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MAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT

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1 MAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT
LAND DEVELOPMENT MAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT

2 TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT Residential: Single family, duplex, townhouse, apartments, and condominiums. Commercial: Professional office, stores, malls. Industrial: single developments and industrial parks. Recreational: Amusement - land use, local impact, access, liability, population supply. Recreation - private clubs and sporting Parks – state and federal Resorts – complete facility Use or ownership shared Residential – incorporate a residential development around recreational site.

3 CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR
Purpose of land development is to make the environment more useful and comfortable for humanity. Must be done in an organized and planned manner. Most often must be able to create a profit. Must meet political; economic; and aesthetics, while maintaining solid engineering principles.

4 CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR
Land Use Controls: exist to protect public health, safety and welfare. Enabling Acts: passed in 1920’s – federal laws permitting states to pass zoning and subdivision laws. Zoning Regulations: use of land-use controls to protect the rights of the individual property owner and rights of others with in the community 3 Basic areas: residential, commercial, and industrial Changed through exceptions and variances can occur – must shoe individual and public both benefit

5 CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR
Land Subdivision Regulations: State, county, municipal: Provides legal definition of a subdivision Who can prepare Monument requirements Procedures for approval; design standards; construction requirements Designed to protect individual to assure that access, utilities, drainage, open space, adequate building space, are all provided.

6 LAND SURVEYOR’S ROLE The role of the land surveyor varies depending on state – some on design (Indiana) At minimum: boundary survey; create subdivision; topographic survey and construction stakeout. Can include: speaking for developer and limited design State dependent: horizontal and vertical street alignment; sanitary and storm sewer, etc.

7 STEPS FOR A LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
Est. at least 2nd order control traverse near boundary. Complete boundary survey Est. benchmark system Prepare topographic map Determine plan for streets, lots, utilities, etc. Develop preliminary drawing Obtain approval of preliminary design Compute direction and distance of lots and streets, also engineering design

8 STEPS FOR A LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
Prepare plat of subdivision; final topo map and engineering plans Set all monuments Obtain final approval Have developer record plat and topo map

9 APPROVAL BY MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES
Make sure zoning laws and subdivision ordinances are met. Permits must be obtained Streets and access entrance permits Sewage facilities – sanitary and storm Water system - EPA Others as needed Owner sill want municipality to take over maintenance of streets, sewer, water, etc. Any items not to be dedicated – establish maintenance methods

10 TWO MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR APPROVAL
Development must contribute to the value of adjacent tracts; comply to master plan and add to tax base. All street and utility construction information provided.

11 OVERALL, LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS INCLUDE:
Boundary and Topographic Surveys Construction Surveys Design and Construction of: Access Flood Control and Drainage Facilities Potable Water Collection and Treatment of solid and waterborne waste Utilities Recreation facilities Coordination and Communication with Interest Groups

12 EACH PROJECT IS DIFFERENT Some of these differences include:
What developer wants Economic (available funds) Existing conditions (large factor) Develop project to use existing in best way Never accept existing maps - check

13 INTEREST GROUPS TO BE WORKED WITH:
Governing bodies: municipal and county (planning commission) Developer: Range from those who take pride in quality and a profit to those only interested in profit Minimize delays and unneeded costs Don’t let desire for profit overshadow duty Contractor: Develop a plan that can be built Home Buyer: create safe and pleasant area Account for special populations

14 INTEREST GROUPS TO BE WORKED WITH:
Public and Community: Increase overall value Affects: traffic, taxes, schools, etc. Environmentals: Concern with protecting and preserving natural environment Environmental Impact Statements – large projects Professionals: Engineers, Architects, etc. Work for interest of client and are controlled and limited by regulations, codes, ethics, and standards.

15 PLATTING PROCESS PRE APPLICATION PRELIMINARY PLAT FINAL PLAT

16 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
The actual planning of a subdivision is much more than just following a set of regulations. Development Concepts: Traditionally individual lots for single family dwellings with access streets Other needs require dedication and each are zoned for single purpose

17 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
PUD’s (Planned Unit Developments) Integrated plan of residents, community shopping, recreation, open space, schools all mixed into small communities Requires changes in zoning concepts Generally large scope developments Neighborhood Unit concept: residential neighborhood created around a central focus Pattern based on lot arrangement Conventional lot and block Lots and streets with no open or recreation areas Most intense land use, small lots

18 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
Cluster Development Lot and block system but side and/or back yard are developed for common parks or open spaces Must have home owners association to care for commons areas Pattern Based on Street Arrangement Street location can dictate lot pattern Rectangular – most common Lot and block with square corners Pattern is visually monotonous and disregards topo Easy to design and develop

19 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
Curvilinear: similar to rectangular but streets are curved to fit topography Relieved repetition, slows speed, overall development can meet terrain Radial: resembles spokes of a wheel Useful if some central focus is needed or exists Can cause problems with triangular lots Linear: development along both sides of single road

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21 RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
Loops and Cul-De-Sacs Loop – U shaped, Cul-de-sac Used to minimize repetition in rectangular or curvilinear systems Also provides additional access Can also be used to create small cluster communities within a development Coving and Bayhome Concept Purpose – developing land at a lower cost while creating superior communities Provides more desired density Increased safety Decreased run off

22 COVING Coving combines both the bending of streets and setbacks creating more open space; generally the ROW is reduced 35% The Basics: Winding street pattern reduces or eliminates side streets and total number of individual streets Lineal feet of streets typically reduced 20-40% while maintaining density and four way intersections minimized Open space within entire community increased Pedestrian walkways positioned to follow a curvilinear path separate from streets

23 COVING Road remains at widths recommended
Layout reduces views of home sides or rears and homes rarely face another home front or rear which gives enhanced privacy Streetscape consists of park like green space which meander from one side of the street to the other Average lot size increases by 10-20% with extra typically in home fronts

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32 BAYHOMING Bayhoming uses the same concepts as coving but with more density Coving is based on single family ownership, while with bayhomes the land and all items outside the home are held in common ownership with a homeowners association Coving incorporates townhouses in a staggered format Requirements: Bayhomes have no individual lot, this allows for larger infrastructure reduction While coving provides smooth curves with no staggering, Bayhomes can be greatly staggered creating more panoramic views from within homes Parking is in rear with screened walls and landscaping hiding vehicles from public collector streets Bayhomes have large front porches Front of home is toward common areas

33 BENEFITS AND CONCEPTS OF COVING AND BAYHOMING
PRESERVING THE SENSE OF THE COMMUNITY PRIORITIZE VIEW REDUCE INFRASTRUCTURE AFFORDABILITY SAFER STREETS FEWER INTERSECTIONS OPEN SPACES MINIMIZE ERROSION AND SEDIMENT POLLUTION MORE TREE SPACE NO SQUARE LOTS

34 ADVANTAGES TO MUNICIPALITY
LESS INFRASTRUCTURE TO MAINTAIN LESS LAW ENFORCEMENT DUE TO INCREASED SECURITY AND LACK OF INTERSECTIONS DUE TO AVAILABLE SPACE, PEOPLE DO NOT FLEE URBAN SPRAWL

35 DENSITY Population Density – density affecting quality of life.
To many creates noise, lack of privacy, and increased conflicts To few can create lack of socialization, excess travel, and high cost of community services Most commonly expressed as “Dwelling Units/Acre” (DC/Ac) Gross density – units/acre of total land Residential density – units/acres of land including streets, public facilities, etc. Net density – units/acre of land devoted only to residence Can also be a variable using people/acre Typical residential density – below 2 DU/Ac is low with common design value of 2 – 5 DU/Ac

36 EXAMPLE 3 DU/AC IS DESIRED 25% LAND AREA IS STREETS AND OPEN AREA
THUS 75% OF OR ft² GOES INTO 3 LOTS THUS ft²/ LOT TYPICAL LOT SIZE COULD BY 90’x120’ ¾ x = 32670ft² 32670/ 3 = 10890ft²/lot

37 SITE ANALYSIS AND SUITABILITY
USGS topo’s provide a rough source for this Also check SCS and others for maps Site Suitability: depends on viewpoint of person Includes: use which provides most profit Use that provide maximum enjoyment and highest life quality Use that preserves or improves the balance of nature and is least disruptive to the environment

38 TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE PATTERNS
Affects: streets, drainage, views, earthwork, erosion, environmental Gently rolling terrain best - 2-5% slopes 5-10% can also provide good sites with increased cost Slopes over 20% require special considerations Matching the topo is essential Soils and geology: soil type and presence of rock Depth of water table Environmental factors: orientation and shape of sites How to use natural features as a benefit Sun angle, trees, noise, wildlife and aesthetic character of site

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40 SUBDIVISION DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS
Usual standards, develop a checklist Geometric Principles Streets, sidewalks, intersections, lots and easements all depend on geometric principles Following them simplifies design and layout and balance and symmetry prevail Follow terrain Front lot lines should be straight or arcs and side lines should be either perpendicular or radial to street ROW

41 BLOCK AND LOT STANDARDS
Blocks: directly relates to streets; not required Length, shape, slope and general arrangement normally regulated Max length normally between 1000’ – 1500’ Shape dependent on terrain and tract shape Lots: must have satisfactory building site and be properly related to topography Must have vehicle access to local street Standards can specify minimum width and depth Min width 70’ typical Depth normally approx. 3 times width 20’ – 50’ setback at front with 5’ – 10’ side and back Avoid double frontage

42 LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE
Urban Land Institute Large development – 35% non-residential Small development – 25% non-residential Streets: ROW dedicated – acceptance Collector – 60’ ROW – 70’ ROW Minimal individual access – purpose is to move traffic to arterial streets Local – 50’ ROW – 60’ ROW Access to lots, services and collector streets Low speed (20 – 30 mph) Allow for plantings, pedestrians, and bikeways Alignment Cul-de-sac streets normally have max length of 600’ – 1000’ with minimum radius of 50’ ROW and 40’ paved Jogs (T-intersections) – prefer min of 125’ between Reverse Curves – keep to min and use larger curve radius Sight distance – hilly area – 100’; local streets – 200’; collector streets – 250’

43 LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE
Vertical curves must have a minimum length equal to – 20 times the algebraic difference in grades (%) Max grade is normally 15% and minimum is 0.5% Minimum radius for circular curves range from -200’ on local streets and 300’ for collector streets Street alignment should minimize need for storm sewers Follow ridges, parallel or perpendicular to contours, and along shallow swales. Naming Street: North – South streets Avenue: East – West streets Drive or Boulevard: Meandering streets Road or Way: street that runs other than cardinal directions Lane or Place: North – South Cul-de-sac streets Circle or Court: East – West Cul-de-sac streets

44 LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE
Intersections: Junctions of more than 2 streets, avoided T intersection is preferred Offsets between 4way intersections: 150’ min local and 300’ collector Angles: centerline intersect should be close to 90° with 75° being minimum Streets should remain in tangent for 100’ min prior to PC Grade should be relatively flat with max being 0.5% - 4% Minimum sight distance at intersections = 90’ Minimum curb radius = 20’ local; 30’ collector Sidewalk and Bikeway: one or both sides if needed – 4’ width minimum, 6’ better. Easements: 15’ – 30’ minimum

45 DESIGN Roadway Locate Centerline Develop Centerline Profile
Direction and distance (PI-PI) Develop Centerline Profile Plot existing ground and special features 1”-5’ or 10’ vertical and 1”-50’ or 100’ horizontal Design proposed centerline: 0.4%-15% slopes Stay as close as possible to existing ground Avoid roller coaster Balance cut and fill Identify culvert locations and allow clearance 20MPH – 10’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE 30MPH – 20’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE 40MPH – 35’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE MIN. VERTICLE CURVE LENGTH 75’-100’

46 DESIGN Pavement: Thickness based on AASHTO and Soil design based upon the lowest soil support values. Normal: Rigid – PCC – 6”-10” dependent on loads Flexible: Bituminous Concrete Surface: 2 ½” – 4” Base: 6” – 8” Sub-base (Stone): 6” – 12” A-3 (Oil and Chip) Base 8”-12” granular with asphalt 3 times with chips General alleys at most

47 DESIGN Roadway design:
Site study by traffic engineer to determine needs on site and effect of development on existing system Site access; traffic circulation; traffic flow Take care using one way streets Streets often have other uses: bicycles; play and minimal on street parking Streets have slow design speeds: mph Sight distance-critical Stopping distance: d= V2/30f d= braking distance in feet V=vehicle speed in MPH f=coefficient of friction

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49 DESIGN Local street design guidelines (local streets)
Curb: Barrier; Mountable; V (depressed) Parking: off street parking Space width 9’-11’ Space length 18’-20’ Recreational vehicles (boat/trailer) 10’ x 40’ Make parking areas aesthetically pleasing

50 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Retention – No runoff
Detention – Controlled, limited runoff Development will always cause additional runoff Utilize topography to minimize amount to be handles Drainage design based on average and 5-50 yr rainfall Charts and info: West of 103°W longitude – NOAA Atlas 2; East of 103°W longitude – USWB TP-40 and/or NWS Hydro 35 Runoff depends on: permeability of soil; slope; topography; climate; and amount of rainfall

51 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Soil types and Runoff (NRCS)
Group A: low runoff, high infiltration (sand/gravel) water transfer – 0.3”/hr Group B: moderate infiltration, deep well drained soil (fine-course texture) water transmission – 0.15”-0.3”/hr Group C: low infiltration; layered soil (mod.fine – fine texture) water transmission – 0.05”-0.15”/hr Group D: high runoff, very low infiltration, clay soil in pan or layer near surface – water transmission – ”/hr Surface Roughness affects runoff: Coefficient of Roughness Levels: Smooth paved surfaces – 0.011 Cultivated – 0.05 – 0.17 Grassland: short – 0.15; dense – 0.24; Bermuda – 0.41 Woods: light underbrush – 0.40; heavy underbrush – 0.80

52 COMPUTE RUNOFF BASED ON NRCS METHODS
Determine the watershed area from the topo map Establish the storm period and corresponding 24 hour rainfall Storm period – intensity 2yr, 5yr, 10yr, 20yr, 25yr, 50yr, and 100yr 10yr normally used, many use 25yr for safety Calculate initial maximum retention after runoff begins Calculate peak discharge for area Use “Rational Method” Q=CiA Q=quantity of runoff in cu.ft/sec C=coefficient of runoff (ratio of water runoff to water falling) i=intensity of rainfall (inches/hour) A=drainage area (acres)

53 FACTORS AFFECTING SITE DRAINAGE
LOCATION OF SITE WITH RESPECT TO OFF-SITE STORM WATER GENERAL LOT GRADING PLANS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE POSITIVE OVERALL PLAN REQUIREMENTS AS TO STORM WATER RETENTION OR DISCHARGE RATES MUST BE MET. MAXIMUM CARRY DISTANCE – LOCAL SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE OR ROAD AUTHORITY

54 STORM SEWER AND CULVERT DESIGN
Must be determined based upon runoff computed and peak; slope and pipe characteristics “Manning Formula” V=flow velocity (ft/sec) R=hydraulic radius (cross sectional area of flowing water/length of wetted surface of pipe) – in feet = D/4 (full pipe) S=expected slope (decimal) n=roughness factor (0.015 – 0.025) Slope: min 10” pipe = 0.28%; 12” = 0.22% Best to use 0.4% Want to keep flow at 2-10 ft/sec Open channel – compute same way Slope: 2% - 10%

55 RETENTION AND DETENTION FACILITIES
Retention facility has no discharge Detention facility has limited discharge Generally designed to hold runoff until existing stream can handle additional flow Maximum discharge is limited to peak storm runoff rates Can be achieved through lakes, ponds, subsurface basins, dutch (french drains),& sumps

56 SYSTEM DESIGN Two conditions exist either alone or in combination:
Site subject to sheet or overland flow Site subject to channelized flow Must realize that in residential development much additional runoff occurs: typical lot +1/2 ROW = 0.4 Ac. House roof – 1600 sq ft Driveway – 600 sq ft Patio – 400 sq ft Roadway – 1500 sq ft sq ft = Ac or approx ¼ area

57 SEDIMENTATION AND ERROSION CONTROL
Select sites with drainage patterns, topo and soils suitable for development Incorporate: Expose smallest area for least amount of time Retain topsoil to recover graded areas and protect natural vegetation Seclude plantings, seeding, mulching and stone surfacing as needed Use sediment basins and silt traps Install permanent vegetation and long term erosion protection If lake or pond is included – a dead storage area for sedimentation should be included upstream of the lake.

58 SANITARY SEWER See pages 498 – 554 in the text
Traditional collection systems (gravity flow) normal U.S. EPA Program: Small Community Outreach and Education (SCORE) – U.S. EPA Bulletin (1992)

59 SANITARY SEWER 1 gal = 7.48 cu. ft. Residence: Apartments:
Typical per capita flow is gal/day (per person) Design should include max flows 6-10am and 6-10pm with low being 2am-6am Max Daily Flow = 2x Average Daily Flow Max Hourly Flow = 3x Average Daily Flow Apartments: 3 bedroom/4 person = 100 gal/day/person Restaurant: 100 gal/day/seat Hotel: 100 gal/day/bedroom Service Station: 10 gal/day/car served

60 INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS Should make sure they do not:
Contaminate drinking water supply Allow insects, rodents or other disease carriers to multiply Be accessible to children Pollute or contaminate surface waters Create foul odor and appearance

61 INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS Traditional: Septic & Absorption Field
Conventional Gravel Absorption Field: trench 12-36” wide with 14” course aggregate and perforated 4” pipe covered with geotextile Percolation test: timing settlement of water over time Length of absorption field directly related to soils absorption ability (perk test) Sand filters – evaporation and absorption bed small holding tank – field encased in sand New method is to have it expanded over a large area and have plantings over it.

62 PUMP STATIONS Used to transport material under pressure, can not be tapped Collection System: Min pipe size = 8” Place sewer either along ROW or at back lines Separate from waterlines by 10’ horiz. and vert. Manhole placed at all bends, intersections, changes in slope with no section longer than 400’ Manhole: precast; drop Pump station with force main Lift station

63 POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS Pg 557-610 TEXT Often last system to be designed
Must look at water source (FIRST) Must look at Average and Maximum Daily Demand and Max. Hourly Demand Normal daily use per capita = gallons Waterlines must maintain a min of 20 lb psi Water storage tank – if large development may be beneficial Fire storage reserve: 1000 gal/min x 2hr = 120,000 gal One day reserve: 150 gal/person/day x 1000 people = 150,000 gal These determine min tank size(23.5’dia x24’tall=75000 gal)

64 WATERLINE 2 types: Loop System and Branch System
Each has gate valves at each intersection of mains and between main and fire hydrants 4 way valves at all crosses Other valves usually placed between 500’-1000’ intervals Depth: based on frost penetration. 3.5’ in extreme Southern Illinois, 4’ in Carbondale, 4.5’-5’ in Champaign, and 5.5’-6’ in Chicago Parts: piping (usually PVC) may require ductile – iron Thrust block: block forms placed to transfer angular force to soil and needed to keep joints together.

65 WATERLINE Valves: Laterals: service lines, normal size is ¾” to 1”
Shut off: gate or butterfly type placed in system for repair or emergency purposes Check valve: control direction of water flow Pressure Reducing Valve: reduce inlet pressure to a controlled outlet pressure Altitude Control Valve: control flow in and out of tank Often direct linked to pump stations Air Release Valve: used to release trapped air at high points in lines Back Flow Preventers: antisiphon valves used to protect safe water from contaminated systems Laterals: service lines, normal size is ¾” to 1”

66 BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS
A subdivision is required whenever land owner divides land into 2 or more tracts with any of them being less than 5 acres or new rights of access EXCEPT: no subdivision required if: The division into parcels 5 acres or more which does not involve any new streets or easements of access. The division of lots or blocks of less than 1 acre in any recorded subdivision which does not involve any new streets or easements of access. The sale or exchange of parcels of land between owners of adjoining and contiguous land.

67 BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS
Conveyance pf parcels for use as a right of way for railroads or other public utility facilities or pipelines which does not involve any new street or easement of access Conveyance of land owned by railroad or other public utility which does not involve any new streets or easements of access. Conveyance for highway or other public purposes or grants relating to the dedication of land for public use. Conveyances made to correct descriptions

68 BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS
Sale or exchange of parcels into no more than 2 parts of a parcel that existed on July 17, 1959 and not involving any new streets or easements of access. The sale of a single lot of less than 5 acres form a larger tract when survey is made by an IL Registered Land Surveyor. No more lots may be sold off based on tract dimensions and configuration of the larger tract on Oct. 1, As long as it does not invalidate any local requirements. The developer must have the tract surveyed and a plat of subdivision prepared by a RLS

69 The Plat MUST Show: All public streets, alleys, easements
All parcels, tracts, blocks, and lots Must have a progressive numbering system Give exact dimensions All angular linear data along exterior boundary Names of all public streets, alleys, etc. Reference must be made to permanent monuments from which future surveys can be made.

70 Surveyor MUST establish, in such a way as not to be disturbed, good and sufficient monuments
Monuments must be set at all corners at each end of curves, and at all angle points 2 monuments must be permanent (stone or reinforced concrete) and set at the extremities of the subdivision

71 A Topographic Map MUST be made of the area
Must show existing and proposed conditions Must be the same scale and size as subdivision plat so it can be used as an overlay

72 FILING OF PLATS Plat of Subdivision and topo map must be filed at County Recorder’s Office prior to sale of any lots!!! Plat must contain the following certifications: CERTIFICATE OF SURVEYOR Legal description with name of subdivision Certification as to location within or without corporate limits

73 FILING OF PLATS CERTIFICATE OF OWNER Swear as to ownership FEMA
Certify that construction will not change drainage of surface waters in such a way as to damage adjoining property and that surface water will be deposited into a water course which the owners have a right to use. Dedicate street right of way and easements to public use Waive and release all rights given by virtue of the Homestead Exemption Laws of the state. School district in which located

74 FILING OF PLATS NOTARY PUBLIC CERTIFICATE CERTIFICATE OF COUNTY CLERK
Certifies that owners signed plat before notary and of their own free will. CERTIFICATE OF COUNTY CLERK Certifies that tax records have been checked and property is free of taxes CERTIFICATE OF GOVERNMENTAL BODIES Certifies that subdivision has been approved May be more than one (county and city) CERTIFICATE OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER Certifies that drainage will not cause damage to adjoining properties Muse also certify Topo Map (drainage)

75 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
May be county or municipal All make state law a part of ordinance Purpose is to regulate development and make sure compliance with engineering design practices Definitions: all aspects and terms defined Exceptions: any that exist above state law

76 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
GENERAL PROCESS: Tentative or Preliminary Plat Must provide a number of prints for review Examined by the Co. Engineer and others They note required changes or approval Minimum Scale (1”=100’) & max sheet size given (24x36) Must include: (typical) Section lines, ¼ sec. lines, adjacent subdivision lines, adjacent streets and alleys, watercourses and other pertinent features Existing utilities, drainage systems on and adjacent Names of adjoining subdivisions and other areas must indicate present usage Proposed streets and roads with width, names, alleys, lots, easements, building setbacks Name of subdivision, subdivider, and surveyor

77 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
FINAL PLAT – generally a time period exists between tentative approval and length final must be approved in. Requirements: Material, size, lettering size Date of preparation, north sign, rectangular system, material and scale Title Correct survey of boundary with description Location, width, names of all roads, streets, alleys and other land dedicated to public Lines, dimensions, and names of adjoining or abutting roads streets or alleys

78 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
Lot lines shown and lots and blocks numbered Building lines and easements shown and dimensioned Description and location of permanent survey markers All lot corners, points of curvature, ROW intersections; changes in ROW and offset points must be monumented Type of monument required (30” x ½”) How monument set Repeat state requirement for permanent (reinforced concrete or stone – 2 at extremities) Minimum and/or maximum lot sizes and frontages

79 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
Design Requirements: Layout shall preserve natural features of site. Provide proper traffic circulation – prefer long blocks Streets intersect at 90° preferred not less than 65° Dead end streets no longer than 1320’ and have cul-de-sac with min radius Layout to fit contours Streets nor on boundary and no “spite strips” Streets along State or County Highways shall provide access at intervals not less that ¼ mile

80 SUBDIVISION ORDIANCE Private roads discouraged
Minimum 50’ ROW and road way widths (20’-24’) Street material and thickness - 8” stone + 3” bit. conc. - specs must conform to IDOT and max. grades (8%) Easements: min. width and location Building setbacks: width and location Drainage requirements (storm, open, or mix) Signage requirements Water and sanitary sewer facilities described and req

81 SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
Engineering Requirements: Profile of streets (existing and proposed) Typical cross section of roadway with surfacing Drainage structures (surface and underground): location, size, type, and grade Locate water courses and bodies of water (high and low elev.) Sanitary sewer: plan and profile and location or source of treatment Water system location

82 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Wetlands Determination Study Based on Section 404 of Clean Water Act and Section of Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 Jurisdiction of Corps of Engineers and EPA Defined: area containing hydric soil, periodic flood water, or hydrophile plants (hydrophytic plants are plant life growing in water, soil, or on substrate which is periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content.) Areas where wetlands occur must have on-site inventory of dominant plant genus and species. 50% of dominant plant types

83 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Hydraulic soil – soil that is saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during growing season to develop anaerobic conditions (lack of oxygen) in the upper parts.

84 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Off site wetlands inventory Locate development on USGS 7.5min and relate to wetland features that denote possible wetlands Study National Wetlands Inventory map to determine potential wetland areas on site. Study soil survey map (SCS) to determine if hydric soil exist. Study aerial photos – potential wetlands Review any available wetland studies in area Make determination based on 1-5 conduct on site inspections to make final decision

85 WETLANDS Often surveyors are 1st to visit property and potential wetland info. Should be included in topo. No uniform definition Differ between regulatory bodies 1987 Corp of Engineers “Wetlands Delineation Manual” 1989 – “Federal Interagency Manual for Identifying and Delineating Wetlands” Most wetlands in areas of low relief, topographic depressions. Can also be found in all other areas with groundwater discharge

86 WETLANDS Formal delineation takes extensive training, but wetlands are generally defined by: Hydraulic soils Hydrophytic vegetation Wetland hydrology Wetland Hydrology: presence of water Soils saturated at or near surface or inundated for sufficient length of time to allow microorganisms to deplete available oxygen in the soils Water does not have to be on surface

87 WETLANDS Wetland (Hydrophytic) vegetation Indicators:
Evidence of flooding Water marks or stains on trees Obvious standing water or soil saturation Blackened or discolored fallen leaves Wetland (Hydrophytic) vegetation Plants that have adapted to growing in wet conditions Field guides to wetland plants Shallow root systems Wind thrown and fallen leaves Buttressed tree trunks Inflated or floating stems or leaves Trees with multiple trunks from same base

88 WETLANDS Wetland (Hydric) soil
Biological and chemical process occurs that alters color of soil Normally wet soils are grey or black with prominent orange or red iron stains Soil colors – Munsell Soil Color Charts Field indicators: Grey or black colors Sulfidic odors Peat or muck accumulations

89 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Based on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 makes property owners liable for cleanup Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986 limits liability if proper investigations were performed as to existence of substances prior to purchase Any indication of potential hazards means owner is liable

90 4 BASIC LAWS OF ECOLOGY Everything is connected with everything else
Everything must go somewhere Nature knows best There is no such thing as a free lunch

91 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND IMPACT STATEMENT
NECESSARY TO: Predict any change in each environmental constituent Identify the scope of any change on each environmental descriptor Determine the implications or significance of the anticipated change on each element

92 5 COMPONENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
Environmental impact of the proposed action Identify any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided Range of feasible alternatives to achieve the initial problem objective or alternatives to the proposed action Agency required to identify “the relationship productivity” Requires agency to discuss the objections or issues raised by reviewers

93 INTENT OF IMPACT STATEMENTS
To provide a data base, documentation, and forecasts from which future decisions could be made. To identify the extent of both recognized and potential losses, the implications of the losses, and prepare information in such a way so it can e understood by government and public Many times developers would prepare their EIS into volumes with as much technical data as possible to try to get approval EIS was to be a mechanism for integrated planning Often is used as a reason to justify decisions by governmental bodies Tie projects up for so long as to make them impractical

94 2 WAYS ECOLOCY CAN BE USED AS A BASIS FOR PLANTING DESIGN
Essentially to guess what will work. Plants are selected based on soil/climate, appearance and other relevant environmental determinants

95 3 DIVISIONS OF PLANT TYPES
CANOPY – those trees that define or limit overhead plane UNDERSTORY – combination of small trees, large shrubs, and climbing vines under canopy trees GROUND COVER – grasses, ground vines, and wildflowers

96 VEG. SHOULD BE EVALUATED BASED ON:
Aesthetic value Disease resistance Life span of trees Wind firmness Wildlife value Comfort index Ability to withstand higher radiated heat from paved surfaces and buildings Future growth with respect to utilities

97 UTILIZING TREES IN WOODED AREA
These trees have shallow roots: may be best to conserve in clumps Many mature trees will not survive a violent change of habitat. Changes in ground water (amounts and quality) can cause problems Area around trees should not be filled (disturbs access of air, water, and minerals)

98 ROLES OF PLANTS IN DEVELOPMENT
Wind control Obstruction Filtration Deflection Erosion control Energy conservation Wildlife habitat

99 PLANTING CAN BE USED: In combination with buildings to extend architectural lines or as a screen to enhance architecture As skyline To define sheltered areas or act as buffer between activity areas Enhance, blocks, frames, a view for building site As educational source

100 PRINCIPLES TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING PLANTING PLAN:
Plan should reflect a predominance of one type of plant or a similar texture, color, or form within a grouping Exercise restraint relative to the number of different plants used in plan Select plants with common soil, climate, and water requirements Maintenance of hedges is time consuming, consider growth habit and mature size Develop plants so they do not rely on the quality of any particular tree or plant

101 PLANT SELECTION BASED ON AT LEAST ONE OF THESE CRITERIA:
Plants ability to live and flourish in the specific environment Knowledge as to existing trees on site and their healthy growth on adjacent sites Plants that require low maintenance and/or low water amounts Plants for a specific purpose (shade, contrast, color, and size)

102 CLIMATE AND SITE THINGS THAT CAN BE DONE:
Develop exterior spaces that utilize local climate norms and extremes to expand availability of thermanlly comfortable outdoor areas Reduce thermal loads on buildings

103 CLIMATE AND SITE FOUR BASIC CLIMATIC ELEMENTS
Solar radiation – reaches us in the form of direct, diffuse, and reflected radiation 4 methods of control and modification Admission Obstruction Filtration Reflection Vegetation: trees can absorb 60-90% of solar radiation

104 CLIMATE AND SITE Air temperature – only minimum changes can be caused – relative measure of thermal energy in the air Control and modification: by controlling solar radiation and air movement Vegetation: air temperature is lowered due to evaporation process, but humidity levels increase. (this is often a small difference)

105 CLIMATE AND SITE Relative humidity only minimum changes can be caused
provide shade that does not limit air movement Humidity can be increased by including water in areas

106 CLIMATE AND SITE Air movement – to utilize the beneficial effects must be aware of how site characteristics affect air motion Vegetation: when used to protect from cold winter winds it is a windbreak Airflow is affected by shape and density of windbreak Airflow is affected 5-10 times windbreak height on windward and up to 30 times height on leeward side

107 CLIMATE AND SITE

108 OUTDOOR WILDLIFE RELATED ACTIVITIES
2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation Nationally $108 billion spent on wildlife related activities Illinois $1.35 billion spent

109 DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION
Recreation is often a delivery of opportunities for individuals and society most often provided by government Benefits include: Economic development Protection or preservation of the resource Education and learning Maintenance or improvement of physical health

110 PROCESS FOR PLANNING Determine which benefits are demanded from which areas Determine the extent to which the resource base can be used to deliver benefits Must take into account: budgets, technology, resource capability, current uses of resources, and non-recreational resource demands on area Determine which management actions are to be used

111 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Monitoring the actions taken to determine if appropriate benefits are being developed Monitor societies demands to see if original demands still exist Wildlife recreation planning manuals and handbooks are being developed by Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service

112 WHEN DEVELOPING A RECREATIONAL PLAN ONE SHOULD:
Estimate demand for possible recreational activities Conduct capability analysis of land and water in plan area to determine potential of existing resources Determine what recreational opportunities already exist on site Conduct suitability analysis to determine where and how recreational activities should be provided

113 WHEN DEVELOPING A RECREATIONAL PLAN ONE SHOULD:
Incorporate recreational activities with other resource uses Develop alternative use plans Choose plan that reflects the most desirable use of resources Develop activity and project plans consistent with resource use chosen.

114 PROJECTED DEMAND INCREASE 1980-MID 2000’S
Developed camping Primitive camping Backpacking Hunting Picnicking Nature walks Off road vehicle use Sightseeing Fishing

115 TYPE OF USE DIVDED INTO 6 RECREATION ACTIVITY CLASSES
Primitive Semi-primitive non motorized Semi-primitive motorized Roaded-natural Semi-urban urban

116 CAPABILITY ANALYSIS Permits identification of inherent Recreational Opportunity potential of the resources and of inherent attractiveness of resource for recreation

117 CRITERIA TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL
Remoteness from sights and sounds of man and access by road Size of area Amount of irreversible evidence of man Amount of apparent renewable resource modification

118 SIZE OF AREA REQUIREMENTS
Primitive ≥ 5,000 acres Semi-primitive ≥ 2,500 acres Roaded Natural, Semi-urban, Urban ≥ 1 acre

119 INVESTIGATE THE PRESENT OPPORTUNITIES
LOOK FOR: Evidence of use Frequency of encounters of uses User density per acre Facility and site management User regulation

120 SUITABLIITY ANALYSIS AND CHOOSING AN ALLOCATION
Use the previous and look at: Budget, technology, legislative and administrative policy, resource capability, and the use of resources to produce non-recreational outputs Guidelines for selection capacities within the acceptable range Low capabilities where landscape is open (little vegetative cover and flat topography) High capabilities are selected where there are more potential

121 RECREATION ATTRACTORS:
Power boating and waterskiing Sailing Ocean/lake/river swimming Surfboarding or scuba diving Fishing Tent camping R.V. camping Golfing Horseback riding

122 ECONOMICS OF RECREATION AND PLANNING
Massachusetts Bay Colony passed the Great Pond Act in 1641 Required that everybody of water 10 acres or more be kept open to public for fishing and hunting Central Park in New York established in 1850’s Late 1800’s saw creation of: Yosemite Valley, Yellowstone, Mackinac Island, Niagara Falls Much of this through efforts of Teddy Roosevelt Recreational planning still deals with 2 basic elements: man and land

123 TODAY PLANNERS HAVE 3 IMPORTANT TOOLS:
Greater public awareness and support – no longer ignored Adequate legislation Ready availability of public monies - ?

124 SITE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA
PROCESS: Identify and categorize the capability of recreational use Identification of recreational uses possible Recreational activities/facilities are chosen based upon: Appropriateness to site Current demand

125 SITE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA
Sutegrate capability/suitability with recreational activity and facilities Select site assessment indicators (unique natural characteristics of site) Related site assessment indicators to Recreational Appropriateness Index

126 THREE USE CATEGORIES: Preservation (limited use) – areas unique and fragile Passive Recreation (moderate use) – areas more numerous and capable of withstanding more human intervention Active Recreation (intensive use) – areas resilient to intensive use by large groups for short periods/generally quite accessible

127 3 CATEGORIES OF LOCATIONAL SUITABLE ACTIVITIES
WATER BASED WATER ENHANCED NON-WATER RELATED

128 PLANNING SHOULD INCLUDE:
Development of a resource base inventory Determine suitability of 3 management objectives Identify conflicts where overlapping occurs Develop balanced management program

129 ECONOMICS OF RECREATION
Those activates which cost neither participant or others anything other than energy and imagination Those conceived and undertaken for the purpose of making money Public recreation which costs money – generally seen as responsibility of the government

130 RECREATIONFACILITY ARE APLIT INTO 3 ELEMENTS:
Cost of land – purchase and or removal form tax base Cost of capital improvements Cost of maintenance and operation


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