Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 10: Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years). Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Chapter Objectives –To describe the patterns of physical maturation during.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years). Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Chapter Objectives –To describe the patterns of physical maturation during."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years)

2 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Chapter Objectives –To describe the patterns of physical maturation during puberty for females and males, including an analysis of the impact of early and late maturing on self concept and social relationships –To introduce the basic features of formal operational thought, highlighting the new conceptual skills that emerge and factors that promote the development of formal operational thought

3 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To examine patterns of emotional development in early adolescence, including three examples of emotional disorders: eating disorders, delinquency, and depression –To describe the further evolution of peer relations in early adolescence, especially the formation of cliques and crowds, and to contrast the impact of parents and peers during this stage

4 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To characterize the development of sexuality with a special focus on the transition to coitus, the formation of a sexual orientation, and a detailed review of the factors associated with pregnancy and parenthood in adolescence –To describe the psychosocial crisis of early adolescence of group identity versus alienation; the central process through which the crisis is resolved, peer pressure, the prime adaptive ego quality of fidelity to others, and the core pathology of isolation

5 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To review the patterns of adolescent alcohol and drug use and the factors associated with their use and abuse within a psychosocial framework

6 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Physical Maturation –Early adolescence begins with the onset of puberty and ends with graduation from high school (roughly age 18) –Secondary sex characteristics are the physical characteristics, other than genital, that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts, and deepened voice –Adaptation at puberty requires an integration of biological, psychological, and social changes

7 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Physical Maturation (cont.) –The degree to which ones body matches the desired or socially valued body build of the culture influences social acceptance by peers and adults

8 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Case Study: Carly Patterson –Thought Questions Thinking about the world of competitive athletics, what are some examples of how the physical changes of puberty might open up new opportunities for adolescents? How might the physical changes of puberty reduce opportunities? How does Carlys case illustrate the interaction of biological, psychological, and societal systems? How might a training program interact with the changes of puberty to promote athletic ability? What might be the risks of too much training or poor training at this age?

9 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Case Study: Carly Patterson (cont.) –Thought Questions (cont.) What personal, emotional, and intellectual attributes do you think are necessary in order to function as a world-class athlete? How likely is it that a person in early adolescence has these attributes? What messages might someone like Carly be able to convey to other adolescents about health and physical development in early adolescence?

10 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Physical Changes in Girls –Concerns about obesity: the greatest concern girls express about their bodies is the perception they are too fat and may result in peer rejection

11 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Physical Changes in Girls (cont.) –Reactions to Breast Development and Menarche The development of breast buds is a welcome sign for most girls but menarche is associated with a mix of positive and negative feelings Menarche: beginning of regular menstrual periods Although most girls are prepared by their mothers for menstruation, the topic is often handled as a matter hygiene rather than as a sexual transition and therefore many girls do not understand the relation of menstruation to reproduction

12 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Physical Changes in Boys –Boys generally welcome the changes involving increased height and muscle mass that bring them one step closer to adult maturity –Boys are generally not well prepared by their parents with information on maturation of their reproductive organs

13 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years)

14 Figure 10.1 The Relationship of Body Image to Eating Disorders

15 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Physical Maturation: The Secular Trend & Individual Differences in Maturation Rate –A secular growth trend is a decrease over time in the average age at which physical maturation takes place –Changes in hygiene, nutrition, and health care have contributed to an earlier growth spurt over the past century –The age at onset of puberty and the rate of change in physical maturation vary

16 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Physical Maturation: The Secular Trend & Individual Differences in Maturation Rate (cont.) –Early and late maturing have psychological and social consequences for both boys and girls

17 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Piagets Theory of Formal Operational Thought –Early adolescents begin to think about the world in new ways, as thoughts become more abstract –Thinking becomes more reflective, and adolescents are increasingly aware of their own thoughts as well as the accuracy or inaccuracy of their knowledge –Formal operations are complex cognitive capacities such as reasoning, hypothesis generating, and hypothesis testing

18 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Piagets Theory of Formal Operational Thought (cont.) –Young people use operations to manipulate and modify thoughts and other mental operations

19 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years)

20 Formal Operations: Egocentrism & Decentering –Egocentrism is the perception of ones self at the center of the world; the view that others and events based their behavior on or occur as a result of ones own perceptions In the sensorimotor phase, egocentrism appears as an inability to separate ones actions from their effects on specific objects or people In the phase of preoperational thought, egocentrism is manifested in an ability to separate ones own perspective from that of the listener

21 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Formal Operations: Egocentrism & Decentering (cont.) –Egocentrism is the perception of ones self at the center of the world; the view that others and events based their behavior on or occur as a result of ones own perceptions (cont.) The third phase of heightened egocentrism occurs in the transition from concrete to formal operational thought. As children develop the capacity to formulate hypothetical systems, they begin to generate assumptions about their own and others behavior that will fit into these systems

22 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Formal Operations: Egocentrism & Decentering (cont.) –Decentering is gaining some objectivity over ones own point of view; reducing the dominance of ones subjective perspective in the interpretation of events –Two characteristics of egocentrism that may affect adolescents social interactions and problem solving Preoccupation with their own thoughts Belief that others are also preoccupied with their thoughts

23 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Formal Operations: Egocentrism & Decentering (cont.) –Personal Fable: an intense investment in ones own thoughts and feelings, and a belief that these thoughts are unique –Imaginary Audience: adolescents assume that they are the center of interest in others thoughts and attentions

24 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Formal Operations: Factors that Promote Formal Operational Thought –Early adolescents begin to function in a variety of relationships that place both compatible and conflicting demands on them –Adolescents participation in a more heterogeneous peer group –Content of high school curriculum

25 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Formal Operations: Criticism of the Concept of Formal Operations –Some scholars question whether there really is a qualitative, stage-like consolidation in the use of formal reasoning –Formal reasoning is not broad enough to encompass the many dimensions along which cognitive functioning matures in adolescence –Some scholars claim that formal operational thought does not represent the apex or end point of adult thought and reasoning

26 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development –Descriptions of adolescence often refer to new levels of emotional variability, moodiness, and emotional outbursts –Some researchers have questioned whether adolescence really brings the peaks and valley of emotional intensity that are stereotypically linked to this time of life –Given the likelihood of a more differentiated range of emotions during adolescence, a major task during this time is to gain a tolerance of ones emotionality

27 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Eating Disorders –Origins of eating disorders are not fully understood. A preoccupation with body appearance may be provoked by the relatively rapid physical changes associated with puberty –Because of the seriousness and widespread nature of eating disorders, public health experts are working to create a more positive acceptance of people of various body types and shapes, with less focus on thinness

28 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Eating Disorders (cont.) –Eating disorders are an example of internalizing problems, turning ones frustration, anger, or fear inward on the self –Anorexia is characterized by a fear of gaining weight, refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight, and perceptions of ones body as overweight in general or in specific area

29 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Eating Disorders (cont.) –Bulimia involves spurts of binging and overeating followed by the use of different strategies to prevent the absorption of food, such as induced vomiting, the use of laxatives, or strenuous exercise

30 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Delinquency –Delinquency is an example of externalizing problems, related to difficulties in controlling or regulating ones impulses –Status offenses are offenses such as truancy, running away, or underage drinking –For some adolescents, committing several delinquent acts weakens the ability to impose social constraints on such behavior, and their involvement in delinquency intensifies

31 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Delinquency (cont.) –Since many young people now carry some type of weapon with them, especially knives and guns, questions are raised about the emotional correlates to this type of behavior

32 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Depression –Depression is a state of feeling sad, often accompanied by feelings of low personal worth and withdrawal from relationships with others –Depressed mood refers to feelings of sadness, a loss of hope, a sense of being overwhelmed by the demands of the world, and general unhappiness

33 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Depression (cont.) –Depressive syndrome refers to a constellation of behaviors and emotions that occur together. The syndrome usually includes complaints about feeling depressed, anxious, fearful, worried, guilty, and worthless –Major Depressive Disorder is characterized by a person who has experienced five or more symptoms for at least two weeks Depressed mood or irritable mood most of the day Decreased interest in pleasurable activities Changes in weight or perhaps failure to make necessary weight gains in adolescence

34 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Depression (cont.) –Major Depressive Disorder is characterized by a person who has experienced five or more symptoms for at least two weeks (cont.) Sleep problems Psychomotor agitation or retardation Fatigue or loss of energy; feeling of worthlessness or abnormal amounts of guilt Reduced concentration and decision-making ability Repeated suicidal ideation, attempts, or plans of suicide

35 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Factors Associated with Adolescent Depression –Adolescents face a number of challenges that make them vulnerable to depression –Parental loss or rejection has been found to increase an adolescents vulnerability to depression

36 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Factors Associated with Adolescent Depression (cont.) –Adolescents are often exposed to more negative events and hassles than are younger children: social alienation, excessive demands, romantic concerns, decisions about ones personal future, loneliness and unpopularity, assorted annoyances and concerns, social mistreatment, and academic challenges –Adolescents are relatively inexperienced in coping with these kind of stressors

37 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Emotional Development: Gender Differences in Depression –Most studies find no differences in depression between prepubescent boys and girls –However, during the period from about age 11 to 15, gender differences are systematically noted and continue to be evident into adulthood with depression more common in females than males

38 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Membership in the Peer Group: Cliques and Crowds –Before adolescence, it is important to have friends but not so important to be a member of a group Cliques are small friendship groups of 5 to 10 friends and these groups provide the framework for frequent interactions both within school and in the neighborhood Crowd refers to a large group that is usually recognized by a few predominant characteristics, such as their orientation toward academics, involvement in athletics, use of drugs, or involvement in deviant behavior

39 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Membership in the Peer Group: Cliques and Crowds (cont.) –Popularity and acceptance during high school may be based on one or more of the following: good looks, athletic ability, social class, academic performance, future goals, affiliation with a religious, racial, or ethnic group, special talents, involvement with drugs or deviant behavior, general alienation from school

40 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Membership in the Peer Group: Peer Group Boundaries and Norms –Membership in cliques is relatively stable, but always vulnerable to change –Important skills that are learned by becoming a member of a peer group are the assessment of group structure and the selection of the particular group or groups with which one would like to affiliate –Membership in an adolescent peer group is a forerunner of membership in an adult social group

41 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Membership in the Peer Group: Parents and Peers –Under optimal conditions, the increasingly important role of peer relationships in early adolescence takes place against a background of continuing close, supportive relationships with family members –Adolescents describe a variety of overt signs of independence from their families –Conflict with parents increases during adolescence

42 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Membership in the Peer Group: Parents and Peers (cont.) –The quality of the home environment affects membership in peer groups as well, especially parenting practices and the quality of parent- child interactions

43 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: The Transition into Sexualized Relationships –Most young people are involved in a variety of romantic relationship during adolescence, including dating, feeling of tenderness and love, and deepening commitments –Dating relationships provide the initial context for most sexual activity –First intercourse or the transition into sexual activity may take place in very different contexts

44 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: The Transition into Sexualized Relationships (cont.) –Usually the earlier the transition into sexual activity and intercourse, the more likely the act is to be part of a profile of high-risk behaviors, including alcohol use, drug use, and delinquent activity

45 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Figure 10.4 Lifetime Sexual Activity Among Students in Grades 9-12 by Sex, Grade Level, Race, and Ethnic Origin: United States, 1999

46 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Figure 10.5 A Model of Transition to First Coitus in Early Adolescence

47 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: Sexual Orientation –One might assume that sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual) begins to take shape in early adolescence, however the research on this point suggests an earlier and more differentiated path –For sexual–minority youth, two aspects of a sexual orientation have been identified: Self-labeling: applying a label such as gay, lesbian, or bisexual to one-self Disclosure: sharing this information with others

48 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: Problems and Conflicts Associated with Sexuality –The sexual system is one of the most problematic components of psychosocial development for young people in the United States –Most parents do not feel comfortable discussing sexuality with their children –Sexually Transmitted Disease About 25% of sexually active teens contract a sexually transmitted disease each year Teens are especially at risk for chlamydia, genital herpes, and gonorrhea

49 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: Problems and Conflicts Associated with Sexuality (cont.) –Unwanted sexual attention Often teens do no find the emotional closeness and understanding they may seek in a sexually intimate relationship Many instances of unwanted sexual contact occur on the first date or in a dating relationship The lack of supervision and monitoring by adults as well as the lack of opportunity to talk about sexuality with them can place adolescents at risk for early sexual experiences that are abusive or associated with negative feelings

50 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: Problems and Conflicts Associated with Sexuality (cont.) –Contraception In spite of the fact that many parents and teachers do not provide information about the use of contraceptives as part of their education about sex and sexual behavior, the use of contraceptives by U.S. teens has increased The use of contraceptives is associated with religious beliefs, family attitudes and behaviors, and peer norms

51 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: Parenthood in Early Adolescence –Consequences of teenage pregnancy Poverty Increased risk of child abuse Increase risk of birth complications associated with lack of prenatal care

52 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: Parenthood in Early Adolescence (cont.) –Adolescent fathers There is growing concern about adolescent fathers While most fathers of babies born to teen mothers are within 2 years of the mothers age, about 20% are 5 or more years older than the mother Contrary to the stereotype, many fathers remain in contact with the mother and child in the first months after the birth By the time the children are in school, contact drops off

53 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Sexual Relationships: Parenthood in Early Adolescence (cont.) –Adolescent fathers (cont.) Fathering a child is bound to stimulate conflicting feelings of pride, guilt, and anxiety in the adolescent boy Little systematic research has been done on the attitudes, knowledge, or behaviors of adolescent fathers or the impact of fatherhood on a teenage boys subsequent development

54 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) The Psychosocial Crisis: Group Identity Versus Alienation –Group Identity: positive pole of the psychosocial crises in which the person finds membership in and value convergence with a peer group –Cognitive processes that support group identity formation Group representations Group operations Reflective thinking about groups

55 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) The Psychosocial Crisis: Group Identity Versus Alienation (cont.) –Four Dimensions of Group Identity Categorizing people and recognizing distinguishing features of group members Experiencing a sense of history as a member of a group Emotional investment in the group Social evaluation of ones group and its relation to other groups

56 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) The Psychosocial Crisis: Group Identity Versus Alienation (cont.) –Alienation: withdrawal or separation of people or their affections from an object or position of former attachment The contribution of alienation to group identity and individual identity is important A period of feeling alone and lonely may help teens appreciate how good social acceptance feels and how important it is for their well-being

57 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) The Central Process: Peer Pressure –Peer pressure: a demand for conformity to group norms and a demonstration of commitment and loyalty –Peer pressure is often used with a negative connotation

58 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) The Central Process: Peer Pressure (cont.) –Peer pressure can highlight the emerging role of the peer group in the radius of significant others Affiliating with a Peer Group – provides the context within which the crises of group identity versus alienation is resolved Conflicts Between Belonging and Personal Autonomy – peer groups do not command total conformity, most depend on the unique characteristics of their members to lend definition and vigor to the roles that emerge within them

59 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) The Central Process: Peer Pressure (cont.) –Peer pressure can highlight the emerging role of the peer group in the radius of significant others (cont.) Ethnic Group Identity – knowing that one is a member of a certain ethnic group; recognizing that aspects of ones thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by ethnic membership; and taking the ethnic-group values, outlook, and the goals into account when making life choices

60 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) The Prime Adaptive Ego Quality and the Core Pathology –Fidelity to Others: the ability to freely pledge and sustain loyalties to others; the ability to freely pledge and sustain loyalties to values and ideologies –Dissociation: a sense of separateness or withdrawal from others; an inability to experience the bond of mutual commitment

61 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Applied Topic: Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use –Factors Associated with Alcohol Use Physical Effects of Alcohol: Death may result from chugging, when combined with other drugs, and when driving under the influence Assessment of Risk: Adolescents do not view alcohol drinking as risky and may use it as sensation seeking behavior Reference Groups: Two reference groups that influence the acceptability of drinking and the manner in which alcohol is consumed are the family and the peer group

62 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Applied Topic: Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use (cont.) –Early entry into alcohol and drug use Children who perceived that many of their friends had been drinking and experienced peer pressure to drink were more likely to drink Children who were in classrooms where a larger number of children reported drinking were also at greatest risk of drinking Perceptions of the amount of drinking that occurred in the family were also an important predictor of early alcohol use

63 Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Figure 10.6 Trends in Lifetime Prevalence of an Illicit Drug Use Index for Twelfth-Graders


Download ppt "Chapter 10: Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years). Early Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Chapter Objectives –To describe the patterns of physical maturation during."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google