2This is a picture of the scene outside the "Star" office after Britain had officially declared war against Germany, midnight August 4th, 1914.
3Instantaneously, Canadians gathered in the streets, singing and cheering. Everyone wanted to be a hero and everyone wanted to go to war.Some suggest that those parading and singing in the streets were people unlikely to be affected negatively by the war.Others sat quietly in their homes, afraid and uncertain of the future that war would bring.People cheered because war meant steady employment for all and it put an end to the depression that was imminent in 1914.
7RECRUITMENT Canadian Wartime Propaganda Propaganda: information, ideas, or rumours deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.Design approaches in Canada during the First World War were often heavily word based, using simple, descriptive images to convey their messages.
8Whether sentimental reminders of the need to support "the boys" at the front, or jingoistic, viciously drawn attacks on "the Hun" (Germans), the wordiness and period imagery of the posters can require decoding to understand them.Historical references, or allusions to then-current events, would have been very clear to contemporary readers.
15THE CONSCRIPTION CRISIS In 1917, enlistment was shrinking and soldiers were being wounded and killed. It was estimated that Canada needed reinforcements to fulfill its commitments at the front.After Borden was in England in 1917, he knew it was time for drastic action, and said this on May 18, 1917 in the House of Commons:
16Conscription cont’d…“All citizens are liable to military service for the defence of their country, and I conceive that the battle for Canadian liberty and autonomy is being fought today on the plains of France and Belgium. The time has come when the authority of the state should be invoked to provide reinforcements necessary to maintain the gallant men at the front.”
17Conscription Cont’d…Previous Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, leader of the opposition, was strongly opposed to conscription.Laurier knew that conscription would completely alienate Quebec and feared it would tear Canada apart:“The law of the land declares that no man in Canada shall be subjected to compulsory military service except to repel invasions or for the defence of Canada.”
18All men between the ages of 19 and 45 were to enlist. Conscription cont’d…Anti-conscription riots broke out in Montreal. Unions threatened to strike. Quebecers thought they were being asked to support Britain, not Canada.June 1917: Borden introduced the Military Service Act in June, passed in August.All men between the ages of 19 and 45 were to enlist.However, Borden first formed a Union Government and called an election for December 17, 1917 to discover if the country supported conscription, to make it seem “the will of the people.”
19Conscription cont’d…1917: government also passed the Wartime Elections Act - extended the federal vote to women for the first time!…however, this franchise was only extended to the wives, sisters, and mothers of soldiers, who were sure to support conscription and Borden.The vote was also extended to soldiers at the front by means of the Military Voters Act – the soldiers voted 90% in favour of Borden, and conscription!
20Borden’s Union Government won the election…but split the country. Conscription cont’d…Borden’s Union Government won the election…but split the country.Ontario, BC, and the Maritimes: supported BordenQuebec supported the Liberals, who opposed conscription.The West was divided: farmers did not want to lose vital workers to the army.
21Conscription cont’d…Spring 1918: anti-conscription riots broke out in Quebec City. When the federal government sent in police, violence ensued and 4 people were killed.More than men were conscripted, but the vast majority appealed to be exempted or did not show up to recruitment offices, and by the end of the war, only conscripts served at the front.
22PacifismSeveral religious communities believe that going to war is sinful.These groups were promised freedom in Canada after fleeing religious persecution.Mennonites, Dukhobors, and Quaker immigrants are pacifists and oppose war or military activity. Canada guaranteed all of these communities the right to live in nonviolence, and allowed them to be exempt from military service.
25Boys on the Home Front cont’d… As the war progressed and farm workers became scarce, the government encouraged boys aged to become “Soldiers of the Soil.” They received an official uniform and a medal in recognition of their service.
31FIRE IN PARLIAMENTFebruary 1916: in the middle of WWI, a sudden fire swept through the Canadian Parliament Buildings. By the next morning, 7 people were dead and the Centre Block was just a pile of icy rubble.Rumours spread that the fire was the result of enemy sabotage, but an investigation concluded that the Parliament Buildings fire was accidental, probably caused by careless smoking.
36MINORITIES IN CANADAAt the beginning of the war, Canadians cast a disapproving eye at people entering Canada from other countries, and so Borden passed the “War Measures Act”, giving the government sweeping powers to arrest and detain “enemy aliens.”Democracy and freedom also became victims of the war.
37MINORITIES IN CANADA cont’d… The photo: a picture of "alien enemies" arriving at the Petawawa Internment Camp during WWI. More than 8,500 immigrants from "enemy" countries (e.g., Ukrainians, Poles, Hungarians, Germans, Croats, Serbs, Slovaks, Turks, and Bulgarians) were placed in internment camps across Canada.Many immigrants were interned for attempting to leave Canada, posing a security threat to the war effort, or were interned for acting suspiciously, but most of these people never showed a threat to their adopted country.
39Minorities cont’d…Immigrants were forced to do work at the Petawawa Internment Camp during WWI. Many labour bosses in Canada laid off immigrant workers and hired Canadian-born workers in an attempt to be patriotic, so unemployment was high among the immigrant population of Canada during WWI.Internees were paid only 25 cents for a full day of work (e.g., building roads, building and repairing buildings, and clearing the rugged land of the northern Canadian frontier).
40Minorities cont’d…2nd photo: a picture of internees carrying their beds into the crowded barracks where they slept at the Internment Camp. In the war’s 3rd year, Canada's labour force became desperate for workers, so many of the internees or "enemy aliens" were released to work in factories and on farms, oftentimes far from their families.
42Aboriginal FightersCanada’s First Nations, while small in number, were effective. At first, however, officials discouraged Aboriginal Canadians from fighting, because of racist views and because they felt Aboriginals might have been mistreated if they were captured.Approximately 4000 Aboriginal Canadians fought in the war, particularly valued as scouts and snipers, two of the most dangerous and important combat positions in the war.
43Aboriginal Canadian Fighters cont’d… Francis Pegahmagabow, “Peg,” is credited with 378 hits on enemy soldiers.Henry “Ducky” Norwest, a Cree, had the best sharp-shooting record in the British forces, with 115 observed “kills.”However, Canada was slow to recognize the efforts of Aboriginals, and the Canadian government has only recently erected a special war memorial in Ottawa dedicated to their memory and contributions.
45For much of the war it was against the law in Canada for a married man to enlist without the written permission of their spouse, and many women refused to give their husbands permission to enlist.In response, these types of posters tried to make Canadian women feel guilty for not offering their men to the war effort. This type of propaganda was common during WWI because of the almost instant respect and honour that a soldier and his family gained by going off to war.Women were often seen walking through the streets trying to encourage all able bodied men to enlist.
46— Eric Brown, Director, National Gallery of Canada, 1918 "I think there should be some fine landscape subjects in connection with girls work on the land, farming of various kinds, fruit picking, etc.; the clothes are picturesque and this side of the war should certainly be pictured."— Eric Brown, Director, National Gallery of Canada, 1918
47Land Girls Hoeing Painted in 1919 by Manly MacDonald
48What did women do?For the most part, female artists were given women’s work as subjects, but during the war that work itself evolved as hundreds and thousands of wives, mothers and daughters performed tasks usually carried out by men.Caring for the Dead and WoundedCanadians died in WWI. However, thanks to excellent care/prompt treatment, 93 percent of the wounded survived. The role of the stretcher bearers, who administered initial first aid on the battlefield, was critical. So was the dedication of the nursing sisters and doctors who worked in makeshift hospitals, at times in the line of battle.
49Over 3000 women became army nurses and ambulance drivers, and were called “Bluebirds” because they wore blue cloaks.
50A picture of some Canadian nurses during WWI at Christmas time (Ward 33). The hospital is decorated in hopes of cheering up the wounded. One of the biggest tasks of a WWI nurse was to comfort the wounded and give them hope of a healthy return home.
51A picture of some of the women who were part of the Canadian Army Nursing Service during WWI. Nursing is the most prominent role that Canadian women played at the front in Europe.The role of women at the front was very limited because of army rules and social constraints.The women of Canada started an organization called, "The Canadian Women's Hospital Ship Fund". They raised money by organizing concerts, tag days, teas, card parties, lectures, and bazaars. Women also raised money for the Red Cross, Belgian Relief, and Canadian Patriotic Fund.World War I did help suffragist groups break some of these social barriers. As a result, on September 20, 1917 the vote was given to women whose husbands, sons, and brothers had served in the war.
53A military hospital: photo taken around Christmas time, 1914 A military hospital: photo taken around Christmas time, Military hospitals were almost always overcrowded and understaffed during WWI, often without enough beds for the wounded.
55A Canadian school for the blind A Canadian school for the blind. These young ladies are knitting and sewing items to be shipped overseas to the front, the kinds of contributions women made during WWI.They made things like pillows, sheets, flannel shirts, socks, cholera belts wristlets, balaclavas, and scarves.Women in Toronto tried to form the "Women's Home Guard" (a group of women to be trained as soldiers to protect Canada's home front and free up men in the official "Home Guard" for overseas duty) but it failed because of strong opposition within Canada.
57THE RED CROSS DID YOU KNOW? Red Cross: In 1917, the entire membership of the Red Cross's Halifax branch were women.The Red Cross had 1303 branches by the end of WWI; volunteers made clothes, raised money, purchased medical supplies and packaged food to be sent overseas to Canadian soldiers in army hospitals.
58Canadian women did form the "Suffragists' War Auxiliary", designed to provide women to do the jobs of men to free them up for overseas duty.Over 30,000 women worked in munitions factories, more than 5,000 were employed in the civil service, thousands more worked in banks, offices, factories, and on farms, while over 1000 women were employed by the Royal Air Force (e.g., motor transport work, mechanical work, and as ambulance drivers).
59Women’s efforts cont’d… Women filled the gap left in factories by young men who joined the army by making guns, shells and aircraft, and these were skilled jobs - before the war, skilled work was only for men.Women also became streetcar drivers, secretaries and office managers to replace men in civilian jobs.
60TIME LINE: THE FIGHT TO VOTE 1916: Women in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta won the right to vote in provincial elections.1917: The Military Voters Act granted the vote in federal elections for Canadian nurses serving in the war. The Wartime Elections Act gave the vote in federal elections to close female relatives of soldiers. Women in BC and Ontario can vote.1918: Prime Minister Borden’s Union government gave the vote to women over 21 for federal elections1920: Canadian women earned the right to run in federal elections and become members of Parliament.
61Women Making Shells Painted in 1919 by Mabel May
62Montreal artist Mabel May used an impressionist technique to show women working in a munitions factory. The women in the painting were performing work of an untraditional nature. So was the artist, who was being challenged by new and intriguing subject matter.
63FINANCING THE WAR AVERAGE COST OF WAR PER DAY FOR CANADA: 1 MILLION DOLLARS!EXPENDITURES (MONEY SPENT) FAR EXCEEDED REVENUES (MONEY BROUGHT IN)GOVERNMENT SOLD BONDS TO INVESTORS – 1ST “WAR LOAN” WAS IN 1915 AND RAISED $179 MILLION AND PROMISED INVESTORS A 5% RETURN.
64FINANCING THE WAR CONT’D TWO LOANS FOLLOWED IN 1916 AND 1917, RAISING $460 MILLION!BETWEEN 1917 AND 1919, THE FINANCE MINISTER OFFERED ANOTHER WAR LOAN, “VICTORY BONDS”:THE GENERAL PUBLIC COULD PURCHASE VICTORY BONDS AT A RETURN OF 5.5%, AND THE MORE THAN 3 MILLION CANADIANS WHO PURCHASED THEM RAISEDDOLLARS!
65FINANCING THE WAR CONT’D… IN TOTAL, THE 6 LOANS THE GOVERNMENT TOOK RAISED $2377 MILLION!IN 1917, THE GOVERNMENT CAME UP WITH A DIRECT TAX AS ITS 3RD SOURCE OF REVENUEVICTORY BOND POSTERS ENCOURAGED CANADIANS AT HOME TO SUPPORT FINANCING THE WAR.
66PROFITEERING $Some businessmen tried to “corner the market” on a product – and engaged in “profiteering” or not selling a product until they could get the best price.Others would use cheap materials or perform sloppy work.
72THE CANADIAN PATRIOTIC FUND Was established to provide adequate support and comfort to wives/dependents of men in the war. President: Governor General of Canada; Treasurer: Minister of Finance.Funds administration: centralized in Ottawa with branches in every major centre of enlistment across the country. Volunteers in the communities gave their services to distribute funds and to look after the affected families.
75“IN FLANDERS FIELDS”In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved, and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields.~John McCrae, 1915
76When a close friend was killed and buried in a quick grave marked with a plain wooden cross, the Canadian John McCrae wrote "In Flanders Fields."First published in "Punch" magazine in 1915, the poem has become an abiding symbol of remembrance worldwide.
77The Canadian War Memorials Fund Wealthy Canadian newspaper owner Lord Beaverbrook founded the Canadian War Memorials Fund in November 1916.The Fund hired more than 116 artists in Canada and Great Britain to paint over 900 scenes of Canada at war.The first official Canadian war artists, appointed by the Canadian War Memorials Fund, were William Beatty, Maurice Cullen, Fred Varley and Charles Simpson. Beatty was one of a number of artists who painted the ruins of this church near Vimy Ridge, perhaps finding in its survival a symbol of hope.
78Did the war affect Canadian art? Future members of Canada’s celebrated Group of Seven found new inspiration as war artists, painting the landscape of the western front. After the war, they depicted Canadian wilderness scenes of damage caused by forest fires and the harsh climate. The image of the destroyed, but still upright, tree appears in many of their compositions, symbolizing the natural world of Canada’s north."After the war Jackson and his fellow artists deliberately sought to paint ‘swampy, rocky, wolf-ridden, burnt and scuttled country . . .’"— Maria Tippett, Art at the Service of War: Canada, Art, and the Great War
79The Olympic, seen here docked in Halifax, was a sister ship of the Titanic. Its hull shows the dazzle-painting technique, a form of camouflage. "The Olympic, which has carried so many of the Canadians over, docked here last week. It was a magnificent sight."— Arthur Lismer, Canadian First World War artist
80Olympic with Returned Soldiers Painted in 1919 by Arthur Lismer
81WAR ART "It is logical that artists should be a part of the organizationfor total war, whether toprovide inspiration,information, or comment on theglory or the stupidity of war."— A. Y. Jackson,Canadian WWI artist"These paintings have left a legacy of truthful seeing and feeling, and caught for posterity some of the deep and terrible days of courageous despair and brave hopes for a better future.“ ~Leonard Brooks
82For the most part, First World War artists had not participated in the battles they portrayed. They worked from photographs, personal recollections, official accounts and film footage to reconstruct battles. Most preferred a traditional approach, sensing that to stray too close to a modern style would be viewed as inappropriate for the subject matter.
83You in Canada. cannot realize at all what war is like You in Canada cannot realize at all what war is like. You must see it and live it. You must see the barren deserts war has made of once fertile country see the turned up graves, see the dead on the field, freakishly mutilated — headless, legless, stomachless, a perfect body and a passive face and a broken empty skull — see your own countrymen, unidentified, thrown into a cart, their coats thrown over them, boys digging a grave in a land of yellow slimy mud and green pools of water under a weeping sky. You must have heard the screeching shells and have the shrapnel fall around you, whistling by you — seen the results of it, seen scores of horses, bits of horses lying around in the open — in the street and soldiers marching by these scenes as if they never knew of their presence — until you’ve lived this you cannot know."— Fred Varley, Canadian First World War artist
84THE HALIFAX EXPLOSIONOn December 6, 1917, the wartime port of Halifax was shattered by the most powerful man-made explosion before the dropping of the atomic bomb in 1945.For some historians, the cause of the tragedy is still unclear.At about 8:45 am, the Belgian ship Imo's prow struck the starboard bow of the ship Mont-Blanc that had been heading out of NY to go to the Halifax harbour and sparks flew. It missed the hold carrying TNT but hit areas carrying the benzol fuel…and the highly unstable picric acid.
86The Halifax Explosion Cont’d… The tugboat Stella Maris trained its fire hose on the burning ship to try to put it out, but made no difference.Then the tug's skipper and a Royal Navy officer decided to try towing Mont-Blanc away from the pier. But after two difficult and dangerous attempts, Mont-Blanc hadn't budged.
87The Halifax Explosion Cont’d… At 9:04 Mont-Blanc exploded.The steel hull burst sky-high, falling in a blizzard of red-hot, twisted projectiles on Dartmouth and Halifax. The explosion sent a white cloud billowing 20,000 feet above the city.For almost two square kilometers around Pier 6, nothing was left standing. The blast obliterated most of Richmond: homes, apartments and business, even the towering sugar refinery.
89The Halifax Explosion Cont’d… Within minutes the dazed survivors were awash in water. The blast provoked a tsunami that washed up as high as 18 meters above the harbour's high-water mark on the Halifax side, which lifted Imo onto the Dartmouth shore where it stayed until spring.
90The Halifax Explosion Cont’d… Halifax counted 10% of its population in the military, and within minutes, soldiers and sailors who were able started forming rescue parties.Young sailors and their officers had died trying to fight the fire on Mont-Blanc; there were many other military casualties all along the waterfront.
91The Halifax Explosion Cont’d… American military doctors, nurses and orderlies already in Halifax were part of the initial medical response to the disaster.Massachusetts sent the best-remembered American support, and Halifax continues to send a Christmas tree annually to Boston, in gratitude for their assistance.Women had made their way into many areas of the workforce during WWI. When you look closely at some of the photographs taken after the Explosion, you can see women working in the hospitals and offices, and even on the cleanup crews.
92The Halifax Explosion Cont’d… Casualties of the Halifax Explosion:more than 1900 people killed9000 injured1600 buildings destroyed12,000 houses damaged6000 homeless; 25,000 people with inadequate housing
93WAR TECHNOLOGYDreadnought- one of the century’s most impressive weapons (a battleship)Machine gun – new weapon – fired 600 rounds per minute. Almost impossible for attacking enemies to overrun an enemy’s position.Tank – developed during the war, helped to end the stalemate of trench warfare; particularly effective the last year of war, 1918.Airplanes – developed in 1903, most planes in WWI flew at about 150 km/h, and before long some pilots brought rifles into the cockpit. Soon, machine guns were mounted on planes.
95— Frank Johnston, Canadian First World War artist Flying was new to Canada. Frank Johnston was the first Canadian artist to depict the experience of flight. ". . . higher ever higher we rose till the land below became a beautiful rug, with a somewhat geometric design, of all colours, broken by light ribbons, that were the main highways."— Frank Johnston, Canadian First World War artist
97To John Turnbull, capturing the experience of flight was more important than painting an actual event.The view of Ypres below is clearly based on an aerial reconnaissance photo similar to that used by William Nicholson in Canadian Headquarters Staff.
98War in the Air Painted in 1918 by C. R. W. Nevinson In this stage of the lesson, should refer students to handout on technology – airplanes
99This is a reconstruction of an air battle involving the celebrated Canadian flying ace W. A. (Billy) Bishop. As a fighter pilot, Bishop won the Victoria Cross, the British Empire’s highest award for bravery, in June By June 1918, he had been credited with the destruction of 72 enemy aircraft.
100Charge of flowerdew’s squadron, painted around 1918 by alfred munnings, (1878-1959)
101Modern WeaponryBritish artist Alfred Munnings reconstructed the dramatic action of Lord Strathcona’s Horse at Moreuil Wood on March 30, The artist has depicted the impact of modern rapid-fire weaponry on both horse and man.
102Starting the Freighter Painted in 1919 by Albert Robinson
103The Vickers Shipbuilding Works in Montreal. Depicting Canada’s wartime industrial activity was a new challenge for the country’s artists.
104No. 3 Canadian Stationary Hospital at Doullens Painted in 1918 by Gerald Moira Housed in a converted citadel near Amiens, the hospital was bombarded by German forces in May 1918.
105THE SPANISH INFLUENZA They called it “the silent enemy.” 1918: end of WWI - flu epidemic swept across the globe.The disease started among American recruits and fermented in the mud of Europe, thereby being brought home by returning soldiers.It killed between 20 and 50 million people worldwide.
106The Spanish Influenza Epidemic cont’d… Final death toll in Canada: at leastMore people died in four weeks of the flu than in four years of fighting in WWI!Devastating catastrophe that followed hard on the carnage of WWI.1919: partly in reaction to the deadly epidemic, Canada established a Department of Health.For further reading – the Canadian play Unity (1918) by Kevin Kerr is a brief but chilling exploration of this topic.
107THE WAR ENDSRussians revolted against the Emperor, Nicholas II, in 1917, and so in March, 1918 the Russians signed a separate peace treaty with Germany.Germany then turned all of its armies against the Allies on the Western Front.In 1917, America entered the war, and Germany’s last offensive began in April, Germany advanced 60 kms and it seemed they won the war!
108Ending war…However, British, French, and Canadian forces pulled back to new defensive lines, and the German offensive slowed down. The counter-attack began in July, 1918, and this time included American troops for the firs time!By August, the Germans were in total retreat.
109War endsOn November 11, 1918, at 11 am, on the 11th day of the 11th month, the war came to an end.
110End of the war cont’d… Over 13 000 000 soldiers had died. More than would live out their lives with wounds, shell shock, gassed lungs, and lost limbs, sight, or hearing.Borden says in 1918 at the end of the war:“Canada must assume full sovereignty.”Thus, Borden demands Canada’s own signature on the Treaty of Versailles: signal Canada’s international role to the world. Canada was granted a seat of its own at the League of Nations (US eventually decided to boycott it partly because of Canada’s insistence on inclusion).
111Treaty of VersaillesGeorges Clemenceau, Premier of France: demanded harsh peace treaty - punish Germany for invasions in 1870 and 1914.Woodrow Wilson, US President: wanted a more generous peace settlement - drew up the “14 Points” and proposed the League of Nations, the world’s 1st peacekeeping body, to guarantee world peace.The Peace Treaty signed at the Paris Peace Conference melded these two philosophies.
112Treaty of Versailles Continued… Geographical Terms:-Germany lost control of all of its colonies-Alsace-Lorraine was transferred back from Germany to France-part of eastern Germany was given to PolandWar Guilt Clause (Article 231)-Germany was forced to sign a statement that it had been the primary cause of the war
113Treaty of Versailles Cont’d… Military Controls-the German army was restricted to people and was to have no tanks or heavy guns-Germany was not to have an air force-the German Navy was to include only small shipsReparations:-Germany was to pay $ and goods to Great Britain, France, and Belgium to repair damages of the war
115Armistice Day, Munitions Centre Painted around 1919 by Frederick Etchells
116The flags in this British painting affirm a global victory The flags in this British painting affirm a global victory. Back in Canada, every city, town and village celebrated."I suppose old Canada will be right up in the air by this time To tell the truth, it seems hard to realize it, and that we are through with this awful slaughter."— Private George Anderson, November 11, 1918
117THE VIMY MEMORIALCommemorates Canada’s role in WWI with stone figures that symbolize the values defended and the sacrifices made.The memorial at Vimy Ridge, France, was built between 1925 and Construction workers used 11,000 tonnes of concrete and masonry, and 5,500 tonnes of stone.
118Walter Allward’s Dream, 1921 "I dreamed I was in a great battlefield. I saw our men going in by the thousands and being mowed down by the sickles of death Suddenly I saw thousands marching to the aid of our armies. They were the dead Without the dead we were helpless. So I have tried to show this in this monument to Canada’s fallen, what we owed them and we will forever owe them."
119A LEGACY"The grandest tribute we could offer to Canadian soldiers is to affirm that their sacrifices have contributed to the introduction into our civilization of its highest modern conception — that of universal Peace founded on recognition of the basic right of people to life and justice."— Ernest Lapointe, Minister of Justice, at the unveiling of the Vimy Memorial, July 26, 1936
122— Fred Varley, Canadian First World War artist "We’d be healthier to forget [the war], & that we never can. We are forever tainted with its abortiveness & its cruel drama."— Fred Varley, Canadian First World War artist