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Sustainable Low Cost Shelter Design Shelter Options By Prakash M Apte Urban Development Consultant.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Low Cost Shelter Design Shelter Options By Prakash M Apte Urban Development Consultant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Low Cost Shelter Design Shelter Options By Prakash M Apte Urban Development Consultant

2 Shelter As Living Environment Housing cannot be viewed as mere construction of shelters Housing cannot be viewed as mere construction of shelters It is creation of an environment for the HABITAT of man which will lead to his physical, intellectual, cultural and social development. It is creation of an environment for the HABITAT of man which will lead to his physical, intellectual, cultural and social development. Imaginative configuration of shelters and other facilities that lead to the creation of the total environment for living. Imaginative configuration of shelters and other facilities that lead to the creation of the total environment for living.

3 HOUSING CONCEPTS AND STANDARDS Should houses be made permanent so that they last for a hundred years or should they be temporary? Should houses be made permanent so that they last for a hundred years or should they be temporary? Resources for housing are meager, should these not be invested in creation of physical infrastructure that can help and stimulate private and public saving and investment in construction of houses? Resources for housing are meager, should these not be invested in creation of physical infrastructure that can help and stimulate private and public saving and investment in construction of houses?

4 Growing House Concept of a renewable growing houses can be implemented only by efforts in an organized manner. Concept of a renewable growing houses can be implemented only by efforts in an organized manner. Programmes like provision of sites and services are of great relevance. Programmes like provision of sites and services are of great relevance. Hygiene, water supply, roads, parks and open spaces and recreational facilities are more appropriate indices for identifying shelter quality than its physical structure Hygiene, water supply, roads, parks and open spaces and recreational facilities are more appropriate indices for identifying shelter quality than its physical structure

5 Growing House on Serviced Sites

6 Housing Standards : Should we be satisfied with only improving upon the existing conditions rather than fixing idealistic norms ? Should we be satisfied with only improving upon the existing conditions rather than fixing idealistic norms ? The municipal bye-laws decide the housing standards. The municipal bye-laws decide the housing standards. Success or failure in solving the problem of housing will depend upon how realistically we fix standards for housing. Success or failure in solving the problem of housing will depend upon how realistically we fix standards for housing.

7 FORM AND DENSITY OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT: The forms range between crowded squatter huts to individual single storey houses to multistory high rise apartments. The forms range between crowded squatter huts to individual single storey houses to multistory high rise apartments. Densities range from 12 dwelling units per hectare in suburban developments through 600 dwelling units in squatter areas to 1200 dwelling units in the older walled city areas. Densities range from 12 dwelling units per hectare in suburban developments through 600 dwelling units in squatter areas to 1200 dwelling units in the older walled city areas.

8 High Rise Residential Development: High-rise development favoured in urban centers with soaring land prices for economy in cost of land. High-rise development favoured in urban centers with soaring land prices for economy in cost of land. But land under residential use is at best only 50 percent of the total developed land But land under residential use is at best only 50 percent of the total developed land What weightage be given to this aspect? What weightage be given to this aspect? High intensity of land use can be achieved by low rise high density residential development. High intensity of land use can be achieved by low rise high density residential development.

9 Low Rise High Density Development

10 Shelter Design For Low Rise High Density Development

11 INDEX OF PLINTH AREA RATE FOR CONTRUCTION IN INDIA Type of Construction Index(Base = 100) Increase percent Type of Construction Index(Base = 100) Increase percent Ground floor (GF) construction Ground floor (GF) construction GF + 1 Storey construction 100 Nil GF + 1 Storey construction 100 Nil GF + 2 Storey construction GF + 2 Storey construction GF + 3 Storey construction GF + 3 Storey construction GF + 4 Storey construction GF + 4 Storey construction

12 Multi Story Design Block design with central corridor & open ducts for light & cross ventilation

13 Multistory Unit Design Dwelling units with central corridor

14 High Density Low Rise

15 Economy in Shelter Projects Maximization of land use to get optimum density consistent with desirable living environment, Maximization of land use to get optimum density consistent with desirable living environment, Building designs that are simple and functional, use indigenous building materials, are capable of expansion, are low on capital cost though higher on maintenance cost. Building designs that are simple and functional, use indigenous building materials, are capable of expansion, are low on capital cost though higher on maintenance cost.

16 Economy in Shelter Projects Innovative building designs facilitating easy access to public open spaces and community facilities, and use of public open spaces for the overspill activities of the families Innovative building designs facilitating easy access to public open spaces and community facilities, and use of public open spaces for the overspill activities of the families- Use of austere specifications, cheaper and substitute and new building materials and techniques to reduce capital cost and bring shelter within the affordability limits of low income families. Use of austere specifications, cheaper and substitute and new building materials and techniques to reduce capital cost and bring shelter within the affordability limits of low income families.

17 Best & Worst Practices Earlier designs with central corridor resulted in Earlier designs with central corridor resulted in Dark & Damp corridor Dark & Damp corridor Exposed plumbing on exterior surfaces Exposed plumbing on exterior surfaces Lack of cross ventilation Lack of cross ventilation Difficulties in plumbing repair Difficulties in plumbing repair

18 Central corridor with external plumbing

19 Blocks with corridor on external sides This type of design resulted in This type of design resulted in Excesive space for corridor Excesive space for corridor Poor light for dwelling units Poor light for dwelling units No cross ventilation No cross ventilation Corridors susceptible to heavy rains Corridors susceptible to heavy rains Difficult plumbing & repairs Difficult plumbing & repairs

20 Blocks with external corridor on both sides with back to back dwelling units

21 Blocks with central corridor without the attending drawbacks

22 Best Practice Open ducts along central corridor afford Open ducts along central corridor afford Ample light in central corridor Ample light in central corridor Cross ventilation to dwelling units & corridor Cross ventilation to dwelling units & corridor Ease of repair of plumbing Ease of repair of plumbing Clean exterior surface Clean exterior surface


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