Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 14 Water. Chapter Overview Questions Why is water so important, how much freshwater is available to us, and how much of it are we using? Why is.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Water. Chapter Overview Questions Why is water so important, how much freshwater is available to us, and how much of it are we using? Why is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Water

2 Chapter Overview Questions Why is water so important, how much freshwater is available to us, and how much of it are we using? Why is water so important, how much freshwater is available to us, and how much of it are we using? What causes freshwater shortages, and what can be done about this problem? What causes freshwater shortages, and what can be done about this problem? What are the advantages and disadvantages of withdrawing groundwater? What are the advantages and disadvantages of withdrawing groundwater? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using dams and reservoirs to supply more water? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using dams and reservoirs to supply more water?

3 Chapter Overview Questions (contd) What are the advantages and disadvantages of transferring large amounts of water from one place to another? What are the advantages and disadvantages of transferring large amounts of water from one place to another? Can removing salt from seawater solve our water supply problems? Can removing salt from seawater solve our water supply problems? How can we waste less water? How can we waste less water? How can we use the earths water more sustainably? How can we use the earths water more sustainably? What causes flooding, and what can we do about it? What causes flooding, and what can we do about it?

4 Updates Online The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at the book companion website. Log in to the books e-resources page at to access InfoTrac articles. InfoTrac: For money or for life. Jeff Conant. Earth Island Journal, Autumn 2006 v21 i3 p33(6). InfoTrac: For money or for life. Jeff Conant. Earth Island Journal, Autumn 2006 v21 i3 p33(6). InfoTrac: Backstory: Tapping the world. The Christian Science Monitor March 22, 2006 p20. InfoTrac: Backstory: Tapping the world. The Christian Science Monitor March 22, 2006 p20. InfoTrac: A water crisis in the making. Christopher Meyer. Middle East Economic Digest, April 7, 2006 v50 i14 p47(2). InfoTrac: A water crisis in the making. Christopher Meyer. Middle East Economic Digest, April 7, 2006 v50 i14 p47(2). Science Daily: Historic Colorado River Streamflows Reconstructed Back To 1490 Science Daily: Historic Colorado River Streamflows Reconstructed Back To 1490 National Geographic: Map: Middle East Natural Resources National Geographic: Map: Middle East Natural Resources Science Daily: Putting Coal Ash Back Into Mines A Viable Option For Disposal, But Risks Must Be Addressed Science Daily: Putting Coal Ash Back Into Mines A Viable Option For Disposal, But Risks Must Be Addressed

5 Video: Western Drought This video clip is available in CNN Today Videos for Environmental Science, 2004, Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local sales representative to order this volume, while supplies last. This video clip is available in CNN Today Videos for Environmental Science, 2004, Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local sales representative to order this volume, while supplies last.

6 Core Case Study: Water Conflicts in the Middle East - A Preview of the Future Many countries in the Middle East, which has one of the worlds highest population growth rates, face water shortages. Many countries in the Middle East, which has one of the worlds highest population growth rates, face water shortages. Figure 14-1

7 Water Conflicts in the Middle East: A Preview of the Future Most water in this dry region comes from the Nile, Jordan or Tigris rivers. Most water in this dry region comes from the Nile, Jordan or Tigris rivers. Countries are in disagreement as to who has water rights. Countries are in disagreement as to who has water rights. Currently, there are no cooperative agreements for use of 158 of the worlds 263 water basins that are shared by two or more countries. Currently, there are no cooperative agreements for use of 158 of the worlds 263 water basins that are shared by two or more countries.

8 WATERS IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL Water keeps us alive, moderates climate, sculpts the land, removes and dilutes wastes and pollutants, and moves continually through the hydrologic cycle. Water keeps us alive, moderates climate, sculpts the land, removes and dilutes wastes and pollutants, and moves continually through the hydrologic cycle. Only about 0.02% of the earths water supply is available to us as liquid freshwater. Only about 0.02% of the earths water supply is available to us as liquid freshwater.

9 WATERS IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL Comparison of population sizes and shares of the worlds freshwater among the continents. Comparison of population sizes and shares of the worlds freshwater among the continents. Figure 14-2

10 Fig. 14-2, p. 307 Continent Percent of world's water resources and population Asia 60.5% 36% Africa 10% 8% Europe North and Central America 7.3% South America and Caribbean 6.4% 26% 15% 5% Oceania 11.3% 0.5% 14%

11 WATERS IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL Some precipitation infiltrates the ground and is stored in soil and rock (groundwater). Some precipitation infiltrates the ground and is stored in soil and rock (groundwater). Water that does not sink into the ground or evaporate into the air runs off (surface runoff) into bodies of water. Water that does not sink into the ground or evaporate into the air runs off (surface runoff) into bodies of water. The land from which the surface water drains into a body of water is called its watershed or drainage basin. The land from which the surface water drains into a body of water is called its watershed or drainage basin.

12 Fig. 14-3, p. 308 Unconfined Aquifer Recharge Area Precipitation Evaporation and transpirationEvaporation Confined Recharge Area Runoff Flowing artesian well Recharge Unconfined Aquifer Stream Well requiring a pump Infiltration Water table Lake Infiltration Unconfined aquifer Confined aquifer Confining impermeable rock layer Less permeable material such as clay

13 WATERS IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL We currently use more than half of the worlds reliable runoff of surface water and could be using 70-90% by We currently use more than half of the worlds reliable runoff of surface water and could be using 70-90% by About 70% of the water we withdraw from rivers, lakes, and aquifers is not returned to these sources. About 70% of the water we withdraw from rivers, lakes, and aquifers is not returned to these sources. Irrigation is the biggest user of water (70%), followed by industries (20%) and cities and residences (10%). Irrigation is the biggest user of water (70%), followed by industries (20%) and cities and residences (10%).

14 Water in the United States Average precipitation (top) in relation to water-deficit regions and their proximity to metropolitan areas (bottom). Average precipitation (top) in relation to water-deficit regions and their proximity to metropolitan areas (bottom). Figure 14-4

15 Fig. 14-4a, p. 309 Average annual precipitation (centimeters) More than 122 Less than 4181–122 41–81

16 Fig. 14-4b, p. 309 Acute shortage Metropolitan regions with population greater than 1 million Shortage Adequate supply

17 Case Study: Freshwater Resources in the United States 17 western states by 2025 could face intense conflict over scarce water needed for urban growth, irrigation, recreation and wildlife. 17 western states by 2025 could face intense conflict over scarce water needed for urban growth, irrigation, recreation and wildlife. Figure 14-5

18 Fig. 14-5, p. 310 Wash. Montana Oregon N.D. Idaho Wyoming S.D. NevadaNeb. Utah Colo. Kansas California Oak. N.M. Texas Highly likely conflict potential Moderate conflict potential Unmet rural water needs Substantial conflict potential

19 TOO LITTLE FRESHWATER About 41% of the worlds population lives in river basins that do not have enough freshwater. About 41% of the worlds population lives in river basins that do not have enough freshwater. Many parts of the world are experiencing: Many parts of the world are experiencing: Rivers running dry. Rivers running dry. Lakes and seas shrinking. Lakes and seas shrinking. Falling water tables from overpumped aquifers. Falling water tables from overpumped aquifers.

20 Stress on the Worlds River Basins Comparison of the amount of water available with the amount used by humans. Comparison of the amount of water available with the amount used by humans. Figure 14-6

21 Fig. 14-6, p. 311 Europe North America Asia Africa South America Australia Stress HighNone

22 Case Study: Who Should Own and Manage Freshwater Resources There is controversy over whether water supplies should be owned and managed by governments or by private corporations. There is controversy over whether water supplies should be owned and managed by governments or by private corporations. European-based water companies aim to control 70% of the U.S. water supply by buying up water companies and entering into agreements with cities to manage water supplies. European-based water companies aim to control 70% of the U.S. water supply by buying up water companies and entering into agreements with cities to manage water supplies.

23 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment. Should private companies own or manage most of the world's water resources? Should private companies own or manage most of the world's water resources? a. No. Democratically elected governments, which are accountable to the voters, should own and manage water resources. a. No. Democratically elected governments, which are accountable to the voters, should own and manage water resources. b. Qualified yes. Governments should own the water, but expert private companies should manage it. b. Qualified yes. Governments should own the water, but expert private companies should manage it. c. Depends. Each case must be decided independently. The record on private versus public ownership is mixed. c. Depends. Each case must be decided independently. The record on private versus public ownership is mixed. d. Yes. Private companies have more expertise and experience in managing water resources than most government bureaucrats. d. Yes. Private companies have more expertise and experience in managing water resources than most government bureaucrats.

24 TOO LITTLE FRESHWATER Cities are outbidding farmers for water supplies from rivers and aquifers. Cities are outbidding farmers for water supplies from rivers and aquifers. Countries are importing grain as a way to reduce their water use. Countries are importing grain as a way to reduce their water use. More crops are being used to produce biofuels. More crops are being used to produce biofuels. Our water options are: Our water options are: Get more water from aquifers and rivers, desalinate ocean water, waste less water. Get more water from aquifers and rivers, desalinate ocean water, waste less water.

25 WITHDRAWING GROUNDWATER TO INCREASE SUPPLIES Most aquifers are renewable resources unless water is removed faster than it is replenished or if they are contaminated. Most aquifers are renewable resources unless water is removed faster than it is replenished or if they are contaminated. Groundwater depletion is a growing problem mostly from irrigation. Groundwater depletion is a growing problem mostly from irrigation. At least one-fourth of the farms in India are being irrigated from overpumped aquifers. At least one-fourth of the farms in India are being irrigated from overpumped aquifers.

26 Fig. 14-7, p. 313 Trade-Offs Withdrawing Groundwater AdvantagesDisadvantages Useful for drinking and irrigation Aquifer depletion from overpumping Available year- round Sinking of land (subsidence) from overpumping Exists almost everywhere Polluted aquifers for decades or centuries Renewable if not overpumped or contaminated Saltwater intrusion into drinking water supplies near coastal areas Reduced water flows into surface waters No evaporation losses Cheaper to extract than most surface waters Increased cost and contamination from deeper wells

27 Groundwater Depletion: A Growing Problem The Ogallala, the worlds largest aquifer, is most of the red area in the center (Midwest). The Ogallala, the worlds largest aquifer, is most of the red area in the center (Midwest). Areas of greatest aquifer depletion from groundwater overdraft in the continental U.S. Areas of greatest aquifer depletion from groundwater overdraft in the continental U.S. Figure 14-8

28 Fig. 14-8, p. 314 Groundwater Overdrafts: High Moderate Minor or none

29 Other Effects of Groundwater Overpumping Groundwater overpumping can cause land to sink, and contaminate freshwater aquifers near coastal areas with saltwater. Groundwater overpumping can cause land to sink, and contaminate freshwater aquifers near coastal areas with saltwater. Figure 14-11

30 Fig , p. 315 Major irrigation well Well contaminated with saltwater Water table Fresh groundwater aquifer Sea level Saltwater Interface Seafloor Saltwater intrusion Interface Normal interface

31 Other Effects of Groundwater Overpumping Sinkholes form when the roof of an underground cavern collapses after being drained of groundwater. Sinkholes form when the roof of an underground cavern collapses after being drained of groundwater. Figure 14-10

32 Groundwater Pumping in Saudi Arabia (1986 – 2004) Irrigation systems from the nonrenewable aquifer appear as green dots. Brown dots are wells that have gone dry. Irrigation systems from the nonrenewable aquifer appear as green dots. Brown dots are wells that have gone dry. Figure 14-9

33 Fig , p. 316 Solutions Groundwater Depletion PreventionControl Waste less water Raise price of water to discourage waste Subsidize water conservation Ban new wells in aquifers near surface waters Tax water pumped from wells near surface waters Buy and retire groundwater withdrawal rights in critical areas Do not grow water- intensive crops in dry areas Set and enforce minimum stream flow levels

34 USING DAMS AND RESERVOIRS TO SUPPLY MORE WATER Large dams and reservoirs can produce cheap electricity, reduce downstream flooding, and provide year-round water for irrigating cropland, but they also displace people and disrupt aquatic systems. Large dams and reservoirs can produce cheap electricity, reduce downstream flooding, and provide year-round water for irrigating cropland, but they also displace people and disrupt aquatic systems.

35 Figure 14-13

36 Fig a, p. 317 Provides water for year-round irrigation of cropland Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people Large losses of water through evaporation Provides water for drinking Downstream cropland and estuaries are deprived of nutrient-rich silt Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing Risk of failure and devastating downstream flooding Can produce cheap electricity (hydropower) Downstream flooding is reduced Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted

37 Fig b, p. 317 Powerlines Reservoir Dam Powerhouse Intake Turbine

38 Case Study: The Colorado Basin – an Overtapped Resource The Colorado River has so many dams and withdrawals that it often does not reach the ocean. The Colorado River has so many dams and withdrawals that it often does not reach the ocean. 14 major dams and reservoirs, and canals. 14 major dams and reservoirs, and canals. Water is mostly used in desert area of the U.S. Water is mostly used in desert area of the U.S. Provides electricity from hydroelectric plants for 30 million people (1/10 th of the U.S. population). Provides electricity from hydroelectric plants for 30 million people (1/10 th of the U.S. population).

39 Case Study: The Colorado Basin – an Overtapped Resource Lake Powell, is the second largest reservoir in the U.S. Lake Powell, is the second largest reservoir in the U.S. It hosts one of the hydroelectric plants located on the Colorado River. It hosts one of the hydroelectric plants located on the Colorado River. Figure 14-15

40 The Colorado River Basin The area drained by this basin is equal to more than one- twelfth of the land area of the lower 48 states. The area drained by this basin is equal to more than one- twelfth of the land area of the lower 48 states. Figure 14-14

41 Fig , p. 318 Dam Aqueduct or canal Upper Basin LOWER BASIN 0100 mi km Lower Basin UPPER BASIN IDAHO WYOMING Salt Lake City Grand Junction Denver UTAH NEVADA COLORADO Lake Powell Las Vegas Grand Canyon Glen Canyon Dam Boulder City NEW MEXICO ARIZONA Los Angeles Albuquerque Phoenix San Diego Mexicali Yuma Tucson All-American Canal Gulf of California MEXICO CALIFORNIA Palm Springs Colorado River

42 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment. Do the advantages of large dams outweigh their disadvantages? Do the advantages of large dams outweigh their disadvantages? a. No. Large dams inflict extensive environmental damage and humans must learn to meet their needs without them. a. No. Large dams inflict extensive environmental damage and humans must learn to meet their needs without them. b. Yes. Dams are critical in providing water and electricity for people, especially in developing countries. b. Yes. Dams are critical in providing water and electricity for people, especially in developing countries.

43 Case Study: Chinas Three Gorges Dam There is a debate over whether the advantages of the worlds largest dam and reservoir will outweigh its disadvantages. There is a debate over whether the advantages of the worlds largest dam and reservoir will outweigh its disadvantages. The dam will be 2 kilometers long. The dam will be 2 kilometers long. The electric output will be that of 18 large coal- burning or nuclear power plants. The electric output will be that of 18 large coal- burning or nuclear power plants. It will facilitate ship travel reducing transportation costs. It will facilitate ship travel reducing transportation costs. Dam will displace 1.2 million people. Dam will displace 1.2 million people. Dam is built over seismatic fault and already has small cracks. Dam is built over seismatic fault and already has small cracks.

44 Dam Removal Some dams are being removed for ecological reasons and because they have outlived their usefulness. Some dams are being removed for ecological reasons and because they have outlived their usefulness. In 1998 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers announced that it would no longer build large dams and diversion projects in the U.S. In 1998 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers announced that it would no longer build large dams and diversion projects in the U.S. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has approved the removal of nearly 500 dams. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has approved the removal of nearly 500 dams. Removing dams can reestablish ecosystems, but can also re-release toxicants into the environment. Removing dams can reestablish ecosystems, but can also re-release toxicants into the environment.

45 TRANSFERRING WATER FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER Transferring water can make unproductive areas more productive but can cause environmental harm. Transferring water can make unproductive areas more productive but can cause environmental harm. Promotes investment, jobs and strong economy. Promotes investment, jobs and strong economy. It encourages unsustainable use of water in areas water is not naturally supplied. It encourages unsustainable use of water in areas water is not naturally supplied.

46 Case Study: The California Experience A massive transfer of water from water-rich northern California to water-poor southern California is controversial. A massive transfer of water from water-rich northern California to water-poor southern California is controversial. Figure 14-16

47 Fig , p. 321 CALIFORNIA Sacramento River North Bay Aqueduct Lake Tahoe San Francisco Sacramento South Bay Aqueduct Hoover Dam and Reservoir (Lake Mead) NEVADA UTAH Fresno San Luis Dam and Reservoir Los Angeles Aqueduct Colorado River California Aqueduct Santa Barbara Colorado River Aqueduct Central Arizona Project ARIZONA Los Angeles Salton Sea Phoenix San Diego Tucson MEXICO San Joaquin Valley Feather River Shasta Lake Oroville Dam and Reservoir

48 Case Study: The Aral Sea Disaster The Aral Sea was once the worlds fourth largest freshwater lake. The Aral Sea was once the worlds fourth largest freshwater lake. Figure 14-17

49 Case Study: The Aral Sea Disaster Diverting water from the Aral Sea and its two feeder rivers mostly for irrigation has created a major ecological, economic, and health disaster. Diverting water from the Aral Sea and its two feeder rivers mostly for irrigation has created a major ecological, economic, and health disaster. About 85% of the wetlands have been eliminated and roughly 50% of the local bird and mammal species have disappeared. About 85% of the wetlands have been eliminated and roughly 50% of the local bird and mammal species have disappeared. Since 1961, the seas salinity has tripled and the water has dropped by 22 meters most likely causing 20 of the 24 native fish species to go extinct. Since 1961, the seas salinity has tripled and the water has dropped by 22 meters most likely causing 20 of the 24 native fish species to go extinct.

50 DESALTING SEAWATER, SEEDING CLOUDS, AND TOWING ICEBERGS AND GIANT BAGGIES Removing salt from seawater by current methods is expensive and produces large amounts of salty wastewater that must be disposed of safely. Removing salt from seawater by current methods is expensive and produces large amounts of salty wastewater that must be disposed of safely. Distillation: heating saltwater until it evaporates, leaves behind water in solid form. Distillation: heating saltwater until it evaporates, leaves behind water in solid form. Reverse osmosis: uses high pressure to force saltwater through a membrane filter. Reverse osmosis: uses high pressure to force saltwater through a membrane filter.

51 DESALTING SEAWATER, SEEDING CLOUDS, AND TOWING ICEBERGS AND GIANT BAGGIES Seeding clouds with tiny particles of chemicals to increase rainfall towing icebergs or huge bags filled with freshwater to dry coastal areas have all been proposed but are unlikely to provide significant amounts of freshwater. Seeding clouds with tiny particles of chemicals to increase rainfall towing icebergs or huge bags filled with freshwater to dry coastal areas have all been proposed but are unlikely to provide significant amounts of freshwater.

52 INCREASING WATER SUPPLIES BY WASTING LESS WATER We waste about two-thirds of the water we use, but we could cut this waste to 15%. We waste about two-thirds of the water we use, but we could cut this waste to 15% % of the water people use throughout the world is lost through evaporation, leaks, and other losses % of the water people use throughout the world is lost through evaporation, leaks, and other losses. Water is underpriced through government subsidies. Water is underpriced through government subsidies. The lack of government subsidies for improving the efficiency of water use contributes to water waste. The lack of government subsidies for improving the efficiency of water use contributes to water waste.

53 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment. Should water prices be raised sharply to help reduce water waste? Should water prices be raised sharply to help reduce water waste? a. No. Poor people, farmers, ranchers, and small businesses would suffer from price increases. a. No. Poor people, farmers, ranchers, and small businesses would suffer from price increases. b. Yes. People would be more likely to conserve water if it is more expensive. b. Yes. People would be more likely to conserve water if it is more expensive.

54 INCREASING WATER SUPPLIES BY WASTING LESS WATER Sixty percent of the worlds irrigation water is currently wasted, but improved irrigation techniques could cut this waste to 5-20%. Sixty percent of the worlds irrigation water is currently wasted, but improved irrigation techniques could cut this waste to 5-20%. Center-pivot, low pressure sprinklers sprays water directly onto crop. Center-pivot, low pressure sprinklers sprays water directly onto crop. It allows 80% of water to reach crop. It allows 80% of water to reach crop. Has reduced depletion of Ogallala aquifer in Texas High Plains by 30%. Has reduced depletion of Ogallala aquifer in Texas High Plains by 30%.

55 Fig , p. 325 Center pivot Drip irrigation Gravity flow (efficiency 60% and 80% with surge valves) Above- or below- ground pipes or tubes deliver water to individual plant roots. Water usually comes from an aqueduct system or a nearby river. (efficiency 90–95%) (efficiency 80%–95%) Water usually pumped from underground and sprayed from mobile boom with sprinklers.

56 Fig , p. 326 Solutions Reducing Irrigation Water Waste Line canals bringing water to irrigation ditches Level fields with lasers Irrigate at night to reduce evaporation Monitor soil moisture to add water only when necessary Polyculture Organic farming Don't grow water-thirsty crops in dry areas Grow water-efficient crops using drought resistant and salt-tolerant crop varieties Irrigate with treated urban waste water Import water-intensive crops and meat

57 Solutions: Getting More Water for Irrigation in Developing Countries – The Low-Tech Approach Many poor farmers in developing countries use low-tech methods to pump groundwater and make more efficient use of rainfall. Many poor farmers in developing countries use low-tech methods to pump groundwater and make more efficient use of rainfall. Figure 14-20

58 Fig , p. 327 Solutions Reducing Water Waste Redesign manufacturing processes Repair leaking underground pipes Landscape yards with plants that require little water Use drip irrigation Fix water leaks Use water meters Raise water prices Use waterless composting toilets Require water conservation in water- short cities Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and front loading clothes washers Collect and reuse household water to irrigate lawns and nonedible plants Purify and reuse water for houses, apartments, and office buildings Don't waste energy

59 Raising the Price of Water: A Key to Water Conservation We can reduce water use and waste by raising the price of water while providing low lifeline rates for the poor. We can reduce water use and waste by raising the price of water while providing low lifeline rates for the poor. When Boulder, Colorado introduced water meters, water use per person dropped by 40%. When Boulder, Colorado introduced water meters, water use per person dropped by 40%. A 10% increase in water prices cuts domestic water use by 3-7%. A 10% increase in water prices cuts domestic water use by 3-7%.

60 Solutions: Using Less Water to Remove Industrial and Household Wastes We can mimic the way nature deals with wastes instead of using large amounts of high-quality water to wash away and dilute industrial and animal wastes. We can mimic the way nature deals with wastes instead of using large amounts of high-quality water to wash away and dilute industrial and animal wastes. Use nutrients in wastewater before treatment as soil fertilizer. Use nutrients in wastewater before treatment as soil fertilizer. Use waterless and odorless composting toilets that convert human fecal matter into a small amount of soil material. Use waterless and odorless composting toilets that convert human fecal matter into a small amount of soil material.

61 TOO MUCH WATER Heavy rainfall, rapid snowmelt, removal of vegetation, and destruction of wetlands cause flooding. Heavy rainfall, rapid snowmelt, removal of vegetation, and destruction of wetlands cause flooding. Floodplains, which usually include highly productive wetlands, help provide natural flood and erosion control, maintain high water quality, and recharge groundwater. Floodplains, which usually include highly productive wetlands, help provide natural flood and erosion control, maintain high water quality, and recharge groundwater. To minimize floods, rivers have been narrowed with levees and walls, and dammed to store water. To minimize floods, rivers have been narrowed with levees and walls, and dammed to store water.

62 TOO MUCH WATER Comparison of St. Louis, Missouri under normal conditions (1988) and after severe flooding (1993). Comparison of St. Louis, Missouri under normal conditions (1988) and after severe flooding (1993). Figure 14-22

63 TOO MUCH WATER Human activities have contributed to flood deaths and damages. Human activities have contributed to flood deaths and damages. Figure 14-23

64 Fig a, p. 330 Oxygen released by vegetation Diverse ecological habitat Evapotranspiration Trees reduce soil erosion from heavy rain and wind Agricultural land Steady river flow Leaf litter improves soil fertility Tree roots stabilize soil and aid water flow Vegetation releases water slowly and reduces flooding Forested Hillside

65 Fig b, p. 330 Tree plantation Roads destabilize hillsides Evapotranspiration decreases Ranching accelerates soil erosion by water and wind Winds remove fragile topsoil Agricultural land is flooded and silted up Gullies and landslides Heavy rain leaches nutrients from soil and erodes topsoil Silt from erosion blocks rivers and reservoirs and causes flooding downstream Rapid runoff causes flooding After Deforestation

66 Fig , p. 331 Solutions Reducing Flood Damage PreventionControl Preserve forests on watersheds Strengthen and deepen streams (channelization) Preserve and restore wetlands in floodplains Tax all development on floodplains Build levees or floodwalls along streams Use floodplains primarily for recharging aquifers, sustainable agriculture and forestry, and recreation Build dams

67 SOLUTIONS: USING WATER MORE SUSTAINABLY We can use water more sustainably by cutting waste, raising water prices, preserving forests and wetlands in water basins, and slowing population growth. We can use water more sustainably by cutting waste, raising water prices, preserving forests and wetlands in water basins, and slowing population growth. Figure 14-25

68 Fig , p. 333 What Can You Do? Water Use and Waste Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators. Shower instead of taking baths, and take short showers. Stop water leaks. Turn off sink faucets while brushing teeth, shaving, or washing. Flush toilets only when necessary. Wash only full loads of clothes or use the lowest water-level for smaller loads. Use recycled (gray) water for lawn, gardens, house plants, car washing. Wash a car from a bucket of soapy water, and use the hose for rinsing only. If you use a commercial car wash, try to find one that recycles its water. Replace your lawn with native plants that need little if any watering and decorative gravel or rocks. Water lawns and gardens in the early morning or evening. Sweep or blow off driveways instead of hosing off with water. Use drip irrigation and mulch for gardens and flowerbeds.


Download ppt "Chapter 14 Water. Chapter Overview Questions Why is water so important, how much freshwater is available to us, and how much of it are we using? Why is."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google