Presentation on theme: "MAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT"— Presentation transcript:
1 MAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT LAND DEVELOPMENTMAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT
2 TYPES OF DEVELOPMENTResidential: Single family, duplex, townhouse, apartments, and condominiums.Commercial: Professional office, stores, malls.Industrial: single developments and industrial parks.Recreational:Amusement - land use, local impact, access, liability, population supply.Recreation - private clubs and sportingParks – state and federalResorts – complete facilityUse or ownership sharedResidential – incorporate a residential development around recreational site.
3 CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR Purpose of land development is to make the environment more useful and comfortable for humanity.Must be done in an organized and planned manner.Most often must be able to create a profit.Must meet political; economic; and aesthetics, while maintaining solid engineering principles.
4 CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR Land Use Controls: exist to protect public health, safety and welfare.Enabling Acts: passed in 1920’s – federal laws permitting states to pass zoning and subdivision laws.Zoning Regulations: use of land-use controls to protect the rights of the individual property owner and rights of others with in the community3 Basic areas: residential, commercial, and industrialChanged through exceptions and variances can occur – must shoe individual and public both benefit
5 CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR Land Subdivision Regulations:State, county, municipal: Provides legal definition of a subdivisionWho can prepareMonument requirementsProcedures for approval; design standards; construction requirementsDesigned to protect individual to assure that access, utilities, drainage, open space, adequate building space, are all provided.
6 LAND SURVEYOR’S ROLEThe role of the land surveyor varies depending on state – some on design (Indiana)At minimum: boundary survey; create subdivision; topographic survey and construction stakeout.Can include: speaking for developer and limited designState dependent: horizontal and vertical street alignment; sanitary and storm sewer, etc.
7 STEPS FOR A LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Est. at least 2nd order control traverse near boundary.Complete boundary surveyEst. benchmark systemPrepare topographic mapDetermine plan for streets, lots, utilities, etc.Develop preliminary drawingObtain approval of preliminary designCompute direction and distance of lots and streets, also engineering design
8 STEPS FOR A LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Prepare plat of subdivision; final topo map and engineering plansSet all monumentsObtain final approvalHave developer record plat and topo map
9 APPROVAL BY MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES Make sure zoning laws and subdivision ordinances are met.Permits must be obtainedStreets and access entrance permitsSewage facilities – sanitary and stormWater system - EPAOthers as neededOwner sill want municipality to take over maintenance of streets, sewer, water, etc.Any items not to be dedicated – establish maintenance methods
10 TWO MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR APPROVAL Development must contribute to the value of adjacent tracts; comply to master plan and add to tax base.All street and utility construction information provided.
11 OVERALL, LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS INCLUDE: Boundary and Topographic SurveysConstruction SurveysDesign and Construction of:AccessFlood Control and Drainage FacilitiesPotable WaterCollection and Treatment of solid and waterborne wasteUtilitiesRecreation facilitiesCoordination and Communication with Interest Groups
12 EACH PROJECT IS DIFFERENT Some of these differences include: What developer wantsEconomic (available funds)Existing conditions (large factor)Develop project to use existing in best wayNever accept existing maps - check
13 INTEREST GROUPS TO BE WORKED WITH: Governing bodies: municipal and county (planning commission)Developer: Range from those who take pride in quality and a profit to those only interested in profitMinimize delays and unneeded costsDon’t let desire for profit overshadow dutyContractor: Develop a plan that can be builtHome Buyer: create safe and pleasant areaAccount for special populations
14 INTEREST GROUPS TO BE WORKED WITH: Public and Community: Increase overall valueAffects: traffic, taxes, schools, etc.Environmentals: Concern with protecting and preserving natural environmentEnvironmental Impact Statements – large projectsProfessionals: Engineers, Architects, etc.Work for interest of client and are controlled and limited by regulations, codes, ethics, and standards.
16 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS The actual planning of a subdivision is much more than just following a set of regulations.Development Concepts:Traditionally individual lots for single family dwellings with access streetsOther needs require dedication and each are zoned for single purpose
17 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS PUD’s (Planned Unit Developments)Integrated plan of residents, community shopping, recreation, open space, schools all mixed into small communitiesRequires changes in zoning conceptsGenerally large scope developmentsNeighborhood Unit concept: residential neighborhood created around a central focusPattern based on lot arrangementConventional lot and blockLots and streets with no open or recreation areasMost intense land use, small lots
18 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS Cluster DevelopmentLot and block system but side and/or back yard are developed for common parks or open spacesMust have home owners association to care for commons areasPattern Based on Street ArrangementStreet location can dictate lot patternRectangular – most commonLot and block with square cornersPattern is visually monotonous and disregards topoEasy to design and develop
19 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS Curvilinear: similar to rectangular but streets are curved to fit topographyRelieved repetition, slows speed, overall development can meet terrainRadial: resembles spokes of a wheelUseful if some central focus is needed or existsCan cause problems with triangular lotsLinear: development along both sides of single road
21 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS Loops and Cul-De-SacsLoop – U shaped, Cul-de-sacUsed to minimize repetition in rectangular or curvilinear systemsAlso provides additional accessCan also be used to create small cluster communities within a developmentCoving and Bayhome ConceptPurpose – developing land at a lower cost while creating superior communitiesProvides more desired densityIncreased safetyDecreased run off
22 COVINGCoving combines both the bending of streets and setbacks creating more open space; generally the ROW is reduced 35%The Basics:Winding street pattern reduces or eliminates side streets and total number of individual streetsLineal feet of streets typically reduced 20-40% while maintaining density and four way intersections minimizedOpen space within entire community increasedPedestrian walkways positioned to follow a curvilinear path separate from streets
23 COVING Road remains at widths recommended Layout reduces views of home sides or rears and homes rarely face another home front or rear which gives enhanced privacyStreetscape consists of park like green space which meander from one side of the street to the otherAverage lot size increases by 10-20% with extra typically in home fronts
32 BAYHOMINGBayhoming uses the same concepts as coving but with more densityCoving is based on single family ownership, while with bayhomes the land and all items outside the home are held in common ownership with a homeowners associationCoving incorporates townhouses in a staggered formatRequirements:Bayhomes have no individual lot, this allows for larger infrastructure reductionWhile coving provides smooth curves with no staggering, Bayhomes can be greatly staggered creating more panoramic views from within homesParking is in rear with screened walls and landscaping hiding vehicles from public collector streetsBayhomes have large front porchesFront of home is toward common areas
33 BENEFITS AND CONCEPTS OF COVING AND BAYHOMING PRESERVING THE SENSE OF THE COMMUNITYPRIORITIZE VIEWREDUCE INFRASTRUCTUREAFFORDABILITYSAFER STREETSFEWER INTERSECTIONSOPEN SPACESMINIMIZE ERROSION AND SEDIMENT POLLUTIONMORE TREE SPACENO SQUARE LOTS
34 ADVANTAGES TO MUNICIPALITY LESS INFRASTRUCTURE TO MAINTAINLESS LAW ENFORCEMENT DUE TO INCREASED SECURITY AND LACK OF INTERSECTIONSDUE TO AVAILABLE SPACE, PEOPLE DO NOT FLEE URBAN SPRAWL
35 DENSITY Population Density – density affecting quality of life. To many creates noise, lack of privacy, and increased conflictsTo few can create lack of socialization, excess travel, and high cost of community servicesMost commonly expressed as “Dwelling Units/Acre” (DC/Ac)Gross density – units/acre of total landResidential density – units/acres of land including streets, public facilities, etc.Net density – units/acre of land devoted only to residenceCan also be a variable using people/acreTypical residential density – below 2 DU/Ac is low with common design value of 2 – 5 DU/Ac
36 EXAMPLE 3 DU/AC IS DESIRED 25% LAND AREA IS STREETS AND OPEN AREA THUS 75% OF OR ft² GOES INTO 3 LOTSTHUS ft²/ LOT TYPICAL LOT SIZE COULD BY 90’x120’¾ x = 32670ft²32670/ 3 = 10890ft²/lot
37 SITE ANALYSIS AND SUITABILITY USGS topo’s provide a rough source for thisAlso check SCS and others for mapsSite Suitability: depends on viewpoint of personIncludes:use which provides most profitUse that provide maximum enjoyment and highest life qualityUse that preserves or improves the balance of nature and is least disruptive to the environment
38 TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE PATTERNS Affects: streets, drainage, views, earthwork, erosion, environmentalGently rolling terrain best - 2-5% slopes5-10% can also provide good sites with increased costSlopes over 20% require special considerationsMatching the topo is essentialSoils and geology: soil type and presence of rockDepth of water tableEnvironmental factors: orientation and shape of sitesHow to use natural features as a benefitSun angle, trees, noise, wildlife and aesthetic character of site
40 SUBDIVISION DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS Usual standards, develop a checklistGeometric PrinciplesStreets, sidewalks, intersections, lots and easements all depend on geometric principlesFollowing them simplifies design and layout and balance and symmetry prevailFollow terrainFront lot lines should be straight or arcs and side lines should be either perpendicular or radial to street ROW
41 BLOCK AND LOT STANDARDS Blocks: directly relates to streets; not requiredLength, shape, slope and general arrangement normally regulatedMax length normally between 1000’ – 1500’Shape dependent on terrain and tract shapeLots: must have satisfactory building site and be properly related to topographyMust have vehicle access to local streetStandards can specify minimum width and depthMin width 70’ typicalDepth normally approx. 3 times width20’ – 50’ setback at front with 5’ – 10’ side and backAvoid double frontage
42 LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE Urban Land InstituteLarge development – 35% non-residentialSmall development – 25% non-residentialStreets: ROW dedicated – acceptanceCollector – 60’ ROW – 70’ ROWMinimal individual access – purpose is to move traffic to arterial streetsLocal – 50’ ROW – 60’ ROWAccess to lots, services and collector streetsLow speed (20 – 30 mph)Allow for plantings, pedestrians, and bikewaysAlignmentCul-de-sac streets normally have max length of 600’ – 1000’ with minimum radius of 50’ ROW and 40’ pavedJogs (T-intersections) – prefer min of 125’ betweenReverse Curves – keep to min and use larger curve radiusSight distance – hilly area – 100’; local streets – 200’; collector streets – 250’
43 LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE Vertical curves must have a minimum length equal to – 20 times the algebraic difference in grades (%)Max grade is normally 15% and minimum is 0.5%Minimum radius for circular curves range from -200’ on local streets and 300’ for collector streetsStreet alignment should minimize need for storm sewersFollow ridges, parallel or perpendicular to contours, and along shallow swales.NamingStreet: North – South streetsAvenue: East – West streetsDrive or Boulevard: Meandering streetsRoad or Way: street that runs other than cardinal directionsLane or Place: North – South Cul-de-sac streetsCircle or Court: East – West Cul-de-sac streets
44 LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE Intersections: Junctions of more than 2 streets, avoidedT intersection is preferredOffsets between 4way intersections:150’ min local and 300’ collectorAngles: centerline intersect should be close to 90° with 75° being minimumStreets should remain in tangent for 100’ min prior to PCGrade should be relatively flat with max being 0.5% - 4%Minimum sight distance at intersections = 90’Minimum curb radius = 20’ local; 30’ collectorSidewalk and Bikeway: one or both sides if needed – 4’ width minimum, 6’ better.Easements: 15’ – 30’ minimum
45 DESIGN Roadway Locate Centerline Develop Centerline Profile Direction and distance (PI-PI)Develop Centerline ProfilePlot existing ground and special features1”-5’ or 10’ vertical and 1”-50’ or 100’ horizontalDesign proposed centerline: 0.4%-15% slopesStay as close as possible to existing groundAvoid roller coasterBalance cut and fillIdentify culvert locations and allow clearance20MPH – 10’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE30MPH – 20’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE40MPH – 35’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGEMIN. VERTICLE CURVE LENGTH 75’-100’
46 DESIGNPavement: Thickness based on AASHTO and Soil design based upon the lowest soil support values.Normal: Rigid – PCC – 6”-10” dependent on loadsFlexible: Bituminous ConcreteSurface: 2 ½” – 4”Base: 6” – 8”Sub-base (Stone): 6” – 12”A-3 (Oil and Chip)Base 8”-12” granular with asphalt 3 times with chipsGeneral alleys at most
47 DESIGN Roadway design: Site study by traffic engineer to determine needs on site and effect of development on existing systemSite access; traffic circulation; traffic flowTake care using one way streetsStreets often have other uses: bicycles; play and minimal on street parkingStreets have slow design speeds: mphSight distance-critical Stopping distance: d= V2/30f d= braking distance in feet V=vehicle speed in MPH f=coefficient of friction
49 DESIGN Local street design guidelines (local streets) Curb: Barrier; Mountable; V (depressed)Parking: off street parkingSpace width 9’-11’Space length 18’-20’Recreational vehicles (boat/trailer) 10’ x 40’Make parking areas aesthetically pleasing
50 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Retention – No runoff Detention – Controlled, limited runoffDevelopment will always cause additional runoffUtilize topography to minimize amount to be handlesDrainage design based on average and 5-50 yr rainfallCharts and info: West of 103°W longitude – NOAA Atlas 2; East of 103°W longitude – USWB TP-40 and/or NWS Hydro 35Runoff depends on: permeability of soil; slope; topography; climate; and amount of rainfall
51 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Soil types and Runoff (NRCS) Group A: low runoff, high infiltration (sand/gravel) water transfer – 0.3”/hrGroup B: moderate infiltration, deep well drained soil (fine-course texture) water transmission – 0.15”-0.3”/hrGroup C: low infiltration; layered soil (mod.fine – fine texture) water transmission – 0.05”-0.15”/hrGroup D: high runoff, very low infiltration, clay soil in pan or layer near surface – water transmission – ”/hrSurface Roughness affects runoff: Coefficient of RoughnessLevels:Smooth paved surfaces – 0.011Cultivated – 0.05 – 0.17Grassland: short – 0.15; dense – 0.24; Bermuda – 0.41Woods: light underbrush – 0.40; heavy underbrush – 0.80
52 COMPUTE RUNOFF BASED ON NRCS METHODS Determine the watershed area from the topo mapEstablish the storm period and corresponding 24 hour rainfallStorm period – intensity 2yr, 5yr, 10yr, 20yr, 25yr, 50yr, and 100yr10yr normally used, many use 25yr for safetyCalculate initial maximum retention after runoff beginsCalculate peak discharge for areaUse “Rational Method” Q=CiA Q=quantity of runoff in cu.ft/sec C=coefficient of runoff (ratio of water runoff to water falling) i=intensity of rainfall (inches/hour) A=drainage area (acres)
53 FACTORS AFFECTING SITE DRAINAGE LOCATION OF SITE WITH RESPECT TO OFF-SITE STORM WATERGENERAL LOT GRADING PLANS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE POSITIVE OVERALL PLANREQUIREMENTS AS TO STORM WATER RETENTION OR DISCHARGE RATES MUST BE MET.MAXIMUM CARRY DISTANCE – LOCAL SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE OR ROAD AUTHORITY
54 STORM SEWER AND CULVERT DESIGN Must be determined based upon runoff computed and peak; slope and pipe characteristics“Manning Formula” V=flow velocity (ft/sec) R=hydraulic radius (cross sectional area of flowing water/length of wetted surface of pipe) – in feet = D/4 (full pipe) S=expected slope (decimal) n=roughness factor (0.015 – 0.025)Slope: min 10” pipe = 0.28%; 12” = 0.22%Best to use 0.4%Want to keep flow at 2-10 ft/secOpen channel – compute same waySlope: 2% - 10%
55 RETENTION AND DETENTION FACILITIES Retention facility has no dischargeDetention facility has limited dischargeGenerally designed to hold runoff until existing stream can handle additional flowMaximum discharge is limited to peak storm runoff ratesCan be achieved through lakes, ponds, subsurface basins, dutch (french drains),& sumps
56 SYSTEM DESIGN Two conditions exist either alone or in combination: Site subject to sheet or overland flowSite subject to channelized flowMust realize that in residential development much additional runoff occurs: typical lot +1/2 ROW = 0.4 Ac.House roof – 1600 sq ftDriveway – 600 sq ftPatio – 400 sq ftRoadway – 1500 sq ft sq ft = Ac or approx ¼ area
57 SEDIMENTATION AND ERROSION CONTROL Select sites with drainage patterns, topo and soils suitable for developmentIncorporate:Expose smallest area for least amount of timeRetain topsoil to recover graded areas and protect natural vegetationSeclude plantings, seeding, mulching and stone surfacing as neededUse sediment basins and silt trapsInstall permanent vegetation and long term erosion protectionIf lake or pond is included – a dead storage area for sedimentation should be included upstream of the lake.
58 SANITARY SEWER See pages 498 – 554 in the text Traditional collection systems (gravity flow) normalU.S. EPA Program: Small Community Outreach and Education (SCORE) – U.S. EPA Bulletin (1992)
59 SANITARY SEWER 1 gal = 7.48 cu. ft. Residence: Apartments: Typical per capita flow is gal/day (per person)Design should include max flows 6-10am and 6-10pm with low being 2am-6amMax Daily Flow = 2x Average Daily FlowMax Hourly Flow = 3x Average Daily FlowApartments:3 bedroom/4 person = 100 gal/day/personRestaurant: 100 gal/day/seatHotel: 100 gal/day/bedroomService Station: 10 gal/day/car served
60 INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS Should make sure they do not: Contaminate drinking water supplyAllow insects, rodents or other disease carriers to multiplyBe accessible to childrenPollute or contaminate surface watersCreate foul odor and appearance
61 INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS Traditional: Septic & Absorption Field Conventional Gravel Absorption Field: trench 12-36” wide with 14” course aggregate and perforated 4” pipe covered with geotextilePercolation test: timing settlement of water over timeLength of absorption field directly related to soils absorption ability (perk test)Sand filters – evaporation and absorption bedsmall holding tank – field encased in sandNew method is to have it expanded over a large area and have plantings over it.
62 PUMP STATIONSUsed to transport material under pressure, can not be tappedCollection System:Min pipe size = 8”Place sewer either along ROW or at back linesSeparate from waterlines by 10’ horiz. and vert.Manhole placed at all bends, intersections, changes in slope with no section longer than 400’Manhole: precast; dropPump station with force mainLift station
63 POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS Pg 557-610 TEXT Often last system to be designed Must look at water source (FIRST)Must look at Average and Maximum Daily Demand and Max. Hourly DemandNormal daily use per capita = gallonsWaterlines must maintain a min of 20 lb psiWater storage tank – if large development may be beneficialFire storage reserve: 1000 gal/min x 2hr = 120,000 galOne day reserve: 150 gal/person/day x 1000 people = 150,000 galThese determine min tank size(23.5’dia x24’tall=75000 gal)
64 WATERLINE 2 types: Loop System and Branch System Each has gate valves at each intersection of mains and between main and fire hydrants4 way valves at all crossesOther valves usually placed between 500’-1000’ intervalsDepth: based on frost penetration. 3.5’ in extreme Southern Illinois, 4’ in Carbondale, 4.5’-5’ in Champaign, and 5.5’-6’ in ChicagoParts: piping (usually PVC) may require ductile – ironThrust block: block forms placed to transfer angular force to soil and needed to keep joints together.
65 WATERLINE Valves: Laterals: service lines, normal size is ¾” to 1” Shut off: gate or butterfly type placed in system for repair or emergency purposesCheck valve: control direction of water flowPressure Reducing Valve: reduce inlet pressure to a controlled outlet pressureAltitude Control Valve: control flow in and out of tankOften direct linked to pump stationsAir Release Valve: used to release trapped air at high points in linesBack Flow Preventers: antisiphon valves used to protect safe water from contaminated systemsLaterals: service lines, normal size is ¾” to 1”
66 BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS A subdivision is required whenever land owner divides land into 2 or more tracts with any of them being less than 5 acres or new rights of accessEXCEPT: no subdivision required if:The division into parcels 5 acres or more which does not involve any new streets or easements of access.The division of lots or blocks of less than 1 acre in any recorded subdivision which does not involve any new streets or easements of access.The sale or exchange of parcels of land between owners of adjoining and contiguous land.
67 BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS Conveyance pf parcels for use as a right of way for railroads or other public utility facilities or pipelines which does not involve any new street or easement of accessConveyance of land owned by railroad or other public utility which does not involve any new streets or easements of access.Conveyance for highway or other public purposes or grants relating to the dedication of land for public use.Conveyances made to correct descriptions
68 BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS Sale or exchange of parcels into no more than 2 parts of a parcel that existed on July 17, 1959 and not involving any new streets or easements of access.The sale of a single lot of less than 5 acres form a larger tract when survey is made by an IL Registered Land Surveyor. No more lots may be sold off based on tract dimensions and configuration of the larger tract on Oct. 1, As long as it does not invalidate any local requirements.The developer must have the tract surveyed and a plat of subdivision prepared by a RLS
69 The Plat MUST Show: All public streets, alleys, easements All parcels, tracts, blocks, and lotsMust have a progressive numbering systemGive exact dimensionsAll angular linear data along exterior boundaryNames of all public streets, alleys, etc.Reference must be made to permanent monuments from which future surveys can be made.
70 Surveyor MUST establish, in such a way as not to be disturbed, good and sufficient monuments Monuments must be set at all corners at each end of curves, and at all angle points2 monuments must be permanent (stone or reinforced concrete) and set at the extremities of the subdivision
71 A Topographic Map MUST be made of the area Must show existing and proposed conditionsMust be the same scale and size as subdivision plat so it can be used as an overlay
72 FILING OF PLATSPlat of Subdivision and topo map must be filed at County Recorder’s Office prior to sale of any lots!!!Plat must contain the following certifications:CERTIFICATE OF SURVEYORLegal description with name of subdivisionCertification as to location within or without corporate limits
73 FILING OF PLATS CERTIFICATE OF OWNER Swear as to ownership FEMA Certify that construction will not change drainage of surface waters in such a way as to damage adjoining property and that surface water will be deposited into a water course which the owners have a right to use.Dedicate street right of way and easements to public useWaive and release all rights given by virtue of the Homestead Exemption Laws of the state.School district in which located
74 FILING OF PLATS NOTARY PUBLIC CERTIFICATE CERTIFICATE OF COUNTY CLERK Certifies that owners signed plat before notary and of their own free will.CERTIFICATE OF COUNTY CLERKCertifies that tax records have been checked and property is free of taxesCERTIFICATE OF GOVERNMENTAL BODIESCertifies that subdivision has been approvedMay be more than one (county and city)CERTIFICATE OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERCertifies that drainage will not cause damage to adjoining propertiesMuse also certify Topo Map (drainage)
75 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE May be county or municipalAll make state law a part of ordinancePurpose is to regulate development and make sure compliance with engineering design practicesDefinitions: all aspects and terms definedExceptions: any that exist above state law
76 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE GENERAL PROCESS:Tentative or Preliminary PlatMust provide a number of prints for reviewExamined by the Co. Engineer and othersThey note required changes or approvalMinimum Scale (1”=100’) & max sheet size given (24x36)Must include: (typical)Section lines, ¼ sec. lines, adjacent subdivision lines, adjacent streets and alleys, watercourses and other pertinent featuresExisting utilities, drainage systems on and adjacentNames of adjoining subdivisions and other areas must indicate present usageProposed streets and roads with width, names, alleys, lots, easements, building setbacksName of subdivision, subdivider, and surveyor
77 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE FINAL PLAT – generally a time period exists between tentative approval and length final must be approved in.Requirements:Material, size, lettering sizeDate of preparation, north sign, rectangular system, material and scaleTitleCorrect survey of boundary with descriptionLocation, width, names of all roads, streets, alleys and other land dedicated to publicLines, dimensions, and names of adjoining or abutting roads streets or alleys
78 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE Lot lines shown and lots and blocks numberedBuilding lines and easements shown and dimensionedDescription and location of permanent survey markersAll lot corners, points of curvature, ROW intersections; changes in ROW and offset points must be monumentedType of monument required (30” x ½”)How monument setRepeat state requirement for permanent (reinforced concrete or stone – 2 at extremities)Minimum and/or maximum lot sizes and frontages
79 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE Design Requirements:Layout shall preserve natural features of site.Provide proper traffic circulation – prefer long blocksStreets intersect at 90° preferred not less than 65°Dead end streets no longer than 1320’ and have cul-de-sac with min radiusLayout to fit contoursStreets nor on boundary and no “spite strips”Streets along State or County Highways shall provide access at intervals not less that ¼ mile
80 SUBDIVISION ORDIANCE Private roads discouraged Minimum 50’ ROW and road way widths (20’-24’)Street material and thickness - 8” stone + 3” bit. conc. - specs must conform to IDOT and max. grades (8%)Easements: min. width and locationBuilding setbacks: width and locationDrainage requirements (storm, open, or mix)Signage requirementsWater and sanitary sewer facilities described and req
81 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE Engineering Requirements:Profile of streets (existing and proposed)Typical cross section of roadway with surfacingDrainage structures (surface and underground): location, size, type, and gradeLocate water courses and bodies of water (high and low elev.)Sanitary sewer: plan and profile and location or source of treatmentWater system location
82 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Wetlands Determination StudyBased on Section 404 of Clean Water Act and Section of Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899Jurisdiction of Corps of Engineers and EPADefined: area containing hydric soil, periodic flood water, or hydrophile plants (hydrophytic plants are plant life growing in water, soil, or on substrate which is periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content.)Areas where wetlands occur must have on-site inventory of dominant plant genus and species.50% of dominant plant types
83 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Hydraulic soil – soil that is saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during growing season to develop anaerobic conditions (lack of oxygen) in the upper parts.
84 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Off site wetlands inventoryLocate development on USGS 7.5min and relate to wetland features that denote possible wetlandsStudy National Wetlands Inventory map to determine potential wetland areas on site.Study soil survey map (SCS) to determine if hydric soil exist.Study aerial photos – potential wetlandsReview any available wetland studies in areaMake determination based on 1-5 conduct on site inspections to make final decision
85 WETLANDSOften surveyors are 1st to visit property and potential wetland info. Should be included in topo.No uniform definitionDiffer between regulatory bodies1987 Corp of Engineers “Wetlands Delineation Manual”1989 – “Federal Interagency Manual for Identifying and Delineating Wetlands”Most wetlands in areas of low relief, topographic depressions.Can also be found in all other areas with groundwater discharge
86 WETLANDSFormal delineation takes extensive training, but wetlands are generally defined by:Hydraulic soilsHydrophytic vegetationWetland hydrologyWetland Hydrology: presence of waterSoils saturated at or near surface or inundated for sufficient length of time to allow microorganisms to deplete available oxygen in the soilsWater does not have to be on surface
87 WETLANDS Wetland (Hydrophytic) vegetation Indicators: Evidence of floodingWater marks or stains on treesObvious standing water or soil saturationBlackened or discolored fallen leavesWetland (Hydrophytic) vegetationPlants that have adapted to growing in wet conditionsField guides to wetland plantsShallow root systemsWind thrown and fallen leavesButtressed tree trunksInflated or floating stems or leavesTrees with multiple trunks from same base
88 WETLANDS Wetland (Hydric) soil Biological and chemical process occurs that alters color of soilNormally wet soils are grey or black with prominent orange or red iron stainsSoil colors – Munsell Soil Color ChartsField indicators:Grey or black colorsSulfidic odorsPeat or muck accumulations
89 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTBased on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 makes property owners liable for cleanupSuperfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986 limits liability if proper investigations were performed as to existence of substances prior to purchaseAny indication of potential hazards means owner is liable
90 4 BASIC LAWS OF ECOLOGY Everything is connected with everything else Everything must go somewhereNature knows bestThere is no such thing as a free lunch
91 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND IMPACT STATEMENT NECESSARY TO:Predict any change in each environmental constituentIdentify the scope of any change on each environmental descriptorDetermine the implications or significance of the anticipated change on each element
92 5 COMPONENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Environmental impact of the proposed actionIdentify any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoidedRange of feasible alternatives to achieve the initial problem objective or alternatives to the proposed actionAgency required to identify “the relationship productivity”Requires agency to discuss the objections or issues raised by reviewers
93 INTENT OF IMPACT STATEMENTS To provide a data base, documentation, and forecasts from which future decisions could be made.To identify the extent of both recognized and potential losses, the implications of the losses, and prepare information in such a way so it can e understood by government and publicMany times developers would prepare their EIS into volumes with as much technical data as possible to try to get approvalEIS was to be a mechanism for integrated planningOften is used as a reason to justify decisions by governmental bodiesTie projects up for so long as to make them impractical
94 2 WAYS ECOLOCY CAN BE USED AS A BASIS FOR PLANTING DESIGN Essentially to guess what will work.Plants are selected based on soil/climate, appearance and other relevant environmental determinants
95 3 DIVISIONS OF PLANT TYPES CANOPY – those trees that define or limit overhead planeUNDERSTORY – combination of small trees, large shrubs, and climbing vines under canopy treesGROUND COVER – grasses, ground vines, and wildflowers
96 VEG. SHOULD BE EVALUATED BASED ON: Aesthetic valueDisease resistanceLife span of treesWind firmnessWildlife valueComfort indexAbility to withstand higher radiated heat from paved surfaces and buildingsFuture growth with respect to utilities
97 UTILIZING TREES IN WOODED AREA These trees have shallow roots: may be best to conserve in clumpsMany mature trees will not survive a violent change of habitat.Changes in ground water (amounts and quality) can cause problemsArea around trees should not be filled (disturbs access of air, water, and minerals)
98 ROLES OF PLANTS IN DEVELOPMENT Wind controlObstructionFiltrationDeflectionErosion controlEnergy conservationWildlife habitat
99 PLANTING CAN BE USED:In combination with buildings to extend architectural lines or as a screen to enhance architectureAs skylineTo define sheltered areas or act as buffer between activity areasEnhance, blocks, frames, a view for building siteAs educational source
100 PRINCIPLES TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING PLANTING PLAN: Plan should reflect a predominance of one type of plant or a similar texture, color, or form within a groupingExercise restraint relative to the number of different plants used in planSelect plants with common soil, climate, and water requirementsMaintenance of hedges is time consuming, consider growth habit and mature sizeDevelop plants so they do not rely on the quality of any particular tree or plant
101 PLANT SELECTION BASED ON AT LEAST ONE OF THESE CRITERIA: Plants ability to live and flourish in the specific environmentKnowledge as to existing trees on site and their healthy growth on adjacent sitesPlants that require low maintenance and/or low water amountsPlants for a specific purpose (shade, contrast, color, and size)
102 CLIMATE AND SITE THINGS THAT CAN BE DONE: Develop exterior spaces that utilize local climate norms and extremes to expand availability of thermanlly comfortable outdoor areasReduce thermal loads on buildings
103 CLIMATE AND SITE FOUR BASIC CLIMATIC ELEMENTS Solar radiation – reaches us in the form of direct, diffuse, and reflected radiation4 methods of control and modificationAdmissionObstructionFiltrationReflectionVegetation: trees can absorb 60-90% of solar radiation
104 CLIMATE AND SITEAir temperature – only minimum changes can be caused – relative measure of thermal energy in the airControl and modification: by controlling solar radiation and air movementVegetation: air temperature is lowered due to evaporation process, but humidity levels increase. (this is often a small difference)
105 CLIMATE AND SITE Relative humidity only minimum changes can be caused provide shade that does not limit air movementHumidity can be increased by including water in areas
106 CLIMATE AND SITEAir movement – to utilize the beneficial effects must be aware of how site characteristics affect air motionVegetation: when used to protect from cold winter winds it is a windbreakAirflow is affected by shape and density of windbreakAirflow is affected 5-10 times windbreak height on windward and up to 30 times height on leeward side
108 OUTDOOR WILDLIFE RELATED ACTIVITIES 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated RecreationNationally$108 billion spent on wildlife related activitiesIllinois$1.35 billion spent
109 DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION Recreation is often a delivery of opportunities for individuals and society most often provided by governmentBenefits include:Economic developmentProtection or preservation of the resourceEducation and learningMaintenance or improvement of physical health
110 PROCESS FOR PLANNINGDetermine which benefits are demanded from which areasDetermine the extent to which the resource base can be used to deliver benefitsMust take into account: budgets, technology, resource capability, current uses of resources, and non-recreational resource demands on areaDetermine which management actions are to be used
111 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIESMonitoring the actions taken to determine if appropriate benefits are being developedMonitor societies demands to see if original demands still existWildlife recreation planning manuals and handbooks are being developed by Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service
112 WHEN DEVELOPING A RECREATIONAL PLAN ONE SHOULD: Estimate demand for possible recreational activitiesConduct capability analysis of land and water in plan area to determine potential of existing resourcesDetermine what recreational opportunities already exist on siteConduct suitability analysis to determine where and how recreational activities should be provided
113 WHEN DEVELOPING A RECREATIONAL PLAN ONE SHOULD: Incorporate recreational activities with other resource usesDevelop alternative use plansChoose plan that reflects the most desirable use of resourcesDevelop activity and project plans consistent with resource use chosen.
115 TYPE OF USE DIVDED INTO 6 RECREATION ACTIVITY CLASSES PrimitiveSemi-primitive non motorizedSemi-primitive motorizedRoaded-naturalSemi-urbanurban
116 CAPABILITY ANALYSISPermits identification of inherent Recreational Opportunity potential of the resources and of inherent attractiveness of resource for recreation
117 CRITERIA TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL Remoteness from sights and sounds of man and access by roadSize of areaAmount of irreversible evidence of manAmount of apparent renewable resource modification
118 SIZE OF AREA REQUIREMENTS Primitive ≥ 5,000 acresSemi-primitive ≥ 2,500 acresRoaded Natural, Semi-urban, Urban ≥ 1 acre
119 INVESTIGATE THE PRESENT OPPORTUNITIES LOOK FOR:Evidence of useFrequency of encounters of usesUser density per acreFacility and site managementUser regulation
120 SUITABLIITY ANALYSIS AND CHOOSING AN ALLOCATION Use the previous and look at:Budget, technology, legislative and administrative policy, resource capability, and the use of resources to produce non-recreational outputsGuidelines for selection capacities within the acceptable rangeLow capabilities where landscape is open (little vegetative cover and flat topography)High capabilities are selected where there are more potential
121 RECREATION ATTRACTORS: Power boating and waterskiingSailingOcean/lake/river swimmingSurfboarding or scuba divingFishingTent campingR.V. campingGolfingHorseback riding
122 ECONOMICS OF RECREATION AND PLANNING Massachusetts Bay Colony passed the Great Pond Act in 1641Required that everybody of water 10 acres or more be kept open to public for fishing and huntingCentral Park in New York established in 1850’sLate 1800’s saw creation of: Yosemite Valley, Yellowstone, Mackinac Island, Niagara FallsMuch of this through efforts of Teddy RooseveltRecreational planning still deals with 2 basic elements: man and land
123 TODAY PLANNERS HAVE 3 IMPORTANT TOOLS: Greater public awareness and support – no longer ignoredAdequate legislationReady availability of public monies - ?
124 SITE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA PROCESS:Identify and categorize the capability of recreational useIdentification of recreational uses possibleRecreational activities/facilities are chosen based upon:Appropriateness to siteCurrent demand
125 SITE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA Sutegrate capability/suitability with recreational activity and facilitiesSelect site assessment indicators (unique natural characteristics of site)Related site assessment indicators to Recreational Appropriateness Index
126 THREE USE CATEGORIES:Preservation (limited use) – areas unique and fragilePassive Recreation (moderate use) – areas more numerous and capable of withstanding more human interventionActive Recreation (intensive use) – areas resilient to intensive use by large groups for short periods/generally quite accessible
127 3 CATEGORIES OF LOCATIONAL SUITABLE ACTIVITIES WATER BASEDWATER ENHANCEDNON-WATER RELATED
128 PLANNING SHOULD INCLUDE: Development of a resource base inventoryDetermine suitability of 3 management objectivesIdentify conflicts where overlapping occursDevelop balanced management program
129 ECONOMICS OF RECREATION Those activates which cost neither participant or others anything other than energy and imaginationThose conceived and undertaken for the purpose of making moneyPublic recreation which costs money – generally seen as responsibility of the government
130 RECREATIONFACILITY ARE APLIT INTO 3 ELEMENTS: Cost of land – purchase and or removal form tax baseCost of capital improvementsCost of maintenance and operation
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