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Nuclear Binding, Radioactivity SPH4UI Physics. Modern understanding: the ``onion picture Lets see whats inside! Atom Nucleus Protons and neutrons.

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Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Binding, Radioactivity SPH4UI Physics. Modern understanding: the ``onion picture Lets see whats inside! Atom Nucleus Protons and neutrons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nuclear Binding, Radioactivity SPH4UI Physics

2 Modern understanding: the ``onion picture Lets see whats inside! Atom Nucleus Protons and neutrons

3 3 Nice Try

4 Introduction: Development of Nuclear Physics 1896 – the birth of nuclear physics 1896 – the birth of nuclear physics Becquerel discovered radioactivity in uranium compounds Becquerel discovered radioactivity in uranium compounds Rutherford showed the radiation had three types Rutherford showed the radiation had three types Alpha (He nucleus) Alpha (He nucleus) Beta (electrons) Beta (electrons) Gamma (high-energy photons) Gamma (high-energy photons) 1911 Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden performed scattering experiments 1911 Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden performed scattering experiments Established the point mass nature of the nucleus Established the point mass nature of the nucleus Nuclear force was a new type of force Nuclear force was a new type of force 1919 Rutherford and coworkers first observed nuclear reactions in which naturally occurring alpha particles bombarded nitrogen nuclei to produce oxygen 1919 Rutherford and coworkers first observed nuclear reactions in which naturally occurring alpha particles bombarded nitrogen nuclei to produce oxygen 1932 Cockcroft and Walton first used artificially accelerated protons to produce nuclear reactions 1932 Cockcroft and Walton first used artificially accelerated protons to produce nuclear reactions 1932 Chadwick discovered the neutron 1932 Chadwick discovered the neutron 1933 the Curies discovered artificial radioactivity 1933 the Curies discovered artificial radioactivity 1938 Hahn and Strassman discovered nuclear fission 1938 Hahn and Strassman discovered nuclear fission 1942 Fermi achieved the first controlled nuclear fission reactor 1942 Fermi achieved the first controlled nuclear fission reactor

5 Some Properties of Nuclei All nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons Exception is ordinary hydrogen with just a proton The atomic number (charge), Z, equals the number of protons in the nucleus The neutron number, N, is the number of neutrons in the nucleus The mass number, A, is the number of nucleons in the nucleus A = Z + N Nucleon is a generic term used to refer to either a proton or a neutron The mass number is not the same as the mass Notation Example: Mass number is 27 Atomic number is 13 Contains 13 protons Contains 14 (27 – 13) neutrons The Z may be omitted since the element can be used to determine Z where X is the chemical symbol of the element

6 Charge and mass Charge: The electron has a single negative charge, -e (e = x C) The proton has a single positive charge, +e Thus, charge of a nucleus is equal to Ze The neutron has no charge Makes it difficult to detect Mass: It is convenient to use atomic mass units, u, to express masses 1 u = x kg Based on definition that the mass of one atom of C-12 is exactly 12 u Mass can also be expressed in MeV/c2 From ER = m c2 1 u = MeV/c2

7 Summary of Masses Masses Particlekgu MeV/c 2 Proton x Neutron x Electron x x

8 What is the order of magnitude of the number of protons in your body? Of the number of neutrons? Of the number of electrons? Take your mass approximately equal to 70 kg. Quick problem: protons in your body An iron nucleus (in hemoglobin) has a few more neutrons than protons, but in a typical water molecule there are eight neutrons and ten protons. So protons and neutrons are nearly equally numerous in your body, each contributing 35 kg out of a total body mass of 70 kg. Same amount of neutrons and electrons.

9 The Size of the Nucleus First investigated by Rutherford in scattering experiments First investigated by Rutherford in scattering experiments He found an expression for how close an alpha particle moving toward the nucleus can come before being turned around by the Coulomb force He found an expression for how close an alpha particle moving toward the nucleus can come before being turned around by the Coulomb force The KE of the particle must be completely converted to PE The KE of the particle must be completely converted to PE or For gold: d = 3.2 x m, for silver: d = 2 x m For gold: d = 3.2 x m, for silver: d = 2 x m Such small lengths are often expressed in femtometers where 1 fm = m (also called a fermi)

10 Size of Nucleus Since the time of Rutherford, many other experiments have concluded the following Since the time of Rutherford, many other experiments have concluded the following Most nuclei are approximately spherical Most nuclei are approximately spherical Average radius is Average radius is r o = 1.2 x m r o = 1.2 x m has radius A Z Example:

11 Density of Nuclei The volume of the nucleus (assumed to be spherical) is directly proportional to the total number of nucleons The volume of the nucleus (assumed to be spherical) is directly proportional to the total number of nucleons This suggests that all nuclei have nearly the same density This suggests that all nuclei have nearly the same density Nucleons combine to form a nucleus as though they were tightly packed spheres Nucleons combine to form a nucleus as though they were tightly packed spheres

12 Nuclear Stability There are very large repulsive electrostatic forces between protons These forces should cause the nucleus to fly apart The nuclei are stable because of the presence of another, short- range force, called the nuclear (or strong) force This is an attractive force that acts between all nuclear particles The nuclear attractive force is stronger than the Coulomb repulsive force at the short ranges within the nucleus

13 Nuclear Stability chart Light nuclei are most stable if N = Z Light nuclei are most stable if N = Z Heavy nuclei are most stable when N > Z Heavy nuclei are most stable when N > Z As the number of protons increase, the Coulomb force increases and so more nucleons are needed to keep the nucleus stable As the number of protons increase, the Coulomb force increases and so more nucleons are needed to keep the nucleus stable No nuclei are stable when Z > 83 No nuclei are stable when Z > 83

14 Isotopes The nuclei of all atoms of a particular element must contain the same number of protons They may contain varying numbers of neutrons Isotopes of an element have the same Z but differing N and A values Example: atomic number (charge), Z neutron number, N nucleon number, A,

15 Binding Energy The total energy of the bound system (the nucleus) is less than the combined energy of the separated nucleons The total energy of the bound system (the nucleus) is less than the combined energy of the separated nucleons This difference in energy is called the binding energy of the nucleus This difference in energy is called the binding energy of the nucleus It can be thought of as the amount of energy you need to add to the nucleus to break it apart into separated protons and neutrons It can be thought of as the amount of energy you need to add to the nucleus to break it apart into separated protons and neutrons Binding Energy per Nucleon

16 Iron (Fe) is most binding energy/nucleon. Lighter have too few nucleons, heavier have too many. BINDING ENERGY in MeV/nucleon Binding Energy Plot Fission Fusion Fusion = Combining small atoms into large Fission = Breaking large atoms into small

17 Binding Energy Notes Except for light nuclei, the binding energy is about 8 MeV per nucleon Except for light nuclei, the binding energy is about 8 MeV per nucleon The curve peaks in the vicinity of A = 60 The curve peaks in the vicinity of A = 60 Nuclei with mass numbers greater than or less than 60 are not as strongly bound as those near the middle of the periodic table Nuclei with mass numbers greater than or less than 60 are not as strongly bound as those near the middle of the periodic table The curve is slowly varying at A > 40 The curve is slowly varying at A > 40 This suggests that the nuclear force saturates This suggests that the nuclear force saturates A particular nucleon can interact with only a limited number of other nucleons A particular nucleon can interact with only a limited number of other nucleons

18 Question Where does the energy released in the nuclear reactions of the sun come from? (1)covalent bonds between atoms (2)binding energy of electrons to the nucleus (3)binding energy of nucleons

19 Which element has the highest binding energy/nucleon?Question Neon (Z=10) Iron (Z=26) Iodine (Z=53)

20 Which of the following is most correct for the total binding energy of an Iron atom (Z=26)? 9 MeV 234 MeV 270 MeV 504 Mev For Fe, B.E./nucleon 9MeV has 56 nucleons Total B.E 56x9=504 MeV Question

21 Binding Energy Einsteins famous equation E = m c 2 Proton: mc 2 = 938.3MeV Neutron: mc 2 = 939.5MeV Deuteron: mc 2 =1875.6MeV Adding these, get MeV Difference is Binding energy, 2.2MeV M Deuteron = M Proton + M Neutron – |Binding Energy|

22 Big Problem: binding energy Calculate the average binding energy per nucleon of Using atomic mass units

23 Calculate the average binding energy per nucleon of Given: u m p = u u m n = u Find: E b = ? In order to compute binding energy, lets first find the mass difference between the total mass of all protons and neutrons in Nb and subtract mass of the Nb: Thus, binding energy is Number of protons: Number of neutrons: Mass difference: 1u=931.5 MeV

24 Radioactivity Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation Experiments suggested that radioactivity was the result of the decay, or disintegration, of unstable nuclei Experiments suggested that radioactivity was the result of the decay, or disintegration, of unstable nuclei Three types of radiation can be emitted Three types of radiation can be emitted Alpha particles Alpha particles The particles are 4 He nuclei The particles are 4 He nuclei Beta particles Beta particles The particles are either electrons or positrons The particles are either electrons or positrons A positron is the antiparticle of the electron A positron is the antiparticle of the electron It is similar to the electron except its charge is +e It is similar to the electron except its charge is +e Gamma rays Gamma rays The rays are high energy photons The rays are high energy photons

25 particles: nuclei particles: electrons photons (more energetic than x- rays) Types of Radioactivity Barely penetrate a piece of paper Can penetrate a few mm of aluminum Radioactive sources B field into screen detector Can penetrate several cm of lead

26 The Decay Processes – General Rules When one element changes into another element, the process is called spontaneous decay or transmutation When one element changes into another element, the process is called spontaneous decay or transmutation The sum of the mass numbers, A, must be the same on both sides of the equation The sum of the mass numbers, A, must be the same on both sides of the equation The sum of the atomic numbers, Z, must be the same on both sides of the equation The sum of the atomic numbers, Z, must be the same on both sides of the equation Conservation of mass-energy and conservation of momentum must hold Conservation of mass-energy and conservation of momentum must hold

27 Alpha Decay When a nucleus emits an alpha particle it loses two protons and two neutrons When a nucleus emits an alpha particle it loses two protons and two neutrons N decreases by 2 N decreases by 2 Z decreases by 2 Z decreases by 2 A decreases by 4 A decreases by 4 Symbolically Symbolically X is called the parent nucleus X is called the parent nucleus Y is called the daughter nucleus Y is called the daughter nucleus

28 Alpha Decay -- Example Decay of 226 Ra Decay of 226 Ra Half life for this decay is 1600 years Half life for this decay is 1600 years Excess mass is converted into kinetic energy Excess mass is converted into kinetic energy Momentum of the two particles is equal and opposite Momentum of the two particles is equal and opposite

29 Beta Decay During beta decay, the daughter nucleus has the same number of nucleons as the parent, but the atomic number is one less During beta decay, the daughter nucleus has the same number of nucleons as the parent, but the atomic number is one less In addition, an electron (positron) was observed In addition, an electron (positron) was observed The emission of the electron is from the nucleus The emission of the electron is from the nucleus The nucleus contains protons and neutrons The nucleus contains protons and neutrons The process occurs when a neutron is transformed into a proton and an electron The process occurs when a neutron is transformed into a proton and an electron Energy must be conserved Energy must be conserved

30 Beta Decay – Electron Energy The energy released in the decay process should almost all go to kinetic energy of the electron Experiments showed that few electrons had this amount of kinetic energy To account for this missing energy, in 1930 Pauli proposed the existence of another particle Enrico Fermi later named this particle the neutrino Properties of the neutrino Zero electrical charge Mass much smaller than the electron, probably not zero Spin of ½ Very weak interaction with matter

31 Beta Decay Symbolically Symbolically is the symbol for the neutrino is the symbol for the neutrino is the symbol for the antineutrino is the symbol for the antineutrino To summarize, in beta decay, the following pairs of particles are emitted To summarize, in beta decay, the following pairs of particles are emitted An electron and an antineutrino An electron and an antineutrino A positron and a neutrino A positron and a neutrino

32 Gamma Decay Gamma rays are given off when an excited nucleus falls to a lower energy state Gamma rays are given off when an excited nucleus falls to a lower energy state Similar to the process of electron jumps to lower energy states and giving off photons Similar to the process of electron jumps to lower energy states and giving off photons The excited nuclear states result from jumps made by a proton or neutron The excited nuclear states result from jumps made by a proton or neutron The excited nuclear states may be the result of violent collision or more likely of an alpha or beta emission The excited nuclear states may be the result of violent collision or more likely of an alpha or beta emission Example of a decay sequence Example of a decay sequence The first decay is a beta emission The first decay is a beta emission The second step is a gamma emission The second step is a gamma emission The C* indicates the Carbon nucleus is in an excited state The C* indicates the Carbon nucleus is in an excited state Gamma emission doesnt change either A or Z Gamma emission doesnt change either A or Z

33 : example recall : example Decay Rules 1)Nucleon Number is conserved. 2)Atomic Number (charge) is conserved. 3)Energy and momentum are conserved. : example 1)238 = Nucleon number conserved 2)92 = Charge conserved Neutrino needed to conserve energy and momentum.

34 A nucleus undergoes decay. Which of the following is FALSE? 1.Nucleon number decreases by 4 2. Neutron number decreases by 2 3. Charge on nucleus increases by 2 Practice decay is the emission of Ex. Z decreases by 2 (charge decreases!) A decreases by 4

35 The nucleus undergoes decay. Which of the following is true? 1. The number of protons in the daughter nucleus increases by one. 2. The number of neutrons in the daughter nucleus increases by one. decay is accompanied by the emission of an electron: creation of a charge -e. In fact, inside the nucleus, and the electron and neutrino escape. Practice

36 Decay Which of the following decays is NOT allowed? = = = = = <> = =

37 Which of the following are possible reactions? (a) and (b). Reactions (a) and (b) both conserve total charge and total mass number as required. Reaction (c) violates conservation of mass number with the sum of the mass numbers being 240 before reaction and being only 223 after reaction. Decay

38 The Decay Constant The number of particles that decay in a given time is proportional to the total number of particles in a radioactive sample The number of particles that decay in a given time is proportional to the total number of particles in a radioactive sample λ is called the decay constant and determines the rate at which the material will decay λ is called the decay constant and determines the rate at which the material will decay The decay rate or activity, R, of a sample is defined as the number of decays per second The decay rate or activity, R, of a sample is defined as the number of decays per second

39 Radioactivity No. of nuclei present decay constant Decays per second, or activity Start with C atoms. After 6000 years, there are only 8 left. How many will be left after another 6000 years? 1) 02) 43) 8 Every 6000 years ½ of atoms decay

40 Decay Curve The decay curve follows the equation The decay curve follows the equation The half-life is also a useful parameter The half-life is also a useful parameter The half-life is defined as the time it takes for half of any given number of radioactive nuclei to decay The half-life is defined as the time it takes for half of any given number of radioactive nuclei to decay

41 Units The unit of activity, R, is the Curie, Ci The unit of activity, R, is the Curie, Ci 1 Ci = 3.7 x decays/second 1 Ci = 3.7 x decays/second The SI unit of activity is the Becquerel, Bq The SI unit of activity is the Becquerel, Bq 1 Bq = 1 decay / second 1 Bq = 1 decay / second Therefore, 1 Ci = 3.7 x Bq Therefore, 1 Ci = 3.7 x Bq The most commonly used units of activity are the mCi and the µCi The most commonly used units of activity are the mCi and the µCi

42 time Decay Function

43 Practice The half-life for beta-decay of 14 C is ~6,000 years. You test a fossil and find that only 25% of its 14 C is un- decayed. How old is the fossil? 3,000 years 6,000 years 12,000 years At 0 years: 100% remains At 6,000 years: 50% remains At 12,000 years: 25% remains

44 Instead of base e we can use base 1/2: Survival: No. of nuclei present at time t No. we started with at t=0 where Then we can write Half life Radioactivity Quantitatively No. of nuclei present decay constant Decays per second, or activity

45 Radioactivity Example The half-life for beta-decay of 14 C is 5730 years. If you start with 1000 carbon-14 nuclei, how many will be around in years?

46 Uses of Radioactivity Carbon Dating Carbon Dating Beta decay of 14 C is used to date organic samples Beta decay of 14 C is used to date organic samples The ratio of 14 C to 12 C is used The ratio of 14 C to 12 C is used Smoke detectors Smoke detectors Ionization type smoke detectors use a radioactive source to ionize the air in a chamber Ionization type smoke detectors use a radioactive source to ionize the air in a chamber A voltage and current are maintained A voltage and current are maintained When smoke enters the chamber, the current is decreased and the alarm sounds When smoke enters the chamber, the current is decreased and the alarm sounds Radon pollution Radon pollution Radon is an inert, gaseous element associated with the decay of radium Radon is an inert, gaseous element associated with the decay of radium It is present in uranium mines and in certain types of rocks, bricks, etc that may be used in home building It is present in uranium mines and in certain types of rocks, bricks, etc that may be used in home building May also come from the ground itself May also come from the ground itself

47

48 Binding Energy Which system weighs more? 1)Two balls attached by a relaxed spring. 2)Two balls attached by a stretched spring. 3)They have the same weight. M 1 = M balls + M spring M 2 = M balls + M spring + E spring /c 2 M 2 – M 1 = E spring /c Kg

49 Strong Nuclear Force Acts on Protons and Neutrons Strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion Acts over very short distances Two atoms dont feel force

50 Q Values (nice to know) Energy must also be conserved in nuclear reactions Energy must also be conserved in nuclear reactions The energy required to balance a nuclear reaction is called the Q value of the reaction The energy required to balance a nuclear reaction is called the Q value of the reaction An exothermic reaction An exothermic reaction There is a mass loss in the reaction There is a mass loss in the reaction There is a release of energy There is a release of energy Q is positive Q is positive An endothermic reaction An endothermic reaction There is a gain of mass in the reaction There is a gain of mass in the reaction Energy is needed, in the form of kinetic energy of the incoming particles Energy is needed, in the form of kinetic energy of the incoming particles Q is negative Q is negative

51 Problem: nuclear reactions Determine the product of the reaction What is the Q value of the reaction?

52 Determine the product of the reaction What is the Q value of the reaction? Given: reaction Find: Q = ? In order to balance the reaction, the total amount of nucleons (sum of A-numbers) must be the same on both sides. Same for the Z-number. The Q-value is then Number of nucleons (A): Number of protons (Z): Thus, it is B, i.e. It is easier to use atomic mass units rather than kg.

53 Summary Nuclear Reactions Nuclear Reactions Nucleon number conserved Nucleon number conserved Charge conserved Charge conserved Energy/Momentum conserved Energy/Momentum conserved particles = nucleii particles = nucleii - particles = electrons - particles = electrons particles = high-energy photons particles = high-energy photons Decays Decays Half-Life is time for ½ of atoms to decay Half-Life is time for ½ of atoms to decay Survival:


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