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Unit 1: Prehistory to Early Civilizations Ms. Willia.

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1 Unit 1: Prehistory to Early Civilizations Ms. Willia

2 Primary and secondary sources Primary sources Primary sources sources created at about the same time as the event being studied, often by people involved in the event. sources created at about the same time as the event being studied, often by people involved in the event. Examples of primary sources include Examples of primary sources include artifacts uncovered by archeologists artifacts uncovered by archeologists art works art works government records government records diaries diaries letters letters speeches speeches newspaper articles newspaper articles

3 Primary and secondary sources Secondary sources Secondary sources Sources created after the event by people not involved in the event. Sources created after the event by people not involved in the event. Examples of secondary sources include Examples of secondary sources include history books history books Textbooks Textbooks Encyclopedias Encyclopedias

4 The Calendar B.C. ( before Christ) = B.C. ( before Christ) = B.C.E. ( before the common era) B.C.E. ( before the common era) A.D. (anno domini) = A.D. (anno domini) = C.E. (common era) C.E. (common era) AD actually stands for the Latin phrase "anno domini" which means "in the year of our Lord." The B.C. / A.D. dating system is not taught in the Bible. It actually was not fully implemented and accepted until several centuries after Jesus' death AD actually stands for the Latin phrase "anno domini" which means "in the year of our Lord." The B.C. / A.D. dating system is not taught in the Bible. It actually was not fully implemented and accepted until several centuries after Jesus' death

5 Prehistory Prehistory: Time before written history, roughly 5,000 years ago Prehistory: Time before written history, roughly 5,000 years ago For thousands of years people have recorded information about their beliefs, activities, and important events using varying forms of written language For thousands of years people have recorded information about their beliefs, activities, and important events using varying forms of written language Without written records, scientists face many challenges Without written records, scientists face many challenges No written history to study No written history to study Important: The story is not complete Important: The story is not complete Evolution vs. Creationism Evolution vs. Creationism

6 Scientific Clues Archaeologists Archaeologists Study the past Study the past Items they find helps them figure out the past Items they find helps them figure out the past Modern technology has helped them a lot Modern technology has helped them a lot carbon-14 dating carbon-14 dating ground sensors ground sensors space/satellite images space/satellite images

7 Scientific Clues Scientists work like detectives uses excavated sites Artifacts: human-made objects such as tool and jewelry are examined and studied Anthropologists study culture or a peoples unique way of life Paleontologists study fossils or evidence of early life preserved in rocks From these clues anthropologists attempt to recreate a picture of early humans cultural behavior

8 Human Origins Scientists do not all agree about the story of human beginnings One generally accepted theory is that hominids were the first humans, dating back 4.4 million years These hominids are known as Australopithecus

9 Human Origins Mary Leaky Mary Leaky Archeologist who led an expedition in Tanzania in East Africa Archeologist who led an expedition in Tanzania in East Africa 1978 they discovered Laetoli Footprints made by australopithecines 1978 they discovered Laetoli Footprints made by australopithecines Humans and other creatures that walk upright are called hominids Humans and other creatures that walk upright are called hominids

10 Human Origins Australopithecus Australopithecus spent their lives in the humid forests of eastern and southern Africa. spent their lives in the humid forests of eastern and southern Africa. They ate fruit, leaves, and nuts. They ate fruit, leaves, and nuts. They were probably nomads, never staying in one place for long They were probably nomads, never staying in one place for long

11 Human Origins Homo is a Latin word used by scientists which means human. Homo is a Latin word used by scientists which means human. They use this word to name later humans as well. They use this word to name later humans as well.

12 Homo Habilis Lived during first quarter of Paleolithic period. Lived during first quarter of Paleolithic period. Oldest hominids known to create tools Oldest hominids known to create tools Lived in Africa from about 2.5 to 1.5 million years ago Lived in Africa from about 2.5 to 1.5 million years ago Lived alongside the Australopithecus Lived alongside the Australopithecus

13 Homo Erectus Lived during last part of Paleolithic period. There is much more information about this group of early humans Lived during last part of Paleolithic period. There is much more information about this group of early humans First appeared in Africa & lived from 1.6 million to about 250,00 years ago. First appeared in Africa & lived from 1.6 million to about 250,00 years ago. Learned to make fire Learned to make fire Made clothing for themselves Made clothing for themselves

14 Homo Sapiens Evidence of early Homo sapiens goes back as far as 200,000 years ago. Evidence of early Homo sapiens goes back as far as 200,000 years ago. Neanderthals - most likely the first Homo sapiens Neanderthals - most likely the first Homo sapiens

15 Neanderthals Early homo sapiens Lived about 70,000 BC They knew how to hunt, use stone and wood tools, and lives mostly in caves, and maybe even played some music. No one really know why they disappeared, but maybe during an ice age

16 Neanderthals Neanderthals stood about 5.5 feet tall, their brains were slightly larger than modern humans, and their bodies were stocky Neanderthals stood about 5.5 feet tall, their brains were slightly larger than modern humans, and their bodies were stocky Used fire for warmth and cooking Used fire for warmth and cooking Skillfully constructed stone knives, spear points, and bone tools Skillfully constructed stone knives, spear points, and bone tools Crafted hide-cleaning and food-preparing tools Crafted hide-cleaning and food-preparing tools

17 Neanderthals How did they live? How did they live? Most lived in small groups of 35 to 50 people Most lived in small groups of 35 to 50 people Were nomads, therefore did not live in one place permanently Were nomads, therefore did not live in one place permanently Lived in caves or overhangs from cliffs Lived in caves or overhangs from cliffs Wore heavy clothing made from animal skins to stay warm and protected Wore heavy clothing made from animal skins to stay warm and protected

18 Neanderthals Their culture and beliefs: Their culture and beliefs: Neanderthals cared for their sick and elderly Neanderthals cared for their sick and elderly May have been the first people to practice medicine May have been the first people to practice medicine Believed in life after death Believed in life after death Practiced burial rituals Practiced burial rituals

19 Homo Sapiens Sapiens Lived in Africa some 50,000 years ago Lived in Africa some 50,000 years ago More advanced than Homo sapiens More advanced than Homo sapiens Within 20,000 years ago, this modern group had migrated to almost every continent of the world Within 20,000 years ago, this modern group had migrated to almost every continent of the world As these people moved out of Africa, they intermarried with Neanderthals As these people moved out of Africa, they intermarried with Neanderthals Called Cro-Magnons Called Cro-Magnons

20 The Cro-Magnons May have competed with Neanderthals for food. May have competed with Neanderthals for food. Good toolmakers, hunters, and fishermen Good toolmakers, hunters, and fishermen Superior language skills Superior language skills By 8000 BC were very much like modern humans. By 8000 BC were very much like modern humans. Well known for their art Well known for their art

21 The Cro-Magnons Earliest Homo sapiens sapiens Earliest Homo sapiens sapiens Their remains were first found in France around 1860 Their remains were first found in France around 1860 Cro-Magnons were taller and less stocky than Neanderthals Cro-Magnons were taller and less stocky than Neanderthals Improved technology development Improved technology development More sophisticated culture More sophisticated culture

22 The Cro-Magnons: Technology Cutting blades were thinner and sharper Cutting blades were thinner and sharper Created fishing devices and needles for sewing Created fishing devices and needles for sewing Invented the stone ax in order to cut down trees and make canoes Invented the stone ax in order to cut down trees and make canoes Invented the spear-thrower and the bow and arrow Invented the spear-thrower and the bow and arrow By 15,000 B.C. human population stood at about 2 million By 15,000 B.C. human population stood at about 2 million

23 The Cro-Magnons: Social Life Lived in bands, with many different bands spread throughout Lived in bands, with many different bands spread throughout Bands had to work together to hunt Bands had to work together to hunt Rules were developed for people to get along and for work to get done Rules were developed for people to get along and for work to get done Leaders were named and placed in charge of enforcing rules Leaders were named and placed in charge of enforcing rules First political organizations formed First political organizations formed

24 The Ice Ages Changes in climate played an important role in the development of early humankind. Changes in climate played an important role in the development of early humankind. Earth experienced four long periods of cold climate between 2 million and 10,000 years ago, known as Ice Ages. Earth experienced four long periods of cold climate between 2 million and 10,000 years ago, known as Ice Ages. The level of the oceans dropped more than 300 ft. as the sheets of ice formed. The level of the oceans dropped more than 300 ft. as the sheets of ice formed.

25 The Ice Ages How did early humans react to the environmental changes of the Ice Ages? How did early humans react to the environmental changes of the Ice Ages? Some people simply moved to warmer places (usually the middle latitudes where it was warm enough to live) Some people simply moved to warmer places (usually the middle latitudes where it was warm enough to live) Some found strategies for keeping warm by using clothes and fire. Some found strategies for keeping warm by using clothes and fire. Those who could not adapt died from starvation and exposure to the extremes. Those who could not adapt died from starvation and exposure to the extremes.

26 Stone Age The invention of tools, mastery over fire and development of language are believed to have occurred during the Stone Age which has 3 parts: The invention of tools, mastery over fire and development of language are believed to have occurred during the Stone Age which has 3 parts: Paleolithic Age Paleolithic Age Mesolithic Age Mesolithic Age Neolithic Age Neolithic Age People learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops and raise animals in New Stone Age People learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops and raise animals in New Stone Age

27 Stone Age Paleolithic Age Paleolithic Age Very crude tools Very crude tools Stones used to throw at animals Stones used to throw at animals Old Stone Age roughly 2.5 million B.C. to 8000 B.C. Old Stone Age roughly 2.5 million B.C. to 8000 B.C.

28 Stone Age Mesolithic Age Mesolithic Age 10,000 to 5,500 years ago 10,000 to 5,500 years ago Not only use stones Not only use stones Bows and arrows Bows and arrows Fish hooks Fish hooks Harpoons Harpoons

29 Stone Age Neolithic Age Neolithic Age Development of Agriculture Development of Agriculture Domestication of animals/plants for food Domestication of animals/plants for food


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