Presentation on theme: "Secondary Curriculum and Transition for All Students: Standards-Based Reform, Self-Determination, and Universal Design for Learning National Secondary."— Presentation transcript:
Secondary Curriculum and Transition for All Students: Standards-Based Reform, Self-Determination, and Universal Design for Learning National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center Secondary Transition State Planning Institute: Building for the Future Michael L. Wehmeyer, Ph.D. Professor, Special Education Director, Kansas University Center on Developmental Disabilities Senior Scientist, Beach Center on Disability
Ruths History Ruth incurred severe brain damage as a result of encephalitis at the age of five weeks. She has severe muscle spasms that affect her arms and legs. She has seizures that are only partially controlled by medication. Ruth has trouble breathing, eating, and swallowing. She has to either sit in a wheelchair or lie in bed. She has never spoken, but she makes sounds. She cannot feed herself or bathe or get dressed on her own. No one knows how smart she is because she cannot take the tests people use to measure intelligence.
Planning for Ruths Future Where will Ruth live when she leaves school? With whom should Ruth live? In what day activities could Ruth take part? What types of services will Ruth need?
Ruths Plan For Her Future Ruth Sienkiewicz- Mercer & Steven Kaplan I Raise My Eyes to Say Yes
Ruths Plan For Her Future Where will Ruth live? Ruth lived independently in her own home in Northampton, Massachusetts, after living in two different apartments. She moved from Belchertown State School in 1978 after living there for 16 years. In 1989 she was the keynote speaker at the closure of Belchertown.
Ruths Plan For Her Future With whom should Ruth live? Her husband, Norman. After securing her freedom, Ruth married a longtime friend. They lived together and enjoyed occasional, though not too frequent, visits from their in- laws.
Ruths Plan For Her Future In what day activities could Ruth take part? Ruth traveled extensively as a speaker and lecturer and continued to write. She was a frequent keynote speaker. On Saturdays she liked to grocery shop and do her laundry. Sundays were her day of rest.
Ruths Plan For Her Future What types of services will Ruth need? Most of all Ruth needs people to support her and listen to her. These people are called her friends. She needs the assistance provided by a personal care attendant employed by Ruth and Norman. She needs a little luck to win the lottery. She needs more money than SSI provides. She needs phone and utility services. She needs the State of Massachusetts to repair the potholes from the winter storms.
Personal (In)Competence Environment Changing Expectations: Changing Understanding
Personal (In)Competence Environment Changing Expectations: Changing Understanding
Implications of Changing Understandings of Disability Focus on environment/context, not fixing individual; Strengths-based Emphasizes supports, not programs
Implications for the Education of Students with Disabilities Access to the general education curriculum and Universal Design for Learning. A focus on self-determination and student- directed learning Assistive technology and accommodations. Supported employment, supported living. Response to Intervention Positive Behavior Supports A Third Generation of Inclusive Practices
First Generation Inclusive Practices Focused on basics of inclusive practices. Efforts were instrumental in changing prevailing educational settings for students with disabilities from separate, self-contained settings to inclusion in the regular education classroom. These basics included: Students should receive their education in the school they would attend if they did not have a disability; Educational placements should be age and grade appropriate; Special education services should exist within the general education classroom. First generation inclusion was additive in nature. That is, resources and students were added to the general education classroom.
More generative in nature, in that instead of focusing on moving students from separate settings to regular classroom settings, the second-generation practices focused on improving practice in the general education classroom. Research and practice during this phase emphasized aspects of instructional practices that promoted inclusion, such as: Collaborative teaming and team teaching; Differentiated instruction; Developing family/school/community partnerships. Second Generation Inclusive Practices
Nothing about the first or second generations of inclusive practices is either obsolete or unimportant. Both remain critical to ensure high quality educational programs for students with disabilities. The most salient characteristic of the third generation of inclusive practices is that the focal point for our efforts switch from advocacy and supports with regard primarily to where a student receives his or her educational program, to a focus on what the student is taught. This is driven by, and consistent with current school reform efforts, and aligns with educational implications for new ways of thinking about disability. Universal Design for Learning Must consider the context with which the student interacts. Third Generation Inclusive Practices
Designing a Students Educational Program General Education Curriculum What supplementary aids & services promote student progress in the general curriculum? Universal Design for Learning Assistive and Educational Technologies Other Supplementary Aids And Services What specially designed instruction will students need to progress in the general curriculum? What other educational needs of the student are not addressed by the general curriculum? What related services will the student need to progress in the general curriculum and achieve other educational needs? Access Classroom Ecology Assessment/Task Modifications Teacher/Para/Peer Support
Universal Design Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. Universally designed environments and products are designed to be used by all people, not designed for use strictly to mitigate the impact of an impairment.
Universal Design for Learning The basic premise of universal design for learning is that a curriculum should include alternatives to make it accessible and applicable to students, teachers, and parents with different backgrounds, learning styles, abilities, and disabilities in widely varied learning contexts. The "universal" in universal design does not imply one optimal solution for everyone, but rather it underscores the need for inherently flexible, customizable content, assignments, and activities (CAST, 1998 – 1999). the design of instructional materials and activities that allows the learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember (Orkwis & McLane, 1998).
Digital Talking Books A Digital Talking Book (DTB) is a multimedia representation of a print publication. Thinking Reader from Scholastic/Tom Snyder Productions Thinking Reader CAST Literacy by Design DTB Route 66 Literacy Instruction from Benetech.org Route 66 Literacy Instruction
UDL via Curriculum Modifications Curriculum Adaptations Curriculum Augmentations
Curriculum Adaptation: any effort to modify the representation or presentation of the content or to modify the students engagement with the content (CAST, 1998 – 1999). Representation: Modifies way curriculum content is represented (changing font size or using graphics). Presentation: Modifies presentation of curriculum (oral verses written presentation). Student Engagement: Modifies how student responds to curriculum (oral vs. written, role play, tape record). Does not change the curriculum in any way, just the way the curriculum is represented or presented and how the student responds. Curriculum Adaptations
Curriculum Augmentation: efforts to augment or expand the curriculum to provide students with additional skills or strategies that, in turn, will enable them to succeed within the general curriculum. Cognitive (or learning to learn) strategies; Self-regulation or student-directed learning strategies; Self-Determination Does not modify the general curriculum, but instead expands it. It is here where, I think, we need to infuse instruction to promote some critical transition outcomes, including promoting self-determination. Curriculum Augmentations
What is Self-Determination Self-determined behavior refers to volitional actions that enable one to act as the primary causal agent in ones life and to maintain or improve ones quality of life.
What Do We Know About Self- Determination? Higher self-determination status predicts more positive adult outcomes for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. There are, now, a wide array of instructional strategies, methods, and materials available to promote self-determination. Promoting student-directed learning is a particularly important strategy for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
Self-Determination and Standards-Based Reform Component elements of self-determined behavior are found in virtually all state, provincial, and local standards across multiple content areas. Students who are self-determined are more likely to be able to successfully engage with the curriculum: Learning-to-learn or self-regulation strategies. Goal oriented, problem-solving focused. Study skills, organizational skills.
Student-Directed Learning Strategies Student-directed learning strategies, alternatively referred to as self-regulated learning or self-management strategies, involve teaching students to modify and regulate their own behavior. Student-mediated (vs. teacher-mediated, peer-mediated or technology-mediated) learning.
Students with severe disabilities can learn to self-direct learning in general education settings: Promotes student involvement in the classroom; Linked to attainment of educationally-valued goals, including goals linked to the general education curriculum; Changes expectations of teachers, other students.