8 PurposeTo protect young children from exposure to lead paint hazards and lead-contaminated dust caused by deteriorating paint.To learn how to safely maintain and renovate older housing that contains lead paint.
9 PurposeCreates a ‘standard of care’ with respect to lead paint in rental housing and child care facilities.Provides some legal protections for property owners who comply with the law.
10 What does the Vermont Lead Paint Law Require? Completion of approved training.Performance of Essential Maintenance Practices (EMPs).Submission of a Compliance Statement.Informational pamphlet & copy of Compliance Statement provided to tenants.Posting a notice for tenants to report deteriorated paint.
11 Essential Maintenance Practices (EMPs) Visual Inspection of Painted SurfacesSafe Repairs to Problem AreasDo Not Use Prohibited PracticesWindow Well (Trough) LinersSpecial Cleaning Practices – including removal of paint chips
12 About the CourseMeets the training requirements of Vermont’s Lead Paint Law (Title 18, Chapter 38)Listed as an approved course under federal law (Lead Safe Housing Rule - 24 CRF Part 35)
13 When does the Law apply?Vermont’s law applies to all target residential rental units and child care facilities in buildings constructed before 1978.The law applies to ALL pre-1978 target rental property, whether or not children live there.
14 What Types of Properties or Situations are Exempt? A Vermont-licensed lead paint inspector or risk assessor has certified that the property is lead free.
15 What Types of Properties or Situations are Exempt? Zero (0) bedroom dwellings like studio or efficiency apartments unless a child under 6 resides there.Dwellings located in multiple unit buildings or projects reserved for the exclusive use of the elderly or persons with disabilities, unless a child under 6 resides there.
16 What Types of Properties or Situations are Exempt? Units in hotels, motels, or other lodging, including condominiums that are rented for transient occupancy for 30 days or lessRenting a single room in your home unless a child age 6 or younger is present.
17 Recent Changes to Vermont’s Lead Paint Law Unsafe work practices are prohibited in pre-1978 housing, rental and owner occupied.Specialized cleaning in all common areas at least annually.All visible paint chips must be removed from the property.No cleaning required in occupied units unless work is done.This is Slide 17. Changed first bullet to explain better (PDF just says “all pre-1978 housing.” Wanted to avoid “all” since there are exceptions. Put common area cleaning on this slide and moved compliance statement to next slide.
18 Recent Changes to Vermont’s Lead Paint Law Compliance Statements instead of Affidavits.Tenants must be given copies of Compliance Statements.New requirements for real estate transactions involving pre-1978 residential properties.New enforcement provisions.This is Slide 18 Compliance Statements instead of Affidavits fits better on this page.
19 Limitations of This Course This training does not qualifyindividuals for the following:Lead Abatement WorkInspections, Risk AssessmentsPaint, Dust or Soil SamplingEPA Renovator (new 2010)
20 Basic Principles Assume lead paint is present. Avoid creating and spreading dust by using safe practices.Protect occupants, especially children, and workers.Clean up after all work.Maintain building in good condition.
21 Unsafe Work Practices (Prohibited) Anyone disturbing or repairing more than one(1) sq/ft of paint in pre-1978 housing must use Lead Safe Work Practices.Certain unsafe practices are prohibited in all pre-1978 housing.
22 Unsafe Work Practices (Prohibited) It is illegal to remove Lead-Based Paint by:Open flame burning or torchingHeat guns operated at >1100 FDry scraping / dry sandingMachine sanding or grindingUncontained hydro-blasting or high pressure washingAbrasive blasting without HEPA exhaustUse of chemical strippers containing Methylene Chloride
23 Lead Safe Work Practices (Required in all pre-1978 housing) Limiting access to work areasContaining work areas with plastic sheetingUsing protective clothingMisting painted surfaces before scraping or sandingWetting paint debris before sweeping
24 HEPA Vacuums High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Type of air filter that removes 99.97% of particles 0.3 microns or larger.Removes all particulates including dust, allergens, pet dander, and lead.Helpful for asthmatics, allergy sufferers.
25 HEPA Vacuums HEPA filters now available on many vacuum types. Overall quality of vacuum will determine effectiveness.Pre-filters and good bags will extend life of HEPA filters.Caution: bag-less vacuums and shop vacs will become contaminated in collection chamber.
27 What is Lead? A metallic element with a chemical symbol “Pb”. Does not break down over time.Used widely by humans for thousands of years.Toxic to humans.League of Nations banned lead paint for residential uses in the 1920’s.
28 No “Safe” Level of LeadThere is no “safe” level of lead in the human body.Even small amounts have been shown to cause damage.Unlike other heavy metals such as iron and zinc, the human body has no use for lead.This is Slide 28. Title is changed.
29 Action LevelsIn February 2007 the Vermont Department of Health lowered the “level of concern” for lead in children’s blood to 5 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl).The federal level of concern remains at 10 ug/dl.
30 Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels In 2008, at least 1261 Vermont children six or younger had blood lead levels at 5 ug/dl or greater.Not all children are tested, therefore the actual number of children with elevated blood lead levels is unknown.
31 Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels Based on the child’s blood lead level, the Health Department will take action, up to and including an environmental investigation of the child’s home and other environs.In most cases, there is no medical treatment to remove lead from the body. Levels will drop slowly if the source of exposure is removed.
32 Facts about Lead Poisoning Affects both adults and childrenSilent / no obvious symptomsAffects virtually every system in the bodyAll cases are preventableHousing-based hazards the most common cause
33 Lead’s Effects on Children Damage to the brain and nervous systemBehavior and learning problemsSlowed growthHearing problems, headachesOther non-specific symptoms
34 Lead’s Effects on Children A child died from lead poisoning in 2001 in Manchester, NHA child died in Minnesota in 2006 after ingesting a toy charm that came with children’s shoes. The charm was 97% lead.34
35 How do Children get Lead in Their Bodies? Ingesting lead-contaminated dust or paint chips from deteriorating paint.Ingesting soil contaminated with lead from paint chips or leaded gasoline.Inhaling lead dust or fumes.
36 How do Children get Lead in Their Bodies? Normal hand-to-mouth behaviors of young children contribute to ingestion of lead.Children absorb more of the lead they ingest than adults.
37 Blood Testing for Lead All Children should be tested at ages 1 and 2. If at risk, further testing may be appropriate.Adults should be tested if they believe they have exposure from workplace or hobbies.
38 Lead’s Effects on Adults Nerve disorders, muscle & joint pain.Physical fatigue, memory and concentration problems.Loss of sex drive and function.High blood pressure.Digestive problems.Pregnant women can release lead from their bones which can damage fetus.
39 How do Adults get Lead in Their Bodies? Breathe in lead dust (especially during renovations that disturb painted surfaces).Put their hands or other objects covered with lead dust in their mouths while eating, drinking, or smoking.
40 How do Adults get Lead in Their Bodies? Working with lead in their occupation or hobbies such as using indoor gun ranges, making stained glass, ceramics, or auto repair, to name a few.Mr. Gregory Blodgett of Bellows Falls, Vermont (manual page 15)
41 Typical Lead Dust Creation ** OSHA’s PEL, 50 µg/m3
42 Common Sources of Lead Keys / Brass Items Dust Ceramics Paint Gasoline Many othersDustPaintSoilIndustrial EmissionsWater
45 Essential Maintenance Practices (EMPs) Lead Safe Work PracticesVisual Inspection of Painted SurfacesPaint StabilizationWindow Well (Trough) LinersSpecial Cleaning PracticesRemoval of Paint Chips
46 Lead Safe Work Practices (Required in all pre-1978 housing) Limiting access to work areasContaining work areas with plastic sheetingUsing protective clothingMisting painted surfaces before scraping or sandingWetting paint debris before sweeping
47 Unsafe Work Practices (Prohibited) Removing Lead-Based Paint by:Open flame burning or torchingHeat guns operated at >1100 FDry scraping / dry sandingMachine sanding or grindingUncontained hydro-blasting or high pressure washingAbrasive blasting without HEPA exhaustUse of chemical strippers containing Methylene Chloride
48 Benefits of Safe Work Practices Protect your healthProtect your family by not bringing dust home with youProtect residents, especially childrenSimplify daily and final cleanupEnhance reputation for knowledge and professionalism
50 Protective ClothingAnyone disturbing painted surfaces should take precautions to keep dust and debris off of themselves.Disposable coveralls & shoe coversGloves / painter’s hatPre-moistened disposable wipes for wiping face and handsN-100-rated disposable or other approved respirators50
51 Protect Yourself and Your Family Workers should wear protective clothing; or change out of work clothes before leaving job site.Disposable coverallsCan be reused if not rippedRepair tears with duct tapeStore in plastic bagWash face and hands frequentlyHelps to reduce hand-to-mouth ingestion of lead dust51
52 Protect Yourself and Your Family Failure to follow proper precautions can result in contamination of workers’ cars and homes.Numerous cases have been documented where children have been exposed to lead from contaminated work clothes.52
53 Control the Spread of Dust When you leave the work siteRemove coveralls or HEPA vacuum clothingRemove shoe covers or wipe down shoesWipe down all tools and equipment.Don’t take lead home to your family on your clothes or in your car.Wash hands and face. Shower as soon as possible.Launder work clothes separately from other clothes.53
54 Lead Contamination Facts A penny’s weight (2.8 grams) of lead would be enough to contaminate 70,000 square feet of floor space (or ’x10’ rooms).The exterior of an old home may have hundreds of pounds of lead in the paint.
55 Tools for Proper Work Site Set-Up Barriers & Signs.Heavy Duty (6 mil) plastic sheetingTape (duct, painters, masking).Utility KnifeTack MatsShoe Covers
56 Overview of Interior Set-Up Steps Step 1: Limit accessStep 2: Cover belongings that can not be movedStep 3: Cover floorsStep 4: Close windows, doors, and HVAC systemManual Page 37
57 Interior Set-Up Step 1: Limit Access Do not allow eating, drinking, or smoking in the work areaInstruct residents to stay away from work areaDo not allow small children (under 6 years) or pets near work areaPlace a barrier or tape across entrancesPost a sign
58 Interior Set-Up Step 2: Remove and Cover Belongings Remove belongings like lamps, pictures, toys, tables, etc.Cover large, unmovable furniture and other objects in protective sheeting.Cover floors with protective sheeting.Insert illustration here
59 Interior Set-Up Step 3: Cover Floors Cover floors with protective sheeting.At least five feet on all sides of work area.Place a tack pad at edge of protective sheeting, lay protective sheeting on frequently used walking paths to outdoors and bathrooms.5’5’
60 Interior Set-Up Step 4: Close Windows, Doors, HVAC Close all windows and doorsClose and seal HVAC vents
61 Bad Interior Set-Up Practices Spread Lead-Contaminated Dust Reusable drop clothFurniture and household objects in the roomOpen doors and windowsBroom or shop vacuumDo not use these practices when lead is present!Manual Page 41
62 Overview of Exterior Set-up Steps Step 1: Establish work areaStep 2: Close windows and doorsStep 3: Weather considerationsManual Page 43
63 Exterior Set-Up Step 1: Establish Work Area Cover the ground with protective sheetingIf space permits, extend at least 10 feet from work areaCover nearby vegetable gardens and children's play areasLimit work area accessEstablish a 20 foot perimeter around work area if space permits20’
64 Exterior Set-Up Step 2: Close Windows &Doors Close nearby doors and windows within 20 feet of the work area
65 Exterior Set-Up Step 3: Weather Considerations Exterior paint stabilization should not take place when wind or weather causes dust or debris to escape containment.Rain can quickly wash paint chips from plastic sheeting into yard - clean work areas frequently.Most paints must be applied and dry at temperatures above 50 degrees.
66 CautionBe aware that on sunny days, grass can be killed in a few hours under plastic (poly) sheeting.A cloth tarp underneath plastic can minimize damage to grass and shrubs.Never use cloth tarp alone.
67 Bad Exterior Set-Up Practices Spread Lead-Contaminated Dust Ground uncoveredReusable drop clothPaint chipsNo barriersWindows and doors openDo not use these practices when lead is present!
70 EMP Specialized Cleaning Using methods, products and devices shown to be effective at removing lead contaminated dust (both visible & invisible).
71 Cleaning Supplies Vacuum with HEPA filter Misting bottle and pump sprayerDisposable rags or towelsDetergentMop with disposable headsBuckets for soap, rinse water, and wringingHeavy duty garbage bagsShovel and rake for exterior paint chip removal71
72 What is Effective Clean Up? While working, contain dust and debris in immediate work areaRemoval of all visible dust and debrisWet wiping all adjacent surfaces, tools, shoes, etc.Using a HEPA-filtered vacuumSafe and secure disposal72
73 Cleaning Hard FloorsUse multiple buckets for detergent and rinse water.Change rinse water often.
74 When is Specialized Cleaning Required? Change of Tenant - clean all horizontal surfaces (including floors, trim, tops of doors, sills, shelves, etc., but not ceilings)Common Areas – at least annually clean all horizontal surfacesAfter any work that disturbs paint - clean all affected surfaces and areas
75 Exterior Clean-Up Techniques Clean plastic sheetingUse wet methods to remove any debris or chips on sheetingHEPA vacuum sheetingFold plastic with dirty side in, seal with duct tape and dispose of properlyVisually inspect beyond work area – remove all chips/debris75
76 Keep In Mind Schedule time to clean thoroughly at the end of each day Assign responsibilities to specific personnelCreate and maintain a checklist for cleaning proceduresAlways maintain sufficient cleaning and disposal suppliesDust clearance testing is an option for checking your work76
77 Visual Inspection of Painted Surfaces When? At least once a year (annually)At unit turnover77
78 Interior Visual Inspection Conduct a visual inspection of each room or interior common area of building to which tenants have access.Look for any deteriorated paint.Note location and amount.Example inspection form on Page 25 of course manual.
79 Interior Visual Inspection If greater than 1 square foot (144 sq. inches) of cumulative deterioration is found in a room or area, it must be repaired within 30 days.Deterioration includes chipping, peeling, flaking, cracking, or otherwise damaged paint.
80 Interior Visual Inspection Document completion of inspection.Document date of repairs and by whom.
81 Exterior Visual Inspection Conduct a visual inspection of each exterior side of building, and other painted surfaces like fences and outbuildings.Look for any deteriorated paint.Note location and amount.Example form on Page 31 of course manual.
82 Exterior Visual Inspection If greater than 1 square foot of cumulative deterioration is found on any exterior wall, porch, or other painted surface, repair within 30 days.If discovered after November 1st, block access and make exterior repairs by the following May 31st.
83 Exterior Visual Inspection Document completion of inspection.Document date of repairs and by whom.
84 Paint Repair Tools & Supplies Water Misting BottleWet/Dry SandpaperDisposable Paper Towels / RagsHeavy Duty Garbage BagsVacuum with HEPA filterSpackle
85 Paint StabilizationAll painted surfaces should be intact: no peeling, chipping, flaking, cracking, blistering, etc.Lightly mist surfaces with water.Scrape areas of deterioration, making sure debris stays within immediate work area.
86 Paint StabilizationUse wet sandpaper or a wet sanding block to smooth transitions between intact paint and bare wood or substrate.Fill large transitions or gaps with spackle or other suitable material.Wipe stabilized area with wet disposable towel or rag.
87 Paint StabilizationIf airborne dust observed, stop activity and evaluate method.Use only sharp scrapers. Carbide scrapers last longer.Remove dust and debris often using wet methods.
88 Paint Stabilization Prime areas of bare wood in stabilized area Finish paint area as neededStabilized surfaces will quickly deteriorate if not primed and painted
89 Interior Paint Stabilization Clean Up Pick up large debris.HEPA vacuum all surfaces, including plastic sheeting.Fold up plastic from corners.Dispose of all waste in doubled garbage bags.
90 Interior Paint Stabilization Clean Up Clean work area with cleaning solution.Wipe surfaces with disposable rags or paper towels.HEPA vacuum surfaces again.Wet mop hard floors.
91 Exterior Paint Stabilization Use same principles as interior.Be aware of external factors:Wind, rain, people in work area, be sure doors & windows remain closed.
92 Soil IssuesSoil around the perimeters of old homes is often highly contaminated with lead.Contamination from exterior paint and gasoline.Bare soil makes lead accessible to children.Do not grow vegetables in potentially contaminated soil.
93 Removal of Visible Paint Chips All visible paint chips must be removed from the ground on all outdoor areas of the property.Applies to rental properties and child care facilities.
94 Removal of Visible Paint Chips Paint chips are often found around the perimeter of old buildings and other painted features like fences.At least once a year, property owners should inspect all outdoor areas for paint chips.Large chips can be picked up by hand (wear gloves).The presence of many small chips may require removal of a few inches of top soil.
95 Removal of Visible Paint Chips Do not rake chips. Raking will break the chips into smaller pieces and spread them.Paint chips on driveways and other hard surfaces should be misted and carefully swept up.A HEPA vacuum may be used, especially in grassy areas. The manual describes a special hose attachment for outdoor use.
96 Soil Treatments RECOMMENDATIONS Cover bare areas with mulch, gravel, new soil, etc.Plant grass to cover bare areas.Block children from problem areas with plantings, fencingOtherwise limit access to bare soil
97 Window Well LinersMust be installed in all double-hung wooden windows, even those painted or nailed shut.Does not apply to windows with no wells like casement, awning, or slider types.Vinyl or aluminum windows exempt.
98 Remove all furniture and other items from the work area.
129 If caulking lower edge, leave weep holes for water to escape
130 Vacuum work area and wet wipe all affected surfaces.
131 Fold up plastic keeping contaminated side turned in
132 Place all debris in doubled garbage bags and dispose of properly
133 Check area for any remaining dust or debris, vacuum or wipe if necessary
134 Special Considerations for Child Care Facilities Regular daily cleaning should be part of every child care center’s routine.Efforts should be made to limit exterior dust tracked in (remove shoes, wipe feet, etc.)
135 Special Considerations for Child Care Facilities More frequent inspections for deteriorated paint (weekly, monthly).Do not let children play in areas of bare soil.
136 Waste What should I do with my waste? At the work site Place waste in heavy duty plastic bag or doubled garbage bags“Gooseneck Seal” the bag with duct tapeStore waste in a secure areaManual Page 79
137 Waste Disposal Secure waste for transfer. Waste generated through EMP activities can be treated as normal household waste.Recent guidance from Vermont Agency of Natural Resources - Waste Management Division (2006) - see course manual Page 80.
139 Compliance Statement Documents completion of EMPs. Must be completed every 365 days unless property is proven to be lead free or otherwise exempt.Copies to Health Department, insurance carrier, and tenants.Keep copy for your records.Child care facilities must also send to Department for Children & Families.Compliance Statements in Appendix
140 Compliance Statement Complete property address information. Check appropriate property type.For each Essential Maintenance Practice listed, provide date of completion and EMP certificate number of person who did work.
141 Compliance Statement Exterior Inspection Exterior Stabilization Paint Chip RemovalCommon Area StabilizationCommon Area CleaningPost notice141
142 Compliance Statement 7. Window Well Inserts 8. Interior Inspection/Stabilization9. Change of Tenant10. Tenant Disclosure- “Protect Your Family” Pamphlet- Copy of Compliance Statement11. Signature142
143 Compliance Statement Different compliance statement forms for: 1. Rental Properties2. Child Care FacilitiesProviding false information on Compliance Statement is fraud
144 Notice to Occupants - Example Poster in Manual Appendix Post, in a prominent location, a notice to occupants emphasizing the importance of promptly reporting deteriorated paint to the owner or owner’s agent.Post in each apartment, or prominently in a common area used by all tenants.Tip: inside kitchen cabinet doorsManual Page 84
145 Keeping RecordsRemember all records or information about lead paint must be disclosed to tenants and prospective tenants.Keep all lead paint information together in a three-ring binder, including compliance statements, inspection sheets, records of repairs, proof of notifications, etc.
146 Federal Disclosure Requirements Property owners must disclose the likely presence of lead paint to tenants or potential buyers.Any specific reports or documents about lead or lead hazards in the unit must be disclosed.Provide “Protect Your Family From Lead” brochure.
147 Federal Disclosure Requirements Owners should document completion of disclosure requirements and keep records.Example forms provided in course manual appendix.EPA fines for failure to disclose are substantial ($11,000/day).
148 Real Estate Transactions & the Vermont Lead Law Vermont law requires that sellers of pre-1978 residential real estate provide lead disclosure information and lead education materials to buyers.This is Slide 148 on the PDF. Reworked this section so there are four slides (not five)…the fourth is the same as Slide 152 on the PDF. Dixie needs to give her okay to these.
149 Real Estate Transactions & the Vermont Lead Law Sellers of residential rental properties must disclose whetherA current compliance statement has been filedThe property is subject to an Assurance of Discontinuance, Administrative Order or Court OrderThe terms of any such Assurance or Order have been completed
150 Buyers of Residential Real Estate If the residential rental property is not currently in compliance with the EMP requirements:Buyer must bring property into compliance within 60 days after closingFailure to comply with this requirement will result in a mandatory civil penalty.
151 Real Estate Transactions & the Vermont Lead Law Sellers of rental properties must provide educational materials and make disclosuresPrior to the execution of the purchase and sales agreementPrior to and at the time of sale
152 Real Estate Transactions & the Vermont Lead Law Download all required forms and pamphlets from:RealEstateTransactions.aspx152
153 REMINDER This training does NOT qualify individuals for the following: Lead Abatement WorkInspections, Risk AssessmentsPaint, Dust or Soil SamplingEPA Renovator (coming 2010)
154 Manual Appendix 1. Regulatory Levels for Lead Vermont vs. federal law comparisonLead Dust TestingLead Contamination FactsOther Sources of LeadFacts about HEPA vacuumsVSA 18, Chapter 38Useful Lead Resources“Protect Your Family from Lead…”Federal Disclosure FormsExample PosterCompliance Statements
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