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1 Maysville Community And Technical College Susan Harwood Training Grant Residential And Commercial Roofing Hazards Susan Harwood Grant SH-16597-07.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Maysville Community And Technical College Susan Harwood Training Grant Residential And Commercial Roofing Hazards Susan Harwood Grant SH-16597-07."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Maysville Community And Technical College Susan Harwood Training Grant Residential And Commercial Roofing Hazards Susan Harwood Grant SH

2 Disclaimer Note: This training is specifically designed to be in compliance with Fall Protection Regulations Related to : – Residential Construction activities that fall under Kentucky OSHA. This training in many respects mirrors Federal OSHA Fall Protection regulations involving Residential Construction. However, Kentucky allows a ten ( 10 ) foot action level for implementation of a fall protection system. Federal OSHA and most state - operated OSHA programs mandate a six ( 6) foot fall action level for implementation of fall protection system. The ten ( 10 ) foot rule, as mentioned in the context of this training applies solely to employers and employees performing residential construction activities within the borders of Kentucky Always check with the State in which you may be working in for State / Federal Regulations Please be aware some companies require a 4 foot fall protection trigger.

3 3 Kentucky Fatalities – Overview 3 Year History Residential Commercial Total See Handout

4 4 Kentucky Statistics Top 10 Standards Violated 1. Scaffolding This standard covers general safety requirements for scaffolding. Employers are bound to protect construction workers from falls and from falling objects while working on or near scaffolding at a height of 10 feet or more. Top 5 sections cited: (g)(1) Failure to provide fall protection (e)(1) Failure to provide proper access (b)(1) Failure to ensure adequate platform construction (c)(2) Failure to properly support scaffolding (g)(1)(vii) Lack of personal fall arrest or guardrail systems

5 5 Continued 2. Fall Protection This standard outlines where fall protection is required, which systems are appropriate for given situations, the proper construction and installation of safety systems, and the proper supervision of employees to prevent falls. Top 5 sections cited: (b)(13) Failure to provide protection – residential construction (b)(1) Failure to use a guardrail, safety net or personal fall arrest system (b)(10) Failure to provide protection – low slope roofs (b)(11) Failure to provide protection – steep roofs (b)(14) Failure to provide protection – wall openings

6 6 Continued 3. Hazard Communications This standard addresses chemical hazards, both chemicals produced in the work place and imported into the workplace. It also governs the communication of those to the workers. Top 5 sections cited: (e)(1) Failure to develop and maintain a written program (h)(1) Failure to maintain training (g)(1) Failure to have a MSDS for each hazardous chemical (h) Lack of employee training (g)(8) Failure to maintain in the workplace copies of the required MSDS

7 7 Continued Respiratory Protection This standard directs employers in establishing or maintaining a respiratory protection program. Top 5 sections cited: (c)(1) Failure to establish a program (e)(1) Failure to provide a medical evaluation to determine the employees ability to use a respirator (f)(2) Failure to ensure an employee using a tight-fitting face piece respirator is fit-tested prior to initial use of the respirator, whenever a different respirator face piece (size, style, model or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter (c)(2)(i) Failure to provide respirators at the request of employees or permit employees to use their own respirators (f)(1) Failure to ensure employees using a tight-fitting face piece respirator pass an appropriate qualitative or quantitative fit test.

8 8 Continued 5. Lockout/Tagout This standard outlines minimum performance requirements for the control of hazardous energy during machinery maintenance. Top 5 sections cited: (c)(4)(i) Failure to develop, document and utilize procedures for the control of potentially hazardous energy (c)(1) Failure to establish and implement a written program (c)(6) Failure to conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure (c)(7)(i) Failure to provide training to ensure the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood by employees, and the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage and removal of the energy controls are acquired by employees (c)(4)(ii) Failure to clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, authorization, rules ad techniques to be utilized for the control of hazardous energy, and the means to enforce compliance

9 9 Continued Powered Industrial Trucks This standard covers the design, maintenance and operation of powered industrial trucks, including forklifts and motorized hand trucks. Top 5 sections cited: (L)(1)(i) Failure to ensure each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely (p)(i) Failure to take damaged powered industrial trucks out of service (L)(6) Failure to certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated (L)(4)(iii) Failure to evaluate powered industrial truck operators performance at least once every three years (q)(7) Failure to examine powered industrial trucks before placing in service

10 10 Continued 7. Electrical – wiring This standard covers the grounding of electrical equipment, wiring and insulation. It includes temporary wiring and splicing such as flexible cords and cables. Top 5 sections cited: (b)(1) Failure to effectively close conductors entering boxes, cabinets or fittings and protect form abrasion (b)(2) Failure to provide all pull boxes, junction boxes and fittings with covers approved for the purpose (g)(1)(iii) Failure to connect flexible cords to devices and fittings so strain relief is provided to prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws (g)(1)(iii) Flexible cords and cables may not be used (g)(1)(iii)(A)Flexible cords and cables may not be used as a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure

11 11 Continued 8. Ladders This standards covers general requirements for all ladders. Top 5 sections cited: (b)(1) Failure to extend ladder side rails at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface to which the ladder is used to gain access (b)(4) Using a ladder for the purpose other than for which they were designed (b)(13) Using the top or top a step of a step ladder as a step (b)(16) Failure to mark portable ladders with structural defects in a manner readily identifying them as defective, or withdrawing them from service until repaired (b)(6) Failure to use ladders on stable or level surfaces

12 12 Continued 9. Machine Guarding This standard covers general safety requirements for the use of machine guards. Top 5 sections cited: (a)(1) Failure to provide one or more methods of machine guarding (a)(3)(ii) Failure to guard the point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury (b) Failure to anchor fixed machinery (a)(5) Failure to guard blades (a)(2) Failure to affix guards to machines

13 13 Continued 10. Electrical – General Requirements This standard covers general safety requirements for designing electrical systems. Top 5 sections cited: (b)(2) Failure to install and use electrical equipment according to factory instructions (g)(2)(i) Failure to guard electrical equipment (f) Failure to identify disconnecting means of circuits (g)(1)(ii) Failure to keep work spaces clear (b)(1) Use of electrical equipment containing recognized hazards

14 14 Top 10 Willful Violations Standard Total Violations Lockout/Tagout Excavation – Requirements for Protective Systems Scaffolding Process Safety Management Fall Protection Excavation – Specific Requirements Asbestos Machine Guarding Lead in Construction Respiratory Protection 14

15 15 Top 10 Serious Top 10 Serious Violations Standard Total Violations Scaffolding 9, Fall Protection 6, Hazard Communication 3, Lockout/Tagout 3, Powered Industrial Trucks 2, Ladders 2, Machine Guarding 2, Respiratory Protection 2, Electrical - Wiring 2, Electrical – General Requirements 1,820

16 16 Competent Person OSHA Definition "Competent person" means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

17 17 Residential and Commercial Topics Fall Protection – – 803 KAR 2:412 Subpart M Electrical Subpart K KAR 2 :410 Fire Protection Subpart K – 803 KAR Personal Protective Equipment Subpart KAR 2: 404

18 18 Residential and Commercial Topics Cranes, Hoists, Derricks, Elevators, and Conveyors 1926 Subpart N Scaffolds / Ladders 1926 Subpart L Aerial Lifts – Subpart L Length of Class will be 4 hours (Actual Class Time)

19 19 Roofing Sector Growth 16.4 % by 2014 Projected Growth 0f 22 % statewide Bureau Of Labor Statistics (BLR) reported 13,500 incidences of nonfatal occupational injuries Rate of 8.2 per 100 full time roofing employees Double the rate 4.6 rate for the entire private sector

20 20 September 2005 – September 2006 Federal OSHA cited 8,394 – 6 million in fines SIC 1761 Special Trade Contractors

21 21 Most Frequently Cited By OSHA Duty To Have Fall Protection - CFR Kentucky Citations -211 to SIC 1761 average fine or penalty of $ More than 60% citations issued was for Duty to have Fall Protection

22 22 Fall Protection –The Why Of It all Residential – 10 FEET Commercial – 6 FEET Duty To Have Fall Protection Incorporation By Reference CFR

23 23 Types of Fall Protection Guard Rails Body Harness Safety Nets

24 Guardrails- A Form Of Fall Protection

25 Guardrail System

26

27 Guardrail Systems

28 Guardrail Systems - Scaffolding

29 Guardrail Systems

30 30 Fall Protection – Case 1 Construction worker falls to his death in Cleveland Created: 12/12/ :34:42 AM Updated:12/12/2007 6:56:08 PM CLEVELAND -- Cleveland police say 45 year old Joseph Albanese died after slipping and falling from scaffolding. The worker was on site at West 7th, in between Jefferson and College Street, renovating the United Gospel Press Building when he fell approximately six stories. Investigators say it appears Albanese slipped on wet lumber as he was trying to clamp on a safety harness, falling in between the building and the scaffold. Albanese worked for B.F.C. Inc out of Cuyahoga Falls. Police say he has one son and lives on Hall Street in Akron. OSHA is now investigating whether there are any safety violations. OSHA says it will look into things like the worker's fall protection, the scaffolding, the work surfaces, protective equipment and what level of training workers receive. The United Gospel Press building dates back to the 1800's. It once housed Cleveland University and then turned into a gospel publishing building. The structure has been vacant for years and is now being rehabbed for new apartments. Albanese is 1st cousin to the husband of Akron City Councilwoman Terry Albanese.

31 Fall Protection Programs – Why? KY FACE #03KY097 Date of Incident: October 7, 2003 Report Release Date: May 27, 2004 Roofing Laborer Dies After 60-Foot Fall

32 Fall Protection Programs -Why Summary At 8:00 AM on the morning of October 7, 2003, a 33-year-old laborer, working for a roofing contractor, was removing debris from a commercial building roof when he slipped and fell 60 feet to the sidewalk below. There were 2 other laborers and the contractor at the work site that morning. It was the second work day at this particular job site and the three workers were to finish discarding bags of debris from the roof. The decedent and one of the laborers accessed the roof through the building interior, up a flight of stairs to a five-step ladder which led to the roof opening. Two personal fall arrest systems were available for the laborers to wear before they accessed the roof area. The personal fall arrest systems were secured to roof anchors by 25 foot lanyards so that when the laborers entered the roof area, they were wearing a personal fall arrest system and already tied off. The third laborer was in a pick-up truck parked next the building and the contractor was standing by the truck to load the bags of debris dropped off the roof by the two laborers.

33 Fall Protection Programs –Why ? When the laborers approached the roof access, Laborer No. 1 used the personal fall arrest system and accessed the roof first. Laborer No. 2, the decedent, accessed the roof without using the personal fall arrest system. He grabbed a bag of trash and began walking toward the edge of the roof when he slipped and fell 60 feet to the sidewalk below. He died due to multiple blunt force injuries.

34 Fall Protection Programs - Why To prevent future occurrences of similar incidents, the following recommendations have been made: Employers should have a written safety policy outlining safety practices, procedures and which state the consequences of not following the company policies. Employers should provide appropriate personal safety equipment and training on the proper use of that equipment. A competent person should conduct a hazard assessment of the job site prior to commencement of work. Control of the identified hazards and safe work procedures should be discussed. Employers should have a site specific fall protection plan written by a qualified person.

35 Fall Protection - Why Background A roofing company in business for approximately one year was contracted to replace a roof on a commercial building. The owner of the company had 15 years of roofing experience working for other contractors. During the last five years as an employee for other contractors, the employer had started a part- time roofing and siding business of his own. Laborers were employed on an as- needed basis. All personal fall arrest equipment needed for each job was provided to each employee by the employer. Company safety procedures required each employee to wear and use necessary safety equipment and personal protective equipment. Failure to comply with company safety rules resulted in the termination of employees. Safety procedures were discussed, but the company did not have a written safety manual. Several months before the incident, the decedent had worked as a temporary employee for the company for one day. The decedent had been re-hired by the company the day before the incident.

36 Fall Protection Program - Why Investigation At 8:00 AM on the morning of October 7, 2003, a 33-year-old roofing laborer, was discarding his first bag of debris off a commercial buildings roof when he slipped and fell 60 feet to the sidewalk below. There were 2 other laborers and the contractor at the work site that morning. It was the second work day at this particular job site and the three were to finish removing bags of debris from the roof as they had done the day before. The decedent and one of the laborers accessed the roof through the building, up stairs and various ladders to a five- step step-ladder which led to the roof opening. A safety harness and a safety belt, each with attached lanyards clipped to roof anchors, were located inside the roof access. Before entering the roof area, each laborer was to wear a personal fall protection system. After putting on the safety equipment, the laborers could then access the roof safely. It was suspected that there was dew on the roof. It is unknown and if either man was wearing anti-skid shoes or gloves. A third laborer was sitting in the cab of the pick-up truck parked on the sidewalk parallel to the building. The contractor was standing on the sidewalk by the truck waiting for the two laborers on the roof to throw down bags of debris into the bed of the pick-up truck.

37 Fall Protection - Why As the laborers approached the roof access, Laborer No. 1 dressed in the safety harness and accessed the roof. Laborer No. 2, the decedent, accessed the roof without dressing in the safety belt. Laborer No. 1 did not see Laborer No. 2 climb past the safety belt without putting it on and access the roof. Without it, Laborer No. 2 grabbed a bag of trash and began walking toward the edge of the roof when he slipped and fell 60 feet to the sidewalk below. Laborer No. 1 did not see Laborer No. 2 fall, but heard him falling off the roof. After the laborer fell, the owner and other laborer on the ground went to him, assessed the situation and called emergency services who arrived on the scene within minutes. Several people observed the laborer fall from the roof. One witness also called emergency services. Emergency personnel arrived and contacted the coroner who declared the victim dead at the scene.

38 Fall Protection - Why Cause of Death According to the autopsy report, death was due to multiple blunt force trauma caused by a fall from a great height.

39 Fall Protection Program - Why Recommendations/Discussion Recommendation No. 1: Employers should have a written safety policy outlining safety practices, procedures and which state the consequences of not following the company policies. Discussion: The company involved in this fatality did not have written safety procedures. Employees were verbally instructed to wear personal fall arrest equipment and shown how to use it. One employee interviewed stated that if safety equipment was not worn, they were not allowed to work. Occupational Safety Health Standard CFR (a)(1) states that the employer is responsible for providing a training program for each employee that might be exposed to fall hazards. This training should be in writing with explanations of consequences if the program is not followed. All training should be documented. Employees should be required to sign that they understand the safety and training program, the enforcement and consequences for failure to follow safety instructions.

40 Fall Protection Program - Why Recommendation No. 2: Employers should provide appropriate personal safety equipment and training on the proper use of that equipment. Discussion: A body belt and a harness were the personal fall arrest equipment provided by the company for the victim and the survivor to wear as fall arrest systems. The Occupational Safety and Health Standard CFR (d) states that body belts can be used as positioning devices but they are unacceptable for use as a fall protection system. A full body harness should have been provided for mandatory use by all employees and all employees should be trained in the proper use of this equipment.

41 Fall Protection Program –Why ? Recommendation No. 3: A competent person should conduct a hazard assessment of the job site prior to commencement of work. Control of the identified hazards and safe work procedures should be discussed. Discussion: A hazard assessment of each job site should be performed each day before work commences. The identified hazards and safe work practices should be examined and discussed with all affected employees. It is thought that there may have been dew on the roof and appropriate precautions should have been taken (i.e.: anti-skid shoes in addition to the appropriate personal fall arrest system). Recommendation No. 4: Employers should have a site specific fall protection plan written by a qualified person. Discussion: Occupational Safety and Health Standard CFR 1926(503)(k)(1) states that a fall protection plan shall be prepared by a qualified person and developed specifically for the site where the work is being performed. Employees should be reminded every work day of the hazards identified for the work place and to wear the personal protective equipment to prevent injury while working TRAIN, TRAIN AND MORE TRAINING!

42 Case Study By Kentucky Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program The Kentucky Fatality Assessment & Control Evaluation Program (FACE) is funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Safety and Health. Face's purpose is to aid in the research and prevention of occupational fatalities by evaluating events leading to, during, and after a work related fatality. Recommendations are made to aid employers and employees to have a safer work environment. The current foci of the program are occupational fatalities involving: construction, machinery, immigrant workers (particularly Hispanics) or youths.

43 Definitions Of Roof Types

44 What is A Roof ? Roof means the exterior surface on the top of a building. This does not include floors or formwork which, because a building has not been completed, temporarily become the top surface of a building. Roofing work means the hoisting, storage, application, and removal of roofing materials and equipment, including related insulation, sheet metal, and vapor barrier work, but not including the construction of the roof deck (b)

45 Low Slope Roof Section defines "Low-slope roof" as: a roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal).

46 Steep Roofs Steep roof means a roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal) (b) (2)

47 47 Fall Protection

48 48 Falls Accidental? December 2007 Construction Worker Falls 30 Feet To His Death Construction Worker Falls From Roof A construction worker is dead after falling off a roof in Bourbon County. The accident happened Monday morning in the town of Little Rock, just outside Paris. Neighbors say two workers were repairing the roof of the Little Rock Masonic Lodge, when a sprinkling of rain made the tin roof very slippery. We're told 43-year-old Donny Burk halter fell about 30 feet to the ground. "He started slipping, so he grabbed the friends legs and his friend was trying to hold tight and he just dropped, he let go," said neighbor, Dorothy Pruitt. Pruitt says she could tell from the way Burk halter landed and the height of the fall that he wasn't going to make it. "After the man hit the ground, the friend jumped down and then looked at him and then ran to the Little Rock store and called for help," she said. Before the ambulance arrived, two other neighbors, both trained in CPR, attempted to save the man. They continued their efforts for 5 to 10 minutes until EMS workers arrived. Burk halter was taken to Bourbon Community Hospital then flown to UK hospital where he was pronounced dead due to his injuries. The coroner says he died from blunt force trauma to the chest. His death has been ruled accidental.

49 49 Residential Fall Protection Requirements Residential - Summary of Kentucky Fall Protection Standards General Standards Residential Construction means construction work on a stand alone single family dwelling, duplex, three (3) plex, or four (4) plex structure. Employees engaged in residential construction activities ten (10) feet or more above a lower level shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems (positive fall protection systems) or the approved alternative measures.

50 50 Commercial Fall Protection Requirements Commercial – At 6 feet Fall Protection is Required Or can be less if required by the employer Restriction on Application for Roofing Work. The alternative procedures in this Instruction may only be used for this work where: (a) the roof slope is 8 in 12 or less, and (b) the fall distance, measured from the eave to the ground level, is 25 feet or less. General Requirements. – Trained Workers Only. Only workers who have been trained to be proficient in the alternative methods of fall protection shall be allowed onto the roof. In addition, each affected employee shall be trained to ensure specific awareness of the fall hazards associated with work on roofs with rake edges ("rake edges" are inclined roof edges, such as those on the gable end of a building).

51 51 Different Types of Fall Protection Body Harness – Personal Fall Arrest System Guardrails Safety Nets All types can be used in Commercial and Residential

52 Fall Protection Systems Definitions (b) Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices. -Must Support 5000 lbs per person Body belt (safety belt) means a strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device. Body harness means straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system. Buckle means any device for holding the body belt or body harness closed around the employee's body.

53 Definitions Connector means a device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or dee-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard). Controlled access zone (CAZ) means an area in which certain work (e.g., overhand bricklaying) may take place without the use of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety net systems and access to the zone is controlled. Dangerous equipment means equipment (such as pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, machinery, electrical equipment, and other units) which, as a result of form or function, may be hazardous to employees who fall onto or into such equipment.

54 Definitions Deceleration device means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip- stitch lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest. Deceleration distance means the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.

55 Definitions Equivalent means alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard. Failure means load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded. Free fall means the act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. Free fall distance means the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.

56 Definitions Guardrail system means a barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. Hole means a gap or void 2 inches (5.1 cm) or more in its least dimension, in a floor, roof, or other walking/working surface. Infeasible means that it is impossible to perform the construction work using a conventional fall protection system (i.e., guardrail system, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system) or that it is technologically impossible to use any one of these systems to provide fall protection. Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage. Leading edge means the edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed. A leading edge is considered to be an "unprotected side and edge" during periods when it is not actively and continuously under construction.

57 Definitions Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage. Low-slope roof means a roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal). Lower levels means those areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, platforms, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, material, water, equipment, structures, or portions thereof.

58 Definitions Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited. Positioning device system means a body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning. Rope grab means a deceleration device which travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking, or both.

59 Definitions Safety-monitoring system means a safety system in which a competent person is responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards. Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard means a deceleration device containing a drum-wound line which can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall. Snaphook means a connector comprised of a hook-shaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object. Snaphooks are generally one of two types:

60 Snaphook (b)(1) The locking type with a self-closing, self-locking keeper which remains closed and locked until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection; or (b)(2) The non-locking type with a self-closing keeper which remains closed until pressed open for connection or disconnection. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a non-locking snaphook as part of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems is prohibited.

61 Toeboards, Edges and Surface Toeboard means a low protective barrier that will prevent the fall of materials and equipment to lower levels and provide protection from falls for personnel. Unprotected sides and edges means any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface, e.g., floor, roof, ramp, or runway where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1.0 m) high. Walking/working surface means any surface, whether horizontal or vertical on which an employee walks or works, including, but not limited to, floors, roofs, ramps, bridges, runways, formwork and concrete reinforcing steel but not including ladders, vehicles, or trailers, on which employees must be located in order to perform their job duties.

62 Definitions Warning line system means a barrier erected on a roof to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge, and which designates an area in which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrail, body belt, or safety net systems to protect employees in the area. Work area means that portion of a walking/working surface where job duties are being performed.

63 Visual Examples of all Types of Fall Protection Personal Fall Arrest Retractable Lanyards Guardrails Nets Scaffold – Perry Types of Guardrail Systems

64 Inspection Of Fall Protection Systems "Inspections." Personal fall arrest systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration, and defective components shall be removed from service if their strength or function may be adversely affected. II. "Test methods for personal fall arrest systems (non-mandatory)" - (a) "General." Paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e), of this section II set forth test procedures which may be used to determine compliance with the requirements in paragraph (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) of section I of this appendix. (b) "General conditions for all tests in section II." (1) Lifelines, lanyards and deceleration devices should be attached to an anchorage and connected to the body-belt or body harness in the same manner as they would be when used to protect employees Subpart F App C

65 Questions - Break

66 66 Electrical – 803 KAR 2: Subpart K Electricity has long been recognized as a serious workplace hazard. OSHA's electrical standards are designed to protect employees exposed to dangers such as electric shock, electrocution, fires, and explosions. Electrical hazards are addressed in specific standards for the general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals and the construction industry.

67 67 Electrical 1926 Part Title: Safety and Health Regulations for Construction Subpart:K Subpart Title:Electrical Standard Number: Title:General requirements (a) Approval. All electrical conductors and equipment shall be approved (b) Examination, installation, and use of equipment (b)(1) Examination. The employer shall ensure that electrical equipment is free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. Safety of equipment shall be determined on the basis of the following considerations: (a) (b)(1)

68 68 Electrical (b)(1)(i) Suitability for installation and use in conformity with the provisions of this subpart. Suitability of equipment for an identified purpose may be evidenced by listing, labeling, or certification for that identified purpose.

69 69 Electrical (b)(1)(ii) Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts designed to enclose and protect other equipment, the adequacy of the protection thus provided.

70 70 Electrical (b)(1)(iii) Electrical insulation (b)(1)(iv) Heating effects under conditions of use (b)(1)(v) (b)(1)(v) Arcing effects (b)(1)(vi) Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, specific use

71 71 Electrical (b)(1)(vii) Other factors which contribute to the practical safeguarding of employees using or likely to come in contact with the equipment (b)(2) Installation and use. Listed, labeled, or certified equipment shall be installed and used in accordance with instructions included in the listing, labeling, or certification.

72 72 Electrical (c) Interrupting rating. Equipment intended to break current shall have an interrupting rating at system voltage sufficient for the current that must be interrupted (d) Mounting and cooling of equipment (d)(1) Mounting. Electric equipment shall be firmly secured to the surface on which it is mounted. Wooden plugs driven into holes in masonry, concrete, plaster, or similar materials shall not be used.

73 73 Electrical (d)(2) (d)(2) Cooling. Electrical equipment which depends upon the natural circulation of air and convection principles for cooling of exposed surfaces shall be installed so that room air flow over such surfaces is not prevented by walls or by adjacent installed equipment. For equipment designed for floor mounting, clearance between top surfaces and adjacent surfaces shall be provided to dissipate rising warm air. Electrical equipment provided with ventilating openings shall be installed so that walls or other obstructions do not prevent the free circulation of air through the equipment.

74 74 Electrical December 16, 1998 Mr. Dennis Vance Safety Specialist 711 Low Gap Road Princeton, WV Re: (e); (g)(2)(iii); (e)(1). Dear Mr. Vance: This is in response to your letter of March 20, and your follow-up letter of October 9, concerning the use of electrical tape to repair minor damage (abrasions and cuts of limited depth) on the outer jacket of an extension cord. We apologize for the lateness of this reply.

75 75 Electrical Extension Cords Generally, electrical tape may be used to cover superficial damage to cord jackets You ask whether there is any prohibition against putting electrical tape over these kinds of abrasions and nicks when there is no damage beyond the jacket the conductors have not been scraped or exposed and the insulation inside the jacket has not been displaced or compressed. Section (e)(1) provides that "worn or frayed electrical cords or cables shall not be used." Superficial nicks or abrasions those that only slightly penetrate the outer jacket of a flexible cord, and do not permit the cord to bend more in that area than in the rest of the cord do not normally render a cord "worn or frayed." Therefore, there is no need to repair or replace such a cord

76 76 Electrical – Extension Cords Recommendation against taping While taping these incidental abrasions and cuts does not necessarily violate any OSHA standard, we recommend that employers not tape this type of damage for two reasons. First, Section (a) requires that "all electrical conductors and equipment shall be approved." This standard precludes the use of approved electrical conductors and equipment if their characteristics are significantly altered. Applying electrical tape that is too thick or applying too much of it could change the cord's original flexibility and lead to internal damage. Second, the depth of the abrasions and cuts cannot be monitored to see if they get worse without removing the tape.

77 77 Electrical It should also be kept in mind that the heavy- duty extension cords commonly used on construction sites are designed to withstand a hostile environment. Damage to an extension cord that is bad enough to consider taping may have caused damage beyond the jacket.

78 78 Electrical – Extension Cords Tape may not be used to repair significant damage to cord jackets Repair or replacement of a flexible cord (depending on its gauge) is required when the outer jacket is deeply penetrated (enough to cause that part of the cord to bend more than the undamaged part) or penetrated completely, or when the conductors or their insulation inside are damaged. Two provisions of the standard prohibit the repair of the jacket of a worn or frayed flexible cord with electrical tape. Section (a) requires that the cord be approved.

79 79 Electrical –Extension Cords The original approval of the cord was based on the types of materials and construction used. As noted above, taping the cord can change the flexibility characteristics of the cord, which in turn can affect the amount of stress in the adjacent areas. This is of particular concern with respect to the grounding wire. Also, the jacket is designed both to prevent damage to the conductors and insulators inside and to further insulate the conductors. Taped repairs usually will not duplicate the cord's original characteristics; in most cases neither the jacket's strength nor flexibility characteristics will be restored. Therefore, tape repairs of the jacket may not be used to bring a worn or frayed flexible cord into compliance.

80 80 Electrical – Extension Cords In addition, Section (g)(2)(iii) states that "flexible cords shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap. Hard service flexible cords No. 12 or larger may be repaired if spliced so that the splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced." This standard precludes the repair of flexible cords smaller than No. 12.

81 81 Electrical - Electrical Protection of Employees on Construction Sites OSHA requires that employers shall use either ground-fault circuit interrupters or an assured equipment grounding conductor program to protect employees on construction sites.

82 82 Electrical Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters All 120-volt, single-phase 15- and 20-ampere receptacle outlets on construction sites, which are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in use by employees, shall have approved ground- fault circuit interrupters for personnel protection.

83 83 Electrical Receptacles on a two-wire, single-phase portable or vehicle-mounted generator rated not more that 5kV, where the circuit conductors of the generator are insulated from the generator frame and all other grounded surfaces, need not be protected with ground-fault circuit interrupters.

84 84 Electrical Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program The employer shall establish and implement an assured equipment grounding conductor program on construction sites covering all cord sets, receptacles which are not a part of the building or structure, and equipment connected by cord and plug which are available for use or used by employees. An assured equipment grounding conductor program shall comply with the following minimum requirements: A written description of the program, including the specific procedures adopted by the employer. The description and procedures shall be available at the jobsite for inspection and copying by OSHA and any affected employee.

85 85 Electrical The employer shall designate one or more competent persons to implement the program.competent persons

86 86 Electrical –Competent Person OSHA Definition "Competent person" means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

87 87 Electrical Each cord set, attachment cap, plug and receptacle of cord sets, and any equipment connected by cord and plug, except cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage, shall be visually inspected before each day's use for external defects, such as deformed or missing pins or insulation damage, and for indications of possible internal damage. Equipment found damaged or defective shall not be used until repaired.

88 88 Electrical Disclaimer: The information presented on this page is taken from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) Wiring Design and Protection. The presentation and use of this material is not intended to be an interpretation of those regulations. Please refer to the Regulations for the full text and interpretation of the Regulations and Standards.

89 89 Electrical This checklist covers regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) under the general industry standards subpart S 29 CFR and the construction standards 29 CFR It applies to allowed temporary wiring situations. This checklist does not cover installations in ships, watercraft, railway rolling stock, aircraft, or automotive vehicles other than mobile homes and recreational vehicles. This checklist also does not apply to conductors that are an integral part of factory assembled equipment. The regulations cited apply only to private employers and their employees, unless adopted by a State agency and applied to other groups such as public employees. Definitions of terms in bold type are provided at the end of the checklist.

90 90 Electrical Branch circuit: the circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet's). Feeder: all circuit conductors between the service equipment (or the generator switchboard of an isolated plant) and the final branch-circuit overcurrent device. Panelboard: a single or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel. The panelboard includes buses and automatic overcurrent devices, and may or may not have switches to control light, heat, or power circuits. It is designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout box in or against a wall and accessible only from the front.

91 91 Electrical Raceway: a channel designed for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted. Raceways may be of metal or insulating materials, and the term includes rigid metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, intermediate metal conduit, liquid-tight flexible metal conduit, flexible metallic tubing, flexible metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, underfloor raceways, cellular concrete floor raceways, cellular metal floor raceways, surface raceways, wireways, and busways.

92 92 Electrical Examples of: Questions ? BREAK

93 93 Fire Protection Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act, often referred to as the General Duty Clause, requires employers to "furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees". Section 5(a)(2) requires employers to "comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act". Section 5(a)(1)Section 5(a)(2)

94 94 Fire Protection Subpart E, Exit routes, emergency action plans, 1910 and fire prevention plans [related topic page] Subpart E1910related topic page , Compliance with NFPA , Life Safety Code , Design and construction requirements for exit routes , Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes , Emergency action plans , Fire prevention plans

95 95 Fire Protection 1910 Subpart G, Occupational health and environmental controls 1910 Subpart G , Ventilation [related topic page] related topic page 1910 Subpart H, Hazardous materials [related topic page] 1910 Subpart Hrelated topic page , Compressed gases (general requirements) , Acetylene , Hydrogen , Oxygen , Flammable and combustible liquids , Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials , Dip tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids , Explosives and blasting agents , Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases , Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia [related topic page] related topic page , Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals [related topic page] related topic page , Hazardous waste operations and emergency response [related topic page] related topic page

96 96 Fire Protection 1910 Subpart L, Fire protection 1910 Subpart L , Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart , Fire brigades , Portable fire extinguishers , Standpipe and hose systems , Automatic sprinkler systems , Fixed extinguishing systems, general , Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical , Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent , Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam , Fire detection systems , Employee alarm systems Appendix A, Fire Protection Appendix A Appendix B, National Consensus Standards Appendix B Appendix C, Fire Protection references for further information Appendix C Appendix D, Availability of publications incorporated by reference in section fire brigades Appendix D Appendix E, Test methods for protective clothing Appendix E

97 97 Fire Protection Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926)29 CFR Subpart C, General safety and health provisions 1926 Subpart C – , Fire protection and prevention – , Means of egress – , Employee emergency action plans This is Very Important

98 98 Questions – Fire Protection Break

99 99 Personal Protective Equipment 803 KAR Subpart Application. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices, and protective shields and barriers, shall be provided, used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

100 100 Employer Responsibility Federal Registers Employer Payment for Personal Protective Equipment; Final Rule - 72:

101 101 Employer Responsibility SUMMARY: Many Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) health, safety, maritime, and construction standards require employers to provide their employees with protective equipment, including personal protective equipment (PPE), when such equipment is necessary to protect employees from job-related injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. These requirements address PPE of many kinds: hard hats, gloves, goggles, safety shoes, safety glasses, welding helmets and goggles, faceshields, chemical protective equipment, fall protection equipment, and so forth. The provisions in OSHA standards that require PPE generally state that the employer is to provide such PPE. However, some of these provisions do not specify that the employer is to provide such PPE at no cost to the employee. In this rulemaking, OSHA is requiring employers to pay for the PPE provided, with exceptions for specific items. The rule does not require employers to provide PPE where none has been required before. Instead, the rule merely stipulates that the employer must pay for required PPE, except in the limited cases specified in the standard. DATES: This final rule becomes effective on February 13, The final rule must be implemented by May 15, 2008.

102 102 Personal Protective Equipment (b) Employee-owned equipment. Where employees provide their own protective equipment, the employer shall be responsible to assure its adequacy, including proper maintenance, and sanitation of such equipment.

103 103 Personal Protective Equipment Design. All personal protective equipment shall be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed (d) (d) Hazard assessment and equipment selection (d)(1) The employer shall assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). If such hazards are present, or likely to be present, the employer shall:

104 104 Personal Protective Equipment (d)(1)(i) Select, and have each affected employee use, the types of PPE that will protect the affected employee from the hazards identified in the hazard assessment; (d)(1)(ii) Communicate selection decisions to each affected employee; and, (d)(1)(iii) Select PPE that properly fits each affected employee. Note: Non-mandatory Appendix B contains an example of procedures that would comply with the requirement for a hazard assessment.

105 105 Personal Protective Equipment f) (4)The employer shall verify that each affected employee has received and understood the required training through a written certification that contains the name of each employee trained, the date(s) of training, and that identifies the subject of the certification.

106 106 Personal Protective Equipment 1926 – 1910 Incorporation by Reference (a)(1) The standards of agencies of the U.S. Government, and organizations which are not agencies of the U.S. Government which are incorporated by reference in this part, have the same force and effect as other standards in this part. Only the mandatory provisions (i.e., provisions containing the word "shall" or other mandatory language) of standards incorporated by reference are adopted as standards under the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

107 107 Personal Protective Equipment Questions Break

108 108 Cranes, Hoists, Derricks, Elevators and Conveyors 1926 Subpart N CRANES AND DERRICKS - § General Requirements The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer.

109 109 Cranes Hoists Derricks Elevators and Conveyors Rated load capacities, and recommended operating speeds, special hazard warnings, or instruction, shall be conspicuously posted on all equipment. Instructions or warnings shall be visible to operators while they are at their control stations. Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site.

110 110 Cranes, Derricks, Hoists Elevators and Conveyors Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site.

111 111 Universal Hand Signals

112 112 Cranes

113 113 Cranes, Hoists, Derricks, Elevators and Conveyors The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use.

114 114 Rigging Wire rope shall be taken out of service when any of the following conditions exist: In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay; Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure; Evidence of any heat damage from any cause;

115 115 Rigging In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. Wire rope safety factors shall be in accordance with American National Standards Institute B or SAE J

116 116 Elevators- Conveyors Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or other moving parts or equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees, or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements of the American National Standards Institute B Rev., Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus.

117 117 Continued Floating Cranes and Derricks Mobile Cranes Mounted on Barges When a mobile crane is mounted on a barge, the rated load of the crane shall not exceed the original capacity specified by the manufacturer. A load rating chart, with clearly legible letters and figures, shall be provided with each crane, and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator. When load ratings are reduced to stay within the limits for list of the barge with a crane mounted on it, a new load rating chart shall be provided. Mobile cranes on barges shall be positively secured.

118 118 Ladders Part Number:1926 Part Title: Safety and Health Regulations for Construction Subpart:X Subpart Title: Ladders Standard Number: Title: Ladders

119 119 Ladders General. The following requirements apply to all ladders as indicated, including job-made ladders (a)(1) Ladders shall be capable of supporting the following loads without failure: (a)(1)(i) Each self-supporting portable ladder: At least four times the maximum intended load, except that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladder shall sustain at least 3.3 time the maximum intended load. The ability of a ladder to sustain the loads indicated in this paragraph shall be determined by applying or transmitting the requisite load to the ladder in a downward vertical direction. Ladders built and tested in conformance with the applicable provisions of appendix A of this subpart will be deemed to meet this requirement (a)(1) (a)(1)(i)

120 120 Ladders Each portable ladder that is not self-supporting: At least four times the maximum intended load, except that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladders shall sustain at least 3.3 times the maximum intended load. The ability of a ladder to sustain the loads indicated in this paragraph shall be determined by applying or transmitting the requisite load to the ladder in a downward vertical direction when the ladder is placed at an angle of 75 1/2 degrees from the horizontal. Ladders built and tested in conformance with the applicable provisions of appendix A will be deemed to meet this

121 121 Conveyors CONVEYORS - § Means for stopping the motor or engine shall be provided at the operator's station. Conveyor systems shall be equipped with an audible warning signal to be sounded immediately before starting up the conveyor. If the operator's station is at a remote point, similar provisions for stopping the motor or engine shall be provided at the motor or engine location. Emergency stop switches shall be arranged so that the conveyor cannot be started again until the actuating stop switch has been reset to running or "on" position. Screw conveyors shall be guarded to prevent employee contact with turning flights. Where a conveyor passes over work areas, aisles, or thoroughfares, suitable guards shall be provided to protect employees required to work below the conveyors.

122 122 Cranes, Hoists, Derricks,Elevators and Conveyors Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes Hammerhead Tower Cranes Overhead and Gantry Cranes Derricks All derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed in American National Standards Institute B , Safety Code for Derricks.

123 123 Conveyors All crossovers, aisles, and passageways shall be conspicuously marked by suitable signs, as required by Subpart G, Signs, Signals, and Barricades. Conveyors shall be locked out or otherwise rendered inoperable, and tagged out with a "Do Not Operate" tag during repairs and when operation is hazardous to employees performing maintenance work. All conveyors in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, as prescribed in the ANSI B , Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment.

124 124 Personal Hoists Personnel Hoists Hoist towers outside the structure shall be enclosed for the full height on the side or sides used for entrance and exit to the structure. At the lowest landing, the enclosure on the sides not used for exit or entrance to the structure shall be enclosed to a height of at least 10 feet. Other sides of the tower adjacent to floors or scaffold platforms shall be enclosed to a height of 10 feet above the level of such floors or scaffolds. Towers inside of structures shall be enclosed on all four sides throughout the full height. Towers shall be anchored to the structure at intervals not exceeding 25 feet. In addition to tie-ins, a series of guys shall be installed. Where tie-ins are not practical the tower shall be anchored by means of guys made of wire rope at least one-half inch in diameter, securely fastened to anchorage to ensure stability.

125 125 Hoist Hoistway doors or gates shall be not less than 6 feet 6 inches high and shall be provided with mechanical locks which cannot be operated from the landing side, and shall be accessible only to persons on the car. Cars shall be permanently enclosed on all sides and the top, except sides used for entrance and exit which have car gates or doors. A door or gate shall be provided at each entrance to the car which shall protect the full width and height of the car entrance opening. Overhead protective covering of 2-inch planking, ¾-inch plywood or other solid material or equivalent strength shall be provided on the top of every personnel hoist. Doors or gates shall be provided with electric contacts which do not allow movement of the hoist when door or gate is open. Safeties shall be capable of stopping and holding the car and rated load when traveling at governor tripping speed.

126 126 Material Hoists Material Hoists Operating rules shall be established and posted at the operator's station of the hoist. Such rules shall include signal system and allowable line speed for various loads. Rules and notices shall be posted on the car frame or crosshead in a conspicuous location, including the statement "No Riders Allowed." No person shall be allowed to ride on material hoists except for the purposes of inspection and maintenance.

127 127 Material Hoist All entrances of the hoistways shall be protected by substantial gates or bars which shall guard the full width of the landing entrance. All hoistway entrance bars and gates shall be painted with diagonal contrasting colors, such as black and yellow stripes. Bars shall be not less than 2- by 4-inch wooden bars or the equivalent, located 2 feet from the hoistway line. Bars shall be located not less than 36 inches nor more than 42 inches above the f

128 128 Material Hoists Gates or bars protecting the entrances to hoistways shall be equipped with a latching device. Overhead protective covering of 2-inch planking, ¾-inch plywood, or other solid material of equivalent strength, shall be provided on the top of every material hoist cage or platform. The operator's station of a hoisting machine shall be provided with overhead protection equivalent to tight planking not less than 2 inches thick. The support for the overhead protection shall be of equal strength.

129 129 Material Hoists Hoist towers may be used with or without an enclosure on all sides. However, whichever alternative is chosen, the following applicable conditions shall be met: When a hoist tower is enclosed, it shall be enclosed on all sides for its entire height with a screen enclosure of ½-inch mesh, No. 18 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent, except for landing access. When a hoist tower is not enclosed, the hoist platform or car shall be totally enclosed (caged) on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering with ½-inch mesh of No. 14 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent. The hoist platform enclosure shall include the required gates for loading and unloading. A 6-foot high enclosure shall be provided on the unused sides of the hoist tower at ground level.

130 130 Scissors Lifts

131 131 AERIAL LIFTS - § General Requirements Unless otherwise provided in this section, aerial lifts acquired for use on or after the effective date of this section shall be designed and constructed in conformance with the applicable requirements of the American National Standards for Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms, ANSI A , including appendix. Aerial lifts acquired before the effective date of this section, which do not meet the requirements of ANSI A , may not be used unless they have been modified so as to conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel to job-sites above ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms; (ii) aerial ladders; (iii) articulating boom platforms; (iv) vertical towers; and (v) a combination of any of the above. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or other material; may be powered or manually operated; and are deemed to be aerial lifts whether or not they are capable of rotating about a substantially vertical axis.

132 132 AERIAL LIFTS - § Aerial lifts may be "field modified" for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformity with all applicable provisions of ANSI A and this section and to be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification. Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift.

133 133 Ladder Trucks and Tower Trucks Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device on top of the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder before the truck is moved for highway travel.

134 134 Extensible and Articulating Boom Platforms Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted. Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. A body harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift.

135 135 Aerial Lift Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded. The brakes shall be set and when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline, provided they can be safely installed. An aerial lift truck shall not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except for equipment which is specifically designed for this

136 136 Aerial Lift Articulating boom and extensible boom platforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shall be in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the upper controls. Controls shall be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency. Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial lift. The insulated portion of an aerial lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value. Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom's) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of this section.

137 137 Aerial Lifts Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device on top of the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder before the truck is moved for highway travel.

138 138 Ladders General. The following requirements apply to all ladders as indicated, including job-made ladders (a)(1) Ladders shall be capable of supporting the following loads without failure: (a)(1)(i) Each self-supporting portable ladder: At least four times the maximum intended load, except that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladder shall sustain at least 3.3 time the maximum intended load. The ability of a ladder to sustain the loads indicated in this paragraph shall be determined by applying or transmitting the requisite load to the ladder in a downward vertical direction. Ladders built and tested in conformance with the applicable provisions of appendix A of this subpart will be deemed to meet this requirement (a)(1) (a)(1)(i)

139 139 Ladders Whats Wrong in this picture?

140 140 Ladders Each portable ladder that is not self-supporting: At least four times the maximum intended load, except that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladders shall sustain at least 3.3 times the maximum intended load. The ability of a ladder to sustain the loads indicated in this paragraph shall be determined by applying or transmitting the requisite load to the ladder in a downward vertical direction when the ladder is placed at an angle of 75 1/2 degrees from the horizontal. Ladders built and tested in conformance with the applicable provisions of appendix A will be deemed to meet this requirement (a)(1)(iii) Each Fixed ladder: At least two loads of 250 pounds (114 kg) each, concentrated between any two consecutive attachments (the number and position of additional concentrated loads of 250 pounds (114 kg) each, determined from anticipated usage of the ladder, shall also be included), plus anticipated loads caused by ice buildup, winds, rigging, and impact loads resulting from the use of ladder safety devices. Each step or rung shall be capable of supporting a single concentrated load of a least 250 pounds (114 kg) applied in the middle of the step or rung. Ladders built in conformance with the applicable provisions of appendix A will be deemed to meet this requirement.

141 141 Ladders (a)(2) Ladder rungs, cleats, and steps shall be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use (a)(3) (a)(3)(i) Rungs, cleats, and steps of portable ladders (except as provided below) and fixed ladders (including individual-rung/step ladders) shall be spaced not less than 10 inches (25 cm) apart, nor more than 14 inches (36 cm) apart, as measured between center lines of the rungs, cleats and steps.

142 142 Ladders

143 (a)(4)(i) The minimum clear distance between the sides of individual-rung/step ladders and the minimum clear distance between the side rails of other fixed ladders shall be 16 inches (41 cm) (a)(4)(ii) The minimum clear distance between side rails for all portable ladders shall be 11 1/2 inches (29 cm) (a)(5) The rungs of individual-rung/step ladders shall be shaped such that employees' feet cannot slide off the end of the rungs.

144 144 Ladders Questions BREAK

145 145 Scaffolds 1926 Subpart L (a)(1) Scaffolds shall be furnished and erected in accordance with this standard for persons engaged in work that cannot be done safely from the ground or from solid construction, except that ladders used for such work shall conform to and

146 146 Scaffolds

147 (a)(2) The footing or anchorage for scaffolds shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick, or concrete blocks shall not be used to support scaffolds or planks.

148 148 Scaffolds

149 (a)(3) [Reserved] (a)(4) Scaffolds and their components shall be capable of supporting without failure at least four times the maximum intended load (a)(5) Scaffolds and other devices mentioned or described in this section shall be maintained in safe condition. Scaffolds shall not be altered or moved horizontally while they are in use or occupied.

150 150 Scaffolds (a)(6) Any scaffold damaged or weakened from any cause shall be immediately repaired and shall not be used until repairs have been completed (a)(7) Scaffolds shall not be loaded in excess of the working load for which they are intended (a)(8) All load-carrying timber members of scaffold framing shall be a minimum of 1,500 f. (Stress Grade) construction grade lumber. All dimensions are nominal sizes as provided in the American Lumber Standards, except that where rough sizes are noted, only rough and undressed lumber or the size specified will satisfy minimum requirements. (Note: Where nominal sizes of lumber are used in place of rough sizes, the nominal size lumber shall be such as to provide equivalent strength to that specified in tables D-7 through D-12 and D-16.

151 151 Scaffolds All planking shall be Scaffold Grade as recognized by grading rules for the species of wood used. The maximum permissible spans for 2- X 9-inch or wider planks are shown in the following table:

152 152 Scaffolds

153 (a)(10) Nails or bolts used in the construction of scaffolds shall be of adequate size and in sufficient numbers at each connection to develop the designed strength of the scaffold. Nails shall not be subjected to a straight pull and shall be driven full length (a)(11) (a)(11) All planking or platforms shall be overlapped (minimum 12 inches) or secured from movement (a)(12) An access ladder or equivalent safe access shall be provided (a)(13) Scaffold planks shall extend over their end supports not less than 6 inches nor more than 18 inches.

154 154 Scaffolds (a)(14) The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall be plumb, and securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement (a)(15) Materials being hoisted onto a scaffold shall have a tag line (a)(16) Overhead protection shall be provided for men on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards

155 155 Scaffolds (a)(17) Scaffolds shall be provided with a screen between the toe board and the guardrail, extending along the entire opening, consisting of No. 18 gauge U.S. Standard Wire one-half-inch mesh or the equivalent, where persons are required to work or pass under the scaffolds (a)(18) Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds (a)(19) (a)(19) Employees shall not work on scaffolds which are covered with ice or snow, unless all ice or snow is removed and planking sanded to prevent slipping.

156 156 Scaffolds (a)(20) Tools, materials, and debris shall not be allowed to accumulate in quantities to cause a hazard (a)(21) Only treated or protected fiber rope shall be used for or near any work involving the use of corrosive substances or chemicals (a)(22) Wire or fiber rope used for scaffold suspension shall be capable of supporting at least six times the intended load.

157 157 Scaffolds (a)(24) The use of shore scaffolds or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited (a)(25) Lumber sizes, when used in this section, refer to nominal sizes except where otherwise stated (a)(26) Scaffolds shall be secured to permanent structures, through use of anchor bolts, reveal bolts, or other equivalent means. Window cleaners' anchor bolts shall not be used

158 158 Scaffolds (b)(15) Guardrails not less than 2 x 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1 x 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toe boards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toe boards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

159 159 Scaffolds (c)(11) Cross bracing shall be installed across the width of the scaffold at least every third set of posts horizontally and every fourth runner vertically. Such bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner and outer runners upward to the next outer and inner runners.

160 160 Scaffolds (c)(13) The entire scaffold shall be tied to and securely braced against the building at intervals not to exceed 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically (c)(14) Guardrails not less than 2 x 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1 x 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toe boards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toe boards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

161 161 Overview Maysville Community And Technical College Is totally committed to assisting in the decrease In workplace fatalities. We feel through education of our workforce we can do so. This is only an overview, you should always refer to the proper OSHA standard to further research your topic. For more information : To schedule a class contact Lorrina Blevins at: – Ph: EXT


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