Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: Prehistory to Early Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 1: Prehistory to Early Civilizations Ms. Willia
2Primary and secondary sources Primary sourcessources created at about the same time as the event being studied, often by people involved in the event.Examples of primary sources includeartifacts uncovered by archeologistsart worksgovernment recordsdiarieslettersspeechesnewspaper articles
3Primary and secondary sources Sources created after the event by people not involved in the event.Examples of secondary sources includehistory booksTextbooksEncyclopedias
4The Calendar B.C. (before Christ) = A.D. (anno domini) = B.C.E. (before the common era)A.D. (anno domini) =C.E. (common era)AD actually stands for the Latin phrase "anno domini" which means "in the year of our Lord." The B.C. / A.D. dating system is not taught in the Bible. It actually was not fully implemented and accepted until several centuries after Jesus' death
5PrehistoryPrehistory: Time before written history, roughly 5,000 years agoFor thousands of years people have recorded information about their beliefs, activities, and important events using varying forms of written languageWithout written records, scientists face many challengesNo written history to studyImportant: The story is not completeEvolution vs. Creationism
6Scientific Clues Archaeologists Study the pastItems they find helps them figure out the pastModern technology has helped them a lotcarbon-14 datingground sensorsspace/satellite images
7Scientific Clues Scientists work like detectives uses excavated sites Artifacts: human-made objects such as tool and jewelry are examined and studiedAnthropologists study culture or a people’s unique way of lifePaleontologists study fossils or evidence of early life preserved in rocksFrom these clues anthropologists attempt to recreate a picture of early human’s cultural behavior
8Human OriginsScientists do not all agree about the story of human beginningsOne generally accepted theory is that hominids were the first humans, dating back 4.4 million yearsThese hominids are known as Australopithecus
9Human Origins Mary Leaky Archeologist who led an expedition in Tanzania in East Africa1978 they discovered Laetoli Footprints made by australopithecinesHumans and other creatures that walk upright are called hominids
10Human Origins Australopithecus spent their lives in the humid forests of eastern and southern Africa.They ate fruit, leaves, and nuts.They were probably nomads, never staying in one place for long
11Human OriginsHomo is a Latin word used by scientists which means “human”.They use this word to name later humans as well.
12Homo Habilis Lived during first quarter of Paleolithic period. Oldest hominids known to create toolsLived in Africa from about 2.5 to 1.5 million years agoLived alongside the Australopithecus
13Homo ErectusLived during last part of Paleolithic period. There is much more information about this group of early humansFirst appeared in Africa & lived from 1.6 million to about 250,00 years ago.Learned to make fireMade clothing for themselves
14Homo SapiensEvidence of early Homo sapiens goes back as far as 200,000 years ago.Neanderthals - most likely the first Homo sapiens
15Neanderthals Early homo sapiens Lived about 70,000 BC They knew how to hunt, use stone and wood tools, and lives mostly in caves, and maybe even played some music.No one really know why they disappeared, but maybe during an ice age
16NeanderthalsNeanderthals stood about 5.5 feet tall, their brains were slightly larger than modern humans, and their bodies were stockyUsed fire for warmth and cookingSkillfully constructed stone knives, spear points, and bone toolsCrafted hide-cleaning and food-preparing tools
17Neanderthals How did they live? Most lived in small groups of 35 to 50 peopleWere nomads, therefore did not live in one place permanentlyLived in caves or overhangs from cliffsWore heavy clothing made from animal skins to stay warm and protected
18Neanderthals Their culture and beliefs: Neanderthals cared for their sick and elderlyMay have been the first people to practice medicineBelieved in life after deathPracticed burial rituals
19Homo Sapiens Sapiens Lived in Africa some 50,000 years ago More advanced than Homo sapiensWithin 20,000 years ago, this modern group had migrated to almost every continent of the worldAs these people moved out of Africa, they intermarried with NeanderthalsCalled Cro-Magnons
20The Cro-Magnons May have competed with Neanderthals for food. Good toolmakers, hunters, and fishermenSuperior language skillsBy 8000 BC were very much like modern humans.Well known for their art
21The Cro-Magnons Earliest Homo sapiens sapiens Their remains were first found in France around 1860Cro-Magnons were taller and less stocky than NeanderthalsImproved technology developmentMore sophisticated culture
22The Cro-Magnons: Technology Cutting blades were thinner and sharperCreated fishing devices and needles for sewingInvented the stone ax in order to cut down trees and make canoesInvented the spear-thrower and the bow and arrowBy 15,000 B.C. human population stood at about 2 million
23The Cro-Magnons: Social Life Lived in bands, with many different bands spread throughoutBands had to work together to huntRules were developed for people to get along and for work to get doneLeaders were named and placed in charge of enforcing rulesFirst political organizations formed
24The Ice AgesChanges in climate played an important role in the development of early humankind.Earth experienced four long periods of cold climate between 2 million and 10,000 years ago, known as Ice Ages.The level of the oceans dropped more than 300 ft. as the sheets of ice formed.
25The Ice AgesHow did early humans react to the environmental changes of the Ice Ages?Some people simply moved to warmer places (usually the middle latitudes where it was warm enough to live)Some found strategies for keeping warm by using clothes and fire.Those who could not adapt died from starvation and exposure to the extremes.
26Stone AgeThe invention of tools, mastery over fire and development of language are believed to have occurred during the Stone Age which has 3 parts:Paleolithic AgeMesolithic AgeNeolithic AgePeople learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops and raise animals in New Stone Age
27Stone Age Paleolithic Age Very crude toolsStones used to throw at animalsOld Stone Age roughly 2.5 million B.C. to 8000 B.C.
28Stone Age Mesolithic Age 10,000 to 5,500 years ago Not only use stones Bows and arrowsFish hooksHarpoons
29Stone Age Neolithic Age Development of Agriculture Domestication of animals/plants for food