Introduction Consumer price index (CPI) Inflation rate Content
1. 1.Introduction Inflation is defined as a sustained growth of the average prices of goods and services (it is also defined as a sustained decline in the value of money and a decrease in the purchasing power). Deflation is defined as a sustained reduction of the average prices of goods and services. Disinflation is a decrease in the rate of inflation – a slowdown in the rate of increase of the general price level of goods and services.
The observed variation in the price level is measured by a price index, either by the consumer price index (CPI) or the Deflator (implicit price index of GDP: IPIGDP) The inflation rate is simply the rate of change (rate of variation) in percentage of the selected index. Core CPI inflation, the year-over-year rate of change of the consumer price index excluding food, energy, and the effects of changes in indirect taxes, as the operational guide for monetary policy.
P P Temps 1,00 1,05 1,00 1,05 1,10 Sustained growth of the general price level One time increase in the price level Inflation and price level
As well as unemployment, inflation is an economic and social wound for any country in the world, especially when it is not anticipated by economic policymakers, or controlled by the monetary authorities Currently the inflation rate is about 2% in most industrialized countries, a low, stable and therefore predictable value.
2.consumer price index (CPI) The consumer price index measures the changes in the average price level of a fixed basket of goods and services that consumers bought during a given period. The choice of goods and services in the basket is based on the consumption patterns of Canadian households in 2005, but it is updated periodically. The media generally report the CPI inflation but for macroeconomists inflation measured by the IPIGDP is equally important. How do we calculate this price index?
The CPI and the basket of goods and services The Canadian CPI is calculated from a basket with a little more than 600 goods and services, divided into 8 main components such as, food, shelter, clothing, transportation, etc... The base year is 2002 This basket price is calculated monthly
Linflation mesurée par l IPC et le cycle économique, 1980-2009
18 How do we use the CPI in order to compare values in dollars through time? A sum of money M t in period t has the same purchasing power as Z t-n $ from the t-n period, calculations follow this formula: Z t-n = (IPC t-n / IPC t ) x M t A sum of money Z t-n from the t-n period has the same purchasing power as M t $ in period t, calculations follow this formula: M t = (IPC t / IPC t-n ) x Z t-n
19 Examples $ 1,000 in 2003 had the same purchasing power as $ 302.53 in 1976, according to the CPI table. (31,1 / 102,8) x 1 000$ = 302, 53 $ $ 2,000 in 1974 had the same purchasing power as $ 465.65 7 in 2001, according to the CPI table (97,8 / 26,2) x 2 000$ = 7 465, 65 $
20 What is the real rate of interest? The interest rate must be adjusted for inflation r = i – π, i = r + π r: the real interest rate i: the nominal interest rate π e : the expected rate of inflation π : the observed rate of inflation
21 Deux exemples Une banque privée désire faire 7% (r) de rendement réel sur les prêts quelle consent. On anticipe un taux dinflation de 3% ( ) pour lannée qui vient. La banque demande un taux nominal de 10% (i) à ses clients. (7% + 3% = 10%) M. Tremblay a obtenu 1% (r) de rendement réel sur un CPG dont lintérêt nominal était de 2,5% (i), puisque que linflation annuelle fut de 1,5% ( ). (2,5% - 1,5% = 1%)
In other words, in the case of deposits... The nominal interest rate is the rate posted by banks. It measures the monetary increase of the deposit. The real interest rate measures the increase in the purchasing power of the amount deposited. 22
23 Quest-ce que lindexation des revenus ? Un ajustement du revenu nominal (Rn) qui permet au revenu réel (Rr) daugmenter ou de demeurer stable. On peut donc dire quun revenu est indexé si le pouvoir dachat du revenu se maintient ou augmente.
24 Example Income increased from $ 56,000 to $ 57,000 in a year, while the CPI increased from 145.6 to 149.3 during the same period. Has the income been indexed?
25 Quels sont les problèmes occasionnés par trop dinflation ? Uncertainty about the future May discourage savings Insecure investors Arbitrary redistribution of income