the battle of Gettysburg and an enduring statement of U.S. values and goals total war Grant’s policy of fighting which involved striking civilian as well as military targets William Tecumseh Sherman Union general, practiced total war as he marched through and conquered Georgia Thirteenth Amendment amends the Constitution to outlaw slavery in the United States

6 assassinated President Lincoln Mathew Brady
11 John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln Mathew Brady photographer who documented the horrors of war with his pictures of Civil War battles Land Grant College Act gave money from sale of public lands to states to establish universities that taught agriculture and mechanical arts 12 Radical Republican a member of Congress who believed Confederates’ slavery and secession were criminal and should be punished Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equality under the law for all citizens Reconstruction program implemented by the federal government between 1865 and 1877 to repair damage to the South caused by the Civil War and restore the southern states to the Union Civil Rights Act of 1866 passed to overturn black codes; vetoed by President Johnson Wade-Davis Bill 1864 congressional proposal to allow Confederate states to rejoin the Union by demanding a guarantee of black equality; vetoed by Lincoln Fifteenth Amendment forbids any state to deny the right to vote on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude impeach an action Congress takes by charging the President with wrongdoing and putting him on trial to see whether he should be removed from office

7 separation of the races sharecropping
12 Freedmen’s Bureau organization that provided food, clothing, healthcare, and education for black and white refugees in the South black code law passed in southern states restricting the freedoms of African Americans Andrew Johnson Lincoln’s Vice President; became President after Lincoln’s assassination Enforcement Acts 1870 and 1871 laws that made it a federal offense to interfere with a citizen’s right to vote segregation separation of the races sharecropping a system in which a landowner determined the crop and provided a worker with a place to live, seeds, tools, and a share of the harvest scalawag a negative term for a southern white man who was invited to join the Republican Party after the war tenant farming a system in which a tenant paid cash rent to the landowner and was free to choose and manage his own crop share-tenancy similar to sharecropping, but the worker decided the crop and bought his own supplies integration combination of the races

8 became President through the contested election of 1876 Redeemer
12 carpetbagger a negative term for a northern white or black man who relocated to the South after the war Ku Klux Klan secret organization founded during Reconstruction whose aim was to terrorize African Americans Rutherford B. Hayes became President through the contested election of 1876 Redeemer southern, white Democrat who returned to power after 1870 Compromise of 1877 resolved the contested presidential election of 1876 by giving Hayes the presidency in return for withdrawing the remaining federal troops from the South 13 entrepreneur people who invest money in a product or enterprise in order to make a profit protective tariff taxes that would make imported goods cost more than those made locally laissez faire a policy which allowed businesses to operate under minimal government regulation patent a grant by the federal government giving an inventor the exclusive right to develop, use, and sell an invention for a set period of time Thomas Edison an inventor and creative genius who received more than 1,000 patents for new inventions

9 bridges in which the roadway is suspended by steel cables time zone
13 Bessemer process a process for purifying iron resulting in strong, but lightweight, steel suspension bridge bridges in which the roadway is suspended by steel cables time zone twenty-four zones around the world, one for each hour of the day mass production systems that depended on machinery to turn out large numbers of products quickly and inexpensively corporation a form of group ownership in which a number of people share the ownership of a business monopoly complete control of a product or service cartel an arrangement in which businesses making the same product agree to limit production to keep prices high John D. Rockefeller an oil tycoon who made deals with railroads to increase his profits horizontal integration a system of consolidating many firms in the same business to lower production costs trust a situation in which companies assign their stock to a board of trustees, who combine them into a new organization

10 a steel tycoon who used vertical integration to increase his power
13 Andrew Carnegie a steel tycoon who used vertical integration to increase his power vertical integration the practice of gaining control of many different businesses that make up all phases of a product’s development Social Darwinism an application of Charles Darwin’s work which held that wealth was a measure of one’s inherent value and those who had it were the most “fit” ICC the Interstate Commerce Commission, a government body set up to oversee railroad operations Sherman Antitrust Act a bill passed in 1890 which outlawed any trust that operated “in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states” sweatshop small, hot, dark, and dirty workhouses company town communities near workplaces where housing was owned by the business and rented out to employees collective bargaining negotiating as a group for higher wages or better working conditions socialism an economic and political philosophy that favors public, instead of private, control of property and income Knights of Labor a labor union that included workers of any trade, skilled or unskilled

11 leader of the American Railway Union who eventually became a Socialist
13 Terence V. Powderly the leader of the Knights of Labor beginning in 1881 who encouraged boycotts and negotiations with employers Samuel Gompers a poor English immigrant who formed the AFL, a skilled workers union, in 1886 AFL American Federation of Labor, a loose organization of skilled workers from many unions devoted to specific crafts or trades Haymarket Riot a labor protest in Chicago in 1886 that ended in dozens of deaths when someone threw a bomb Homestead Strike an 1892 Pennsylvania steelworkers’ strike that resulted in violence between company police and strikers Eugene V. Debs leader of the American Railway Union who eventually became a Socialist Pullman Strike a nationwide strike in 1894 of rail workers that halted railroads and mail delivery 14 Ellis Island island in New York Harbor that served as an immigration station for millions of immigrants arriving to the United States Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 law that prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers Americanization belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens

12 immigrant processing station that opened in San Francisco Bay in 1911
14 “new” immigrant Southern and Eastern European immigrant who arrived in the United States in a great wave between 1880 and 1921 “melting pot” society in which people of different nationalities assimilate to form one culture Angel Island immigrant processing station that opened in San Francisco Bay in 1911 steerage third-class accommodations on a steamship, which were usually overcrowded and dirty nativism belief that native-born white Americans are superior to newcomers suburb residential area surrounding a city Frederick Law Olmsted a landscape engineer who designed Central Park in New York City, and parks in other major U.S. cities urbanization expansion of cities accompanied by an increase in the number of people living in them mass transit public transportation systems that carry large numbers of people skyscraper very tall building built with modern materials like steel

13 rural-to-urban migrant
14 rural-to-urban migrant a person who moves from an agricultural area to a city tenement multistory building divided into apartments to squeeze in as many families as possible Elisha Otis developer of a safety elevator that made skyscrapers more practical vaudeville type of show, including dancing, singing, and comedy sketches, that became popular in the late 19th century Mark Twain a satirical novelist who wrote about American life in the late 1800s William Randolph Hearst a competitor of Pulitzer’s who also published sensationalistic newspapers Horatio Alger a novelist who wrote about characters who succeeded through hard work conspicuous consumerism purchasing of goods and services to impress others mass culture similar consumption patterns as a result of the spread of transportation, communication, and advertising Joseph Pulitzer an immigrant who became a publisher of sensationalistic newspapers

14 law that banned discrimination in public facilities and transportation
14 Gilded Age term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction era which was characterized by a façade of prosperity 15 cash crop crop such as cotton and tobacco that is grown not for its own use but to be sold for cash Farmers’ Alliance network of farmers’ organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s Civil Rights Act of 1875 law that banned discrimination in public facilities and transportation assimilate to adopt the culture and civilization of the dominant group in a society Sitting Bull Sioux chief respected as a fighter and spiritual leader Chief Joseph leader of the Nez Percés who surrendered after trying to lead a group of Indian refugees to Canada reservation specific area set aside by the federal government for the Indians’ use Battle of the Little Big Horn 1876 battle in which the Sioux defeated U.S. troops led by Colonel George Custer Dawes General Allotment Act 1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots

15 transcontinental railroad
15 Sand Creek Massacre 1864 incident in which Colorado militia killed a camp of unarmed Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians Wounded Knee 1890 confrontation between U.S. cavalry and the Sioux that marked the end of Indian resistance in the Ghost Dance War Homestead Act 1862 law in which the government offered farm plots of 160 acres to anyone willing to live on the land for five years, dig a well, and build a road transcontinental railroad rail link between the eastern and western United States vigilante self-appointed law enforcer open-range system system in which ranchers did not fence in their property, allowing cattle to roam and graze freely land grant land given by the federal government for building railroads Exodusters African Americans who migrated from the South to the West after the Civil War 16 Las Gorras Blancas a group of Mexican Americans who protested their loss of land by targeting the property of large ranch owners Jim Crow laws laws that kept blacks and whites segregated

16 a tax which voters were required to pay to vote W.E.B. Du Bois
16 Booker T. Washington famous black leader who encouraged African Americans to build up their economic resources through hard work Ida B. Wells an African American teacher who bought a newspaper and crusaded against the practice of lynching literacy test a test, given at the polls to see if a voter could read, used to disenfranchise black citizens grandfather clause a law which allowed a person to vote only if his ancestors had voted prior to 1866, also used to disenfranchise black citizens poll tax a tax which voters were required to pay to vote W.E.B. Du Bois a black leader who argued that blacks should demand full and immediate equality civil service a system that includes federal jobs in the executive branch Pendleton Civil Service Act a law passed in 1883 that established a Civil Service Commission, which wrote a civil service exam gold standard using gold as the basis of the nation’s currency spoils system a system in which politicians awarded government jobs to loyal party workers with little regard for their qualifications

17 the Republican candidate for president in 1896 Oliver H. Kelley
16 Populist Party a political party formed on a platform of silver coinage, government ownership of railroads, and fighting the corrupt elite William McKinley the Republican candidate for president in 1896 Oliver H. Kelley a Minnesota farmer and businessman who organized the Grange William Jennings Bryan the Democratic nominee for president in 1896 Grange an organization of farmers to learn about new farming methods and called for regulation railroad and grain elevator rates 17 Jane Addams leader in the settlement house movement muckrakers socially conscious journalists and writers who dramatized the need for reform Progressivism movement that believed honest and efficient government could bring about social justice initiative gave citizens the power to propose laws recall gave voters the power to remove legislators before their term is up

18 community center that provided services for the urban poor
17 Jacob Riis muckraking photographer and author of How The Other Half Lives, exposed the condition of the urban poor Social Gospel belief that following Christian principles could bring about social justice settlement house community center that provided services for the urban poor Lincoln Steffens muckraking author of Shame of the Cities, exposed corruption in urban government direct primary allowed voters to select candidates rather than having them selected by party leaders referendum allowed citizens to reject or accept laws passed by their legislature Alice Paul social activist, led women to picket at the White House Ida B. Wells helped to found the National Association of Colored Women temperance movement campaign to end the production, sale, and use of alcohol Florence Kelley founded the National Consumer’s League known as the NCL

19 National Consumer’s League (NCL)
17 National Consumer’s League (NCL) labeled and publicized “goods produced under fair, safe, and healthy working conditions” Nineteenth Amendment 1919, granted women the right to vote Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic NAWSA National American Woman Suffrage Association suffrage the right to vote Carrie Chapman Catt president of the NAWSA, campaigned to pass women’s suffrage at both the state and national levels NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, viewed full legal rights as the only solution to racial discrimination mutualistas Mexican American groups that provided loans, legal assistance, and disability insurance for members Booker T. Washington favored a gradualist approach for blacks to earn rights through economic progress and employment in the skilled trades Urban League organization to assist working class African Americans with relief, jobs, clothing, and schools Anti-Defamation League organization to defend Jews and others from false statements, and verbal or physical attacks

20 Roosevelt’s party in the 1912 election Square Deal
17 Americanization effort to replace immigrant customs with white, Protestant, middle-class practices and values W.E.B. Du Bois demanded immediate and full rights for blacks as guaranteed by the Constitution Niagara Movement opposed Washington’s approach; favored education in history, literature, and philosophy, not just in the trades John Muir California naturalist who advocated for the creation of Yosemite National Park Progressive Party Roosevelt’s party in the 1912 election Square Deal Roosevelt’s program to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor Pure Food and Drug Act gave the federal government responsibility for insuring food and medicine are safe Theodore Roosevelt energetic Progressive who became the youngest president in 1901 New Nationalism Roosevelt’s 1912 plan to restore the government’s trust-busting power Hepburn Act gave the Interstate Commerce Committee power to limit railroad company prices

21 National Reclamation Act
17 Meat Inspection Act gave federal agents power to inspect and monitor the meatpacking industry National Reclamation Act gave the federal government power to decide where and how water would be distributed in arid western states Gifford Pinchot forestry official who proposed managing the forests for later public use Federal Trade Commission group appointed by the President to monitor business practices that might lead to a monopoly Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to impose an income tax Woodrow Wilson Progressive Democrat elected President in 1912 Federal Reserve Act placed the national banks under the control of a Federal Reserve Board Clayton Antitrust Act strengthened anti-trust laws by spelling out specific practices in which businesses could not engage New Freedom Wilson’s program to place strict government controls on corporations

22 Wilmot proviso-outlaw slavery in land taken from Mexico
Secede – to break away from Union Abraham Lincoln – Republican politician from Illinois, opposed Kansas – Nebraska Act


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