## Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Binding, Radioactivity"— Presentation transcript:

SPH4UI Physics Nuclear Binding, Radioactivity 1

Modern understanding: the ``onion’’ picture
Protons and neutrons Nucleus Atom Let’s see what’s inside!

Nice Try

Introduction: Development of Nuclear Physics
1896 – the birth of nuclear physics Becquerel discovered radioactivity in uranium compounds Rutherford showed the radiation had three types Alpha (He nucleus) Beta (electrons) Gamma (high-energy photons) 1911 Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden performed scattering experiments Established the point mass nature of the nucleus Nuclear force was a new type of force 1919 Rutherford and coworkers first observed nuclear reactions in which naturally occurring alpha particles bombarded nitrogen nuclei to produce oxygen 1932 Cockcroft and Walton first used artificially accelerated protons to produce nuclear reactions 1932 Chadwick discovered the neutron 1933 the Curies discovered artificial radioactivity 1938 Hahn and Strassman discovered nuclear fission 1942 Fermi achieved the first controlled nuclear fission reactor

Some Properties of Nuclei
All nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons Exception is ordinary hydrogen with just a proton The atomic number (charge), Z, equals the number of protons in the nucleus The neutron number, N, is the number of neutrons in the nucleus The mass number, A, is the number of nucleons in the nucleus A = Z + N Nucleon is a generic term used to refer to either a proton or a neutron The mass number is not the same as the mass Notation Example: Mass number is 27 Atomic number is 13 Contains 13 protons Contains 14 (27 – 13) neutrons The Z may be omitted since the element can be used to determine Z where X is the chemical symbol of the element

Charge and mass Charge: Mass:
The electron has a single negative charge, -e (e = x C) The proton has a single positive charge, +e Thus, charge of a nucleus is equal to Ze The neutron has no charge Makes it difficult to detect Mass: It is convenient to use atomic mass units, u, to express masses 1 u = x kg Based on definition that the mass of one atom of C-12 is exactly 12 u Mass can also be expressed in MeV/c2 From ER = m c2 1 u = MeV/c2

Summary of Masses Masses Particle kg u MeV/c2 Proton 1.6726 x 10-27
938.28 Neutron x 10-27 939.57 Electron 9.101 x 10-31 5.486x10-4 0.511

Quick problem: protons in your body
What is the order of magnitude of the number of protons in your body? Of the number of neutrons? Of the number of electrons? Take your mass approximately equal to 70 kg. An iron nucleus (in hemoglobin) has a few more neutrons than protons, but in a typical water molecule there are eight neutrons and ten protons. So protons and neutrons are nearly equally numerous in your body, each contributing 35 kg out of a total body mass of 70 kg. Same amount of neutrons and electrons.

The Size of the Nucleus or
First investigated by Rutherford in scattering experiments He found an expression for how close an alpha particle moving toward the nucleus can come before being turned around by the Coulomb force The KE of the particle must be completely converted to PE or For gold: d = 3.2 x m, for silver: d = 2 x m Such small lengths are often expressed in femtometers where 1 fm = m (also called a fermi)

Size of Nucleus Example: has radius
Since the time of Rutherford, many other experiments have concluded the following Most nuclei are approximately spherical Average radius is ro = 1.2 x m A has radius Example: Z

Density of Nuclei The volume of the nucleus (assumed to be spherical) is directly proportional to the total number of nucleons This suggests that all nuclei have nearly the same density Nucleons combine to form a nucleus as though they were tightly packed spheres

Nuclear Stability There are very large repulsive electrostatic forces between protons These forces should cause the nucleus to fly apart The nuclei are stable because of the presence of another, short-range force, called the nuclear (or strong) force This is an attractive force that acts between all nuclear particles The nuclear attractive force is stronger than the Coulomb repulsive force at the short ranges within the nucleus

Nuclear Stability chart
Light nuclei are most stable if N = Z Heavy nuclei are most stable when N > Z As the number of protons increase, the Coulomb force increases and so more nucleons are needed to keep the nucleus stable No nuclei are stable when Z > 83

Isotopes The nuclei of all atoms of a particular element must contain the same number of protons They may contain varying numbers of neutrons Isotopes of an element have the same Z but differing N and A values Example: atomic number (charge), Z neutron number, N nucleon number, A,

Binding Energy Binding Energy per Nucleon
The total energy of the bound system (the nucleus) is less than the combined energy of the separated nucleons This difference in energy is called the binding energy of the nucleus It can be thought of as the amount of energy you need to add to the nucleus to break it apart into separated protons and neutrons Binding Energy per Nucleon

Binding Energy Plot Iron (Fe) is most binding energy/nucleon. Lighter have too few nucleons, heavier have too many. Fission Fusion BINDING ENERGY in MeV/nucleon Fission = Breaking large atoms into small Fusion = Combining small atoms into large

Binding Energy Notes Except for light nuclei, the binding energy is about 8 MeV per nucleon The curve peaks in the vicinity of A = 60 Nuclei with mass numbers greater than or less than 60 are not as strongly bound as those near the middle of the periodic table The curve is slowly varying at A > 40 This suggests that the nuclear force saturates A particular nucleon can interact with only a limited number of other nucleons

Question Where does the energy released in the nuclear reactions of the sun come from? covalent bonds between atoms binding energy of electrons to the nucleus (3) binding energy of nucleons

Question Which element has the highest binding energy/nucleon?
Neon (Z=10) Iron (Z=26) Iodine (Z=53)

Question Which of the following is most correct for the total binding energy of an Iron atom (Z=26)? 9 MeV 234 MeV 270 MeV 504 Mev For Fe, B.E./nucleon  9MeV has 56 nucleons Total B.E  56x9=504 MeV

Binding Energy MDeuteron = MProton + MNeutron – |Binding Energy|
Einstein’s famous equation E = m c2 Proton: mc2 = 938.3MeV Neutron: mc2= 939.5MeV Adding these, get MeV Difference is Binding energy, 2.2MeV Deuteron: mc2 =1875.6MeV MDeuteron = MProton + MNeutron – |Binding Energy|

Big Problem: binding energy
Calculate the average binding energy per nucleon of Using atomic mass units

Calculate the average binding energy per nucleon of
In order to compute binding energy, let’s first find the mass difference between the total mass of all protons and neutrons in Nb and subtract mass of the Nb: Given: mp= u mn= u Find: Eb = ? Number of protons: 1u=931.5 MeV Number of neutrons: Mass difference: Thus, binding energy is

Experiments suggested that radioactivity was the result of the decay, or disintegration, of unstable nuclei Three types of radiation can be emitted Alpha particles The particles are 4He nuclei Beta particles The particles are either electrons or positrons A positron is the antiparticle of the electron It is similar to the electron except its charge is +e Gamma rays The “rays” are high energy photons

B field into screen Radioactive sources detector a particles: nuclei Barely penetrate a piece of paper b- particles: electrons Can penetrate a few mm of aluminum Can penetrate several cm of lead g photons (more energetic than x-rays)

The Decay Processes – General Rules
When one element changes into another element, the process is called spontaneous decay or transmutation The sum of the mass numbers, A, must be the same on both sides of the equation The sum of the atomic numbers, Z, must be the same on both sides of the equation Conservation of mass-energy and conservation of momentum must hold

Alpha Decay When a nucleus emits an alpha particle it loses two protons and two neutrons N decreases by 2 Z decreases by 2 A decreases by 4 Symbolically X is called the parent nucleus Y is called the daughter nucleus

Alpha Decay -- Example Decay of 226Ra
Half life for this decay is 1600 years Excess mass is converted into kinetic energy Momentum of the two particles is equal and opposite

Beta Decay During beta decay, the daughter nucleus has the same number of nucleons as the parent, but the atomic number is one less In addition, an electron (positron) was observed The emission of the electron is from the nucleus The nucleus contains protons and neutrons The process occurs when a neutron is transformed into a proton and an electron Energy must be conserved

Beta Decay – Electron Energy
The energy released in the decay process should almost all go to kinetic energy of the electron Experiments showed that few electrons had this amount of kinetic energy To account for this “missing” energy, in 1930 Pauli proposed the existence of another particle Enrico Fermi later named this particle the neutrino Properties of the neutrino Zero electrical charge Mass much smaller than the electron, probably not zero Spin of ½ Very weak interaction with matter

Beta Decay Symbolically  is the symbol for the neutrino
is the symbol for the antineutrino To summarize, in beta decay, the following pairs of particles are emitted An electron and an antineutrino A positron and a neutrino

Gamma Decay Gamma rays are given off when an excited nucleus “falls” to a lower energy state Similar to the process of electron “jumps” to lower energy states and giving off photons The excited nuclear states result from “jumps” made by a proton or neutron The excited nuclear states may be the result of violent collision or more likely of an alpha or beta emission Example of a decay sequence The first decay is a beta emission The second step is a gamma emission The C* indicates the Carbon nucleus is in an excited state Gamma emission doesn’t change either A or Z

Decay Rules g: example Nucleon Number is conserved.
Atomic Number (charge) is conserved. Energy and momentum are conserved. : example recall 238 = Nucleon number conserved 92 = Charge conserved Comment on preflight only 30% got correct that alpha decay does NOT have charge increase by 2. : example Neutrino needed to conserve energy and momentum. g: example

Practice A nucleus undergoes  decay. Which of the following is FALSE?
Nucleon number decreases by 4 2. Neutron number decreases by 2 3. Charge on nucleus increases by 2  decay is the emission of A decreases by 4 Ex. Z decreases by 2 (charge decreases!)

Practice The nucleus undergoes decay. Which of the following is true?
1. The number of protons in the daughter nucleus increases by one. 2. The number of neutrons in the daughter nucleus increases by one. decay is accompanied by the emission of an electron: creation of a charge -e. In fact, inside the nucleus, and the electron and neutrino “escape.”

Decay Which of the following decays is NOT allowed? 1 2 3 4
238 = 92 = 214 = 84 = 14 = 14+0 6 <> 7+0 40 = 19 = 1 2 3 4

Which of the following are possible reactions?
Decay Which of the following are possible reactions? (a) and (b). Reactions (a) and (b) both conserve total charge and total mass number as required. Reaction (c) violates conservation of mass number with the sum of the mass numbers being 240 before reaction and being only 223 after reaction.

The Decay Constant The number of particles that decay in a given time is proportional to the total number of particles in a radioactive sample λ is called the decay constant and determines the rate at which the material will decay The decay rate or activity, R, of a sample is defined as the number of decays per second

Radioactivity Decays per second, or “activity”
No. of nuclei present Decays per second, or “activity” decay constant Start with C atoms. After 6000 years, there are only 8 left. How many will be left after another 6000 years? 1) 0 2) 4 3) 8 Every 6000 years ½ of atoms decay

Decay Curve The decay curve follows the equation
The half-life is also a useful parameter The half-life is defined as the time it takes for half of any given number of radioactive nuclei to decay

Units The unit of activity, R, is the Curie, Ci
1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 decays/second The SI unit of activity is the Becquerel, Bq 1 Bq = 1 decay / second Therefore, 1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 Bq The most commonly used units of activity are the mCi and the µCi

Decay Function time

Practice The half-life for beta-decay of 14C is ~6,000 years. You test a fossil and find that only 25% of its 14C is un-decayed. How old is the fossil? 3,000 years 6,000 years 12,000 years At 0 years: 100% remains At 6,000 years: 50% remains At 12,000 years: 25% remains

No. of nuclei present Decays per second, or “activity” decay constant Survival: No. of nuclei present at time t No. we started with at t=0 Instead of base e we can use base 1/2: where Half life Then we can write

The half-life for beta-decay of 14C is 5730 years. If you start with 1000 carbon-14 nuclei, how many will be around in years?

Beta decay of 14C is used to date organic samples The ratio of 14C to 12C is used Smoke detectors Ionization type smoke detectors use a radioactive source to ionize the air in a chamber A voltage and current are maintained When smoke enters the chamber, the current is decreased and the alarm sounds Radon pollution Radon is an inert, gaseous element associated with the decay of radium It is present in uranium mines and in certain types of rocks, bricks, etc that may be used in home building May also come from the ground itself

Binding Energy M1 = Mballs + Mspring
Which system “weighs” more? Two balls attached by a relaxed spring. Two balls attached by a stretched spring. They have the same weight. M1 = Mballs + Mspring M2 = Mballs + Mspring + Espring/c2 M2 – M1 = Espring/c2 ≈ Kg

Strong Nuclear Force Acts on Protons and Neutrons
Strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion Acts over very short distances Two atoms don’t feel force What keeps protons together? Use link

Q Values (nice to know) Energy must also be conserved in nuclear reactions The energy required to balance a nuclear reaction is called the Q value of the reaction An exothermic reaction There is a mass “loss” in the reaction There is a release of energy Q is positive An endothermic reaction There is a “gain” of mass in the reaction Energy is needed, in the form of kinetic energy of the incoming particles Q is negative

Problem: nuclear reactions
Determine the product of the reaction What is the Q value of the reaction?

Determine the product of the reaction
What is the Q value of the reaction? In order to balance the reaction, the total amount of nucleons (sum of A-numbers) must be the same on both sides. Same for the Z-number. Given: reaction Find: Q = ? Number of nucleons (A): Number of protons (Z): Thus, it is B, i.e. The Q-value is then It is easier to use atomic mass units rather than kg.

Summary Nuclear Reactions Decays Nucleon number conserved
Charge conserved Energy/Momentum conserved a particles = nucleii b- particles = electrons g particles = high-energy photons Decays Half-Life is time for ½ of atoms to decay Survival:

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